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  • Sustainable Mineral Processing Practices and Fundamentals:

    or vice-versa ?

    Roberto C. Villas-Bas

    CETEM

    iii SSSARO

  • AVOIDING bl,bl,bl http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/gateway/index.php?news=28248

    Roberto C. Villas Bas CETEM

    LOGICAL FORMALIZATIONS are needed regarding the concepts of

    Sustainable Development and even Sustainable Ore body and Sustainable

    Mine, as referred to the minerals extraction industries.

    If this is done, several MISCONCEPTIONS will be prevented and

    EVERYONE will know what is been meant by such words.

    Likewise, it seems that the old proposition of drawing a distinction between

    RENEWABLE & NON RENEWABLE resources does not quite fit anymore

    as such, within the current sustainable development framework, for the sake of

    resource exploration and development, through its more recent paths and

    practices.

    Therefore, the suggestion of conceptualizing SUSTAINABLE & NON

    SUSTAINABLE resources for that matter, subject to societal agreements, as

    proposed.

    http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/gateway/index.php?news=28248

  • Boreal Forest (Taiga): 17 million km2 worlds leading producer of NATURAL GOODS !

    Boreal Canad : maore than 100 (active) mines, with 45% of the mineral production, aroun

    600 tribes. Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

  • Amazon Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

  • What,then,are the challenges ? http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/gateway/index.php?news=28248

    Roberto C. Villas Bas CETEM

    ),(ii dddd

    SsSSSs

    http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/gateway/index.php?news=28248

  • RENEWABLE & NON RENEWABLE OR SUSTAINABLE

    & NON SUSTAINABLE Roberto C. Villas Bas CETEM

    Albanese, 2010 Rio Tinto , CEO

    I would like to close this section by

    dispelling the myth that

    resources are finite, a notion

    some policymakers sometimes

    like to promote.

    Resources will only become finite if

    limits are placed on exploration

    because a country has suddenly

    become less attractive for

    investment

  • Resources Roberto C. Villas Bas CETEM

    R set of all resources

    R1 natural

    R2 environmental

    R3 energy

    R4 investment capital

    R5 people

    Rn any other

    Ro , when NO resources are available

  • What is DEVELOPMENT ? Roberto C. Villas Bas CETEM

    W : R D

    W a transform, say WORK R set of resources, as seen. D set of development stages

  • Hypothesis of Development Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    given a set of hypothesis of development , n is the number of subsidiary hypothesis characterizing S

    i respect D

    ni

    n

    ii S,,SS 1

    1

  • VISIONS of SD Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    54321 dddddd SSSSSDS

  • Visions of SD in Mining mineral processing included

    Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    Sd1 set of minimum(al) use of natural resources

    Sd2 set of optimum(al) use or maximum(al) of physical flow resources

    Sd3 set of minimum(al) use of energetic resources

    Sd4 set of minimum(al) use of environmental resources

    Sd5 set of maximum(al) AGREED STAGES of social satisfaction

  • Visions of SD in Mining mineral processing included

    Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    Sd = set of VISIONS or scenarios of SD

    belonging to D and having Sdi as AGREED parameters.

    ),( ii dddd SsSSSs

  • SD Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    targets and objectives of a GIVEN AGREEMENT establishing a set of SD steps.

    in mining , mp included :

    5

    1id

    S

  • Indicators of SD Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    To MEASURE an indicator is necessary

    Let define as effort (E) a FUNCTION that attributes a POSITIVE NUMBER to all and any productive operation (), or process.

    NPE :

  • AGREEMENT (a measure of an)

    Roberto C. Villas-Bas CETEM

    A (x, y, p)= E (x, y, p) E (y, x, p) T (p)

    Subjected to

    5

    1id

    S

  • A (x, y, p)= E (x, y, p) E (y, x, p) T (p)

    x = society, community, country ...

    y = mining industry, mining enterprise

    p = mine , plant

    T(p) = capital expenditure in p

  • Degree of Agreement

    A (x, y, p) = 0

    equal gains

    A (x, y, p) < 0

    x X , loses

    A (x, y, p) > 0

    y Y , gain less than x.

  • Sustainable Ore bodies Roberto C. Villas Bas CETEM

    ASi (x, y, p) > 0

    iii SSSARO

  • Where , Sc and R&D+I into SD ?

    iii SSSARO

  • SUSTAINABLE MINERAL PROCESSING

    PRACTICES AND FUNDAMENTALS:

    OR VICE-VERSA ?

    Where , Sc and R&D+I into SD ?

  • Sustainable Mineral Processing Practices and

    Fundamentals:

    or vice-versa ?

    SOME PRACTICES

  • Georgius Agricola : De Re Metallica, 1556

    DE RE METALLICA SUSTAINABILITY

  • MINING CLOSURE : Aboriginal Joint Venture for Aboriginal Firms

    Colomac MINE ,Canad

  • HEAP LEACHING: Mulato MINE Sonora, Mxico (14.000 t/day)

    Managing mine drainage

    water quality is a critical

    concern for all mining

    operations because discharges

    must typically meet stringent

    water quality standards set by

    local, regional and national

    governments.

    Acidic drainage remains the

    most significant issue due to

    high concentrations of metals,

    and costs of treatment to

    achieve acceptable levels.

  • WATER MINE : 7.500 m 3 / hoUr !

    Mina de Vazante, Votorantim metais

  • Lack , scarcity : WATER CHUQUICAMARA,CHILE

  • UraniUm WATER MINE INB Caetit, Bahia

  • URANIUM INACTIVE Uranium mine INB CALDAS, MINAS GERAIS

  • PHOSPHOGYPSUM : MOSAIC, FLORIDA,USA : PHOSPHOGYPSUM HEAPS ( heavy

    metals & Radionucldes)

  • PHOSPHOGYPSUM : aerial view CATALO MINE, GOIAS, BRASIL, & phosphogypsum waste

  • Suncor

    Syncrude

    (Mildred Lake)

    Shell

    CNRL Exxon

    Syncrude

    (Aurora)

    5 km

  • Indeed it is claimed that when an underground mine

    is established anywhere in the world, 7090% of the required

    technology comes from either Finland or Sweden.

    Elijrvi chromite - Open Pit in February

    Outokumpu Oyj , Floresta Boreal

  • MinING : BOREAL FOREST !

    a Solution , Not a problem !

    FINLAND VISION 2050

    Finland is a global leader in the sustainable utilization of mineral resources and the minerals sector is one of the key foundations of the Finnish national economy.

  • RENEWABLE & NON RENEWABLE OR

    SUSTAINABLE & NON SUSTAINABLE !

    I would like to close this

    section by dispelling the

    myth that resources are

    finite, a notion some

    policymakers sometimes

    like to promote.

    Resources will only

    become finite if limits are

    placed on exploration

    because a country has

    suddenly become less

    attractive for investment TOM ALBANESE , RioTinto

    CEO(2010)

  • Sustainable Mineral Processing Practices and

    Fundamentals:

    or vice-versa ?

    FUNDAMENTALS

  • Roberto C. Villas-Bas

    CETEM

    SD in the MINERAL INDUSTRY is:

    MINIMIZING

    MASSES

    ENERGY

    ENVIRONMENTAL

    IMPACT

    MAXIMIZING

    SATISFAO

    SOCIAL !

    social satisfaction is the

    degree of societal

    acceptance of a given

    policy, or political

    agenda

  • A (x, y, p) > 0 AS SEEN, SUSTAINABLE PRJECT !

  • Where , Sc and R&D+I into SD ?

    ASi (x, y, p) > 0

    The roles of x , y and p

    iii SSSARO

  • INTERPHASE

    PHENOMENA

    ARGONNE

    UNDERSTANDING:

    1.- molecular structure of mineral

    surfaces and other phases

    2.- ordering of fluids adjacent to

    these phases

    3.- electrical double-layer

    structure and distribution

    4.- dynamical processes

    LEADING TO: