Southeastern People

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Southeastern People Caddoes and Wichitas

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Southeastern People. Caddoes and Wichitas. First Texans http://texasindians.com . Area- region and description of the land Food- types of food they eat Shelter- description of houses Appearance- description of clothes, hair, skin, etc. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Southeastern People

Southeastern PeopleCaddoes and WichitasFirst Texanshttp://texasindians.com Area- region and description of the landFood- types of food they eatShelter- description of housesAppearance- description of clothes, hair, skin, etc.Government-Did they have tribal leaders? How did they select their tribesQuestion of the DayWhat do you notice about where the major cities of Texas were established? Why?

Answer: They were all established near rivers because waterways made it easier to transport goods.

People or CulturesIt is best to think of Indians as "people or cultures rather than as tribes.Some Indians did not belong to tribes, but instead lived in small groups or bands.BandConsists of two or more extended families that live together under one leader.

TribeNumber of bands who followed the same leader and shared the same territory and culture.

Caddo Lived in the Piney Woods.Most advanced culture of all Texas Indians.When the Europeans arrived in the 1500s, the Caddo people greeted them by wailing, Tejas (friends).

Caddo Geographic CharacteristicsCoastal PlainsThe Caddoes lived in the Mississippi River valley area.Built their homes near riversLived in small clearings in the forestRich soil/plenty of rainfallEast Texas

Caddo Foodsedentary food- rich environment- grew corn, beans, squash, sunflower seedshunted deer and small animals, but growing crops was more importantused dogs while hunting

Caddo Shelterlived in villagesdome-shaped huts made of cane, mud, and grass, furnished with colored rugs, baskets, and potterysmall hole at the top for fires

Caddo Appearancewore clothing made from deerskinwore mostly skirts with leggingstattooed streaks on their faces and animal designs on their bodies

Caddo Economicstraded pottery and hunting bows for shells, turquoise, and copperSkilled workers used the shells, turquoise, and copper to make useful and decorative objects.

Caddo Social formed confederations to defend themselves from other tribesfriendly with most of the other tribes

Caddo Political Organized government systemThey were grouped into three confederacies.The chief was the high priest.

Caddo Religionbelieved in a single creatorbelieved the earth was sacred and that no one owned it; it should be sharedbelieved that every living thing has a purposecalled on spirits for help in daily lovesbuilt mounds for burial and worship

Wichita named after the language they spokeVillages joined together for protection.Location:West of the Caddomostly in the North Central PlainsMoved along the Red River and Brazos RiverA river, county, and city in Texas have been named after this tribe.

Wichita Geographic Characteristicsmostly in the North Central Plains down to Wacorich, sandy soil

Wichita Foodsemi-sedentaryhunters but mostly farmedcorn, pumpkins, squash, melons, beans, groves of plum treesleft homes in the fall to hunt buffalo; returned in the spring to plant crops

Wichita Shelterlived in temporary camps during the fall and summer (tipis);lived in permanent villages in the fallbig, dome-shaped grass huts covered with bearskinsEarly explores describe these huts as being 15 to 30 feet across.

Wichita Appearanceshorter, darker, and stockier than other Native American groups in Texasmen known for tattoos around their eyes (circles); Raccoon EyesWomen tattooed their faces and bodies with zigzag lines, circles, and triangles.Men wore breechcloths and sometimes leather leggings. Women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of woven fiber and deerskin.Both men and women wore earrings and moccasins. Women wore their hair long and men wore mohawks.

Wichita Economicstraded with neighboring tribes and Europeanstraded buffalo robes and wooden bows among other things

Wichita Social Men mostly hunted, cut poles used to make the houses, and made weapons.Women tanned and painted the buffalo hides, farmed, gathered most of the food, made clothing, cooked, and tended to the children.Children didnt go to school. They watched their parents. The girls learned from their mothers, and the boys learned from their fathers.They got along well with neighboring tribes.

Wichita Political The chief was elected by members of the tribe.They also had a subchief, The-One-Who-Locates, who was in charge of finding a new village if necessary.Both chief and subchief had their own followers but neither had too much power.

Wichita Religionbelieved in a single creatorbelieved the earth was sacred and that no one owned it; it should be sharedbelieved that every living thing has a purposehad religious leaders called ShamansThey were in control of religious ceremonies.Shamans are also known as religious healers.