Stakeholder Dialogues in Tourism - How to achieve .Strenghts of Stakeholder Dialogues in Tourism

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Transcript of Stakeholder Dialogues in Tourism - How to achieve .Strenghts of Stakeholder Dialogues in Tourism

  • 1


    Nicole Husler

    Tourism Consultant &

    Organizational Consultant

    Stakeholder Dialogues in Tourism

    - How to achieve

    Fair Pro-Poor Tourism Partnerships -

  • 2


    1. The Need for Fair PPT Partnerships

    2. Challenges of Stakeholder Dialogues

    3a.Who are the Stakeholders?

    b.Role of each Stakeholder

    c. Overview of types of partnerships

    4. Case Study in Sri Lanka

    5. Recommendations

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    Pro-Poor Tourism

    It has long been argued that there is a potential for tourism

    to contribute more to reducing poverty, but there is still the

    discussion going on:

    Who is actually a poor person?

    What are net benefits of the poor?

    How to measure the impacts of PPT?

    Should we focus in this context on the economic aspects


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    Pro-Poor Tourism

    Additionally little in-depth discussion and research have

    been done on:

    What can stakeholders themselves effectively do in order

    to achieve poverty reduction through tourism?

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    The Need for Fair PPT Partnerships

    The pro-poor tourism approach is complex, multi-faced,

    and embraces a wide variety of stakeholders from the

    public to private sector.

    To get these different stakeholders working towards

    common goals and to achieve the best results in pro-poor

    tourism, which means to minimize povery, collaboration is


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    Who are the stakeholders?

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    Who are the stakeholders?

    = Communities

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    Why talk?

    Collaboration between various stakeholders does allow for more

    sucessfull tourism planning, management, marketing, product

    development, training and eduction (search for win-wins).

    BUT: We need a greater understanding of what is happening

    between tourism stakeholders.

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    Challenges of Stakeholder Involvement

    The achievement of community involvement with private-

    sector development has not come about easily.

    Until recently, the travel and tourism industry has been

    hesitant to establish public or private partnerships,

    because of the very competitive market within it operates.

    Stakeholders may not be willing to work together with

    previous opponents (or with unfamiliar partners); some

    may be uninterested or inactive in working with others.

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    Critical Aspects of Multi-Stakeholder Dialogues (due to

    former experiences)

    Collaboration can be found at different levels (national,

    provincial or district, and village levels) > Linkage levels:

    between national and lower levels still weak

    Experience in (pro-poor sustainable) tourism low:

    especially in implementation and management

    Language: Limited language skills (either local or English) can

    make communication difficult between stakeholders

    Southeast Asia

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    Critical Aspects of Multi-Stakeholder Dialogues

    Power relations dominate

    Lack of motivation, resources, and trust

    Too many different actors involved or only a limited number of


    Costly and time consuming

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    Underestimated Aspect of Multi-Stakeholder Dialogues

    Internal organisational culture of Stakeholder: lack of

    organisational structure, operational procedures >

    Traditionally, participatory approaches have focused

    primarily on the communication process between

    stakeholders and less on the institutional or organisational

    culture (organisational culture encompasses the shared rituals, routines, organizational structure, symbols, languages, stories

    and myths, role of leadership, power, and control mechanisms of

    a group).

    > Do these different organisational cultures fit together?

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    Strenghts of Stakeholder Dialogues in Tourism

    Achievements: profile raised, implementation of activities,


    Contact/Involvement with private sector/government

    New Partnerships: creation of linkages, new relations

    Access: to resources and influential persons

    Linkages levels: working at or involving different levels (micro,

    meso, macro)Source: Kruk et al, 2007:78, adapted by Nicole Husler

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    Talking to Whom?

    The first step in effective stakeholder dialogue is to identify

    the important stakeholders.

    Failing to identify the key stakeholders is central to the

    process > the project/enterprise agrees to continue an

    important dialogue with the wrong people.

    Definition of Stakeholder: Any group or individual who

    have a stake, or vested interest, in the

    firm/organization/project. (Bendell, 2000:2)

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    Role of private sector

    In general: In order to have more pro-poor impact, the

    increased involvement of private sector in pro-poor

    tourism activities are needed at all levels

    in order to develop commercially feasible, responsible

    tourism products and to ensure promotion and marketing.

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    Stakeholder Participation Role of private sector

    Differenty types of local linkages:

    Local staffing and wages (Mostly, the greatest cash flow

    into a local community from a tourism business is in the

    form of wages pay a fair salary!)

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    Types of local linkages

    Procurement from local


    Local culture and heritage

    products: cultural and

    heritage products make a

    trip unique and memorable

    for tourists. They are also

    a key way for companies

    to diversify their product

    and stimilate the local


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    Role of private sector

    As consequence private sector investor interested in

    community planning and involvement must invest time and

    money in supporting capacity building within these


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    Summary: Role of Private Sector

    Companies that develop local products, procurement, and

    partnerships can benefit in many ways. They win local

    recognition, community support for tourism development,

    enhanced staff morale, greater customer satisfaction,

    stronger branding, and even economic cost savings.

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    Role of Government at different levels

    Political support of national ministries, as well as the

    support of local, district, and provincial authorities, is

    essential to make collaboration work within pro-poor-


    Looking at innovative ways for local communities to come

    in as concessionaires, (lodge owners), and equity holders

    in tourism.

    Supporting communities with technical advice to build


    Overall: Concept of pro-poor tourism policy should be

    integrated into national action plans for tourism.

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    Role of Communities

    Local involvement is considered to be a necessary variable for the success of tourism development.

    No community needs a business partnershipthat flops!

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    Stakeholder Participation Benefits for communities

    PPT-Partnerships are a way for

    communities to make productive use

    of their land, skills and resources.

    Partnerships can also bring training

    and expertise.

    The inclusion of professionals from

    the community, who are familiar with

    local culture, can be maybe essential

    for an effective tourism marketing


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    Community Involvement -

    Partnerships at different levels

    Joint Venture with private company (Lodge)

    Community-based tourismprojects (high ownership)

    Supply chain (Souvenirs, Handicraft, Food and beveragesetc.)

    Directly employment in tourismindustry under fair conditions

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    Types of Stakeholder-Partnerships for Communities

    _(Often) not a balanced

    power relationship

    _No business skills

    _Good experiences as

    community workes

    _Can be good mediators

    Community - NGOs

    _(Not an equal


    _No skills as community


    _Business skills

    _Connection to national

    and international

    tourism market

    _Power Relationship is

    clearly defined


    Private Enterprise

    _(Often) not a balanced

    power relationship


    _Strong political


    Community -


    Critical aspectsPositive aspectsPartnerships

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    Types of Stakeholder-Partnerships for Communities

    _Impacts of donations:

    Be careful: People can

    easily become beggars

    _Intercultural exchange


    Community - Tourists

    _Analysis of livelihood,

    organisational culture

    and monitoring are not

    part of the programme

    _Financial support: 1-2

    years only

    _Financial Support


    Community Donor


    Critical AspectsPositive AspectsPartnerships

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    Role of national and international NGOs

    Mediator / Facilitator:

    Providing linkages

    Organizing all the chain players

    Integrating/Link business and community goals

    (Organisational culture)

    Providing alternative viewpoints

    Help to negotiate benefits and roles

    Supporting of a transparent process

    Offer Training to communities and other st