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Transcript of Southern Baroque
- 1. Italian Baroque (1600-1700)
2. Western Europe ca. 1648. 3. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy. 4. Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew, c. 1599-1600, oil on canvas,Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome , 111 x 115. 5. Caravaggio, The Calling of St.Matthew, c. 1599-1600, oil on canvas,Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi deiFrancesi, Rome.Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper,c. 1495-1497, fresco, refectory ofSanta Maria della Grazie, Milan. 6. Caravaggio, The Calling of St.Matthew, c. 1599-1600, oil on canvas,Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi deiFrancesi, Rome.Caravaggio, The Calling of St.Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, SanLuigi dei Francesi, Rome, 1599-1600,Oil on canvas, 107 x 112. 7. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, c.1625, oil on canvas, 61/2 x 47. 8. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and HerMaidservant with the Head of Holofernes, ca.1625, oil on canvas, 61/2 x 47.Donatello, Judith and Holofernes,1455-1460. 9. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and HerMaidservant with the Head of Holofernes, ca.1625, oil on canvas,61/2 x 47.Caravaggio, Judith BeheadingHolofernes, 1598-1599. 10. Palazzo Farnese, Rome. 11. Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, 1597-1601, ceiling fresco,approx. 66 x 217, Palazzo Farnese, Rome. 12. Michelangelo,Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome,fresco.Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods,1597-1601, ceiling fresco, approx. 66 x217, Palazzo Farnese, Rome. 13. Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, marble, Galleria Borghese, Rome (life-size). 14. Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, marble,Galleria Borghese, Rome (life-size).Detail of Davids head. 15. Gianlorenzo Bernini,David, 1623, marble,Galleria Borghese, Rome.Donatello, David,ca. 1446-1460.Michelangelo, David,ca. 1501-1504.How would you compare and contrast Donatellos, Michelangelosand Berninis respective representations of the subject of David? 16. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-33, gilt bronze. 17. Aerial view of St. Peters, Rome. Nave and faade byCarlo Maderno, 1607-12; colonnade by GianlorenzoBernini, designed 1657. 18. St. Peter's Basilica from the Middle Ages to the Baroque. 19. Plan of New St. Peters with Berninis Piazza and Colonnade. 20. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Colonnade.Above left, from entrance; belowleft, from pavement disc. 21. Francesco Borromini, Faade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, ca. 1665-7. 22. Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1665-7 (plan). 23. Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,Rome, 1665-7 (view of the dome). 24. Spanish Baroque (1600-1700) 25. Jusepe de Ribera, St. Jerome and the Angel of Judgment, 1626, oil on canvas103 x 42. 26. Diego Velzquez, The Water Carrier of Seville, c. 1619, oil on canvas41 x 31 . 27. Diego Velzquez, The Maids of Honor (Las Meninas), 1656, oil on canvas,105 x 9. 28. Details of the Infanta Margarita, Diego Velzquez, The Maids of Honor(Las Meninas), 1656, oil on canvas, 105 x 9. 29. Details of Velzquezs self-portraitand the mirror in the background,Diego Velzquez, The Maids of Honor(Las Meninas), 1656, oil on canvas,105 x 9.Jan van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding,1434, oil on panel. 30. Camera obscura(Left) the actual object(Right) projection using acamera obscura. 31. Pablo Picasso, Variation on LasMeninas, 1957, oil on canvas.Francisco Goya, The Family ofCharles IV, 1800, oil on canvas. 32. Francisco de Zurbarn. St. Serapion, 1628, oil on canvas,47 x 41. 33. Summary of Italian and Spanish Baroque Art andArchitecture The Baroque the dramatic and didactic style of t he seventeenth century started in Italy and spreadthroughout Europe through the travel of artists and patrons. It conveyed dynamism and strong emotionsand was used as the style of the Counter Reformation, to proclaim the triumph the Church overProtestantism. Painting in Italy: Caravaggio was the most significant Baroque painter because of his innovations at thebeginning of the seventeenth century and his enduring influence. He had many followers in Italy, amongthem Artemisia Gentileschi, and throughout Europe, especially in Holland and Flanders. His innovationswere found in his subject matter: the dramatic treatment of religious subject matter, with half-length,realistic figures set behind a table against a neutral background or life-size figures. Caravaggio is alsocredited with stylistic innovations: tenebrism, dramatic lighting and the suggestion of temporality. Hisaltarpieces were revolutionary. Annibale Carraccis art reflects another important trend in ItalianBaroque painting, which emphasizes calm, classicizing, monumental forms that are shaped by Romanantiquity and High Renaissance art. Sculpture in Italy: Baroque sculpture suggested action, vitality, and emotion with a single figure suchas David or with more theatrical productions. Bernini was the most significant sculptor, both for hisown works and, as coordinator of the decoration plan for St. Peters, for creating assignments for otherartists. Architecture in Italy: The new St. Peters (begun at the turn of the sixteenth century) was completedduring the Baroque period and became the greatest symbol of the revival and triumph of the Church.The central sculptural/architectural focus of the interior decoration was the Baldacchino (central altar)executed by Bernini. The exterior, a monumental elliptical arc, and the piazza, also designed byBernini, was a remarkable development, suggesting the all-encompassing arms of the Church. Smallerchurches, organic and irregularly shaped, with complex domes by Borromini, also became typical of thetime. Spanish Baroque: Spanish Baroque paintings suggested strong religious piety: they were commissionedby monastic orders, as in the case of Zurbarn. Spanish Baroque painting would be largely influenced by Italian art and by Caravaggio through Naples.Riberas religious paintings and genre scenes reflect his interest in naturalism. Velzquez, the most renowned painter of the Spanish Golden Age, was court painter to King Philip IV ofSpain in Madrid, but began his career in Seville. His early style would be influenced by Caravaggio. Hislater works produced at court would be influenced by the art of Titian, whose works were owned by theking, and, by Rubens, who traveled to the Spanish court and advised Velzquez.