Solucionario Operaciones Unitarias en Ingenieria Quimica Mccabe 6 Ed

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Transcript of Solucionario Operaciones Unitarias en Ingenieria Quimica Mccabe 6 Ed

  • This sixth edition of the text on the unit operations of chemical engineering hasbeen extensively revised and updated, with much new material and considerablecondensation of some sections. Its basic structure and general level of treatment,however, remain unchanged. It is an introductory text, written for undergraduatestudents in their junior or senior years who have completed the usual courses inmathematics, physics, chemistry, and an introduction to chemical engineering. Anelementary knowledge of material and energy balances and of thermodynamic prin-ciples is assumed.

    Separate chapters are devoted to each of the principal unit operations, groupedinto four sections: fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer and equilibriumstages, and operations involving particulate solids. One-semester or one-quartercourses may be based on any of these sections or combinations of them. The orderof the first 16 chapters has not been changed; later ones, dealing with mass transferand operations involving solids, have been rearranged in a more logical order.

    Nearly all equations have been written for SI units, and the Newtons law con-version factor gc has been eliminated except in the few instances where it must beincluded. Symbols for dimensionless groups have been changed to Re for NRe, forexample, Pr for NPr, and so forth. Many new examples and problems have beenadded, some reflecting the importance of biochemical engineering processes. Mate-rial on handling, mixing, and grinding particulate solids has been greatly condensedand dealt with in a single chapter. The number of appendixes is reduced from 22to 19.

    Derivations of the differential equations for continuity and momentum bal-ances, leading to the Navier-Stokes equation, have been added, as well as the dif-ferential forms of Fouriers law and Ficks law, emphasizing the analogies amongmomentum, heat, and mass transfer. The chapter on adsorption has been expandedto include new material on chromatography and ion exchange, and renamed Fixed-bed Separations. Other new material has been added on viscoelastic fluids, laminarflow in annuli, drag coefficients, affinity laws for pumps, high-efficiency agitatorsand motionless mixers, plate-type heat exchangers, boiling by submerged tube bun-dles, cooling towers, aqueous phase extraction, cross-flow filtration, and manyother topics.

    Many of the problems at the ends of the chapters are new or revised. Most areexpressed in SI units. Nearly all the problems can be solved with the aid of a pocketcalculator; for a few, a computer solution is preferable.

    McGraw-Hill and the authors thank Dr. N. T. Obot for his many suggestions re-garding fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and Professor Charles H. Gooding ofClemson University for his detailed and helpful review of the manuscript.

    Julian C. Smith Peter Harriott

    P R E FA C E

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  • C O N T E N T S

    Preface xvii

    SECTION I Introduction

    1 Definitions and Principles 3Unit Operations 4Unit Systems 4Physical Quantities / SI Units / CGS Units / Gas Constant /FPS Engineering Units / Conversion of Units / Units and EquationsDimensional Analysis 16Basic Concepts 20Equations of State of GasesSymbols 24Problems 25References 27

    SECTION II Fluid Mechanics

    2 Fluid Statics and Its Applications 31Hydrostatic Equilibrium 32Applications of Fluid Statics 34Symbols 41Problems 42References 43

    3 Fluid Flow Phenomena 44Laminar Flow, Shear Rate, and Shear Stress 45Rheological Properties of Fluids 46Turbulence 51Boundary Layers 59Symbols 63Problems 64References 65

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  • 4 Basic Equations of Fluid Flow 67Mass Balance in a Flowing Fluid; Continuity 67Differential Momentum Balance; Equations of Motion 72Macroscopic Momentum Balances 77Mechanical Energy Equation 82Symbols 90Problems 92References 93

    5 Incompressible Flow in Pipes and Channels 94Shear Stress and Skin Friction in Pipes 94Laminar Flow in Pipes and Channels 97Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Channels 104Friction from Changes in Velocity or Direction 117Symbols 123Problems 124References 127

    6 Flow of Compressible Fluids 128Definitions and Basic Equations 128Processes of Compressible Flow 133Isentropic Flow through Nozzles 134Adiabatic Friction Flow 140Isothermal Friction Flow 145Symbols 147Problems 148References 149

    7 Flow Past Immersed Bodies 150Drag and Drag Coefficients 150Flow through Beds of Solids 157Motion of Particles through Fluids 162Fluidization 171Symbols 182Problems 183References 185

    8 Transportation and Metering of Fluids 187Pipe, Fittings, and Valves 187Pumps 194

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  • Positive-Displacement Pumps / Centrifugal PumpsFans, Blowers, and Compressors 209Fans / Blowers and Compressors / Comparison of Devicesfor Moving FluidsMeasurement of Flowing Fluids 219Full-Bore Meters / Insertion MetersSymbols 234Problems 236References 237

    9 Agitation and Mixing of Liquids 238Agitated Vessels 239Blending and Mixing 259Suspension of Solid Particles 265Dispersion Operations 270Agitator Selection and Scaleup 278Symbols 281Problems 282References 284

    SECTION III Heat Transfer and Its Applications

    10 Heat Transfer by Conduction 291Basic Law of Conduction 291Steady-State Conduction 293Unsteady-State Conduction 300Symbols 311Problems 312References 314

    11 Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids 315Typical Heat-Exchange Equipment 315Energy Balances 319Heat Flux and Heat-Transfer Coefficients 321Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient / Individual Heat-Transfer CoefficientsSymbols 333Problems 334References 335

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  • 12 Heat Transfer to Fluids Without Phase Change 336Boundary Layers 336Heat Transfer by Forced Convection in Laminar Flow 339Heat Transfer by Forced Convection in Turbulent Flow 346Transfer by Turbulent Eddies and Analogy Between Transfer of Momentum and HeatHeat Transfer in Transition Region Between Laminar

    and Turbulent Flow 358Heat Transfer to Liquid Metals 360Heating and Cooling of Fluids in Forced Convection

    Outside Tubes 362Natural Convection 365Symbols 371Problems 373References 375

    13 Heat Transfer to Fluids with Phase Change 377Heat Transfer from Condensing Vapors 377Heat Transfer to Boiling Liquids 389Symbols 401Problems 403References 404

    14 Radiation Heat Transfer 406Emission of Radiation 407Absorption of Radiation by Opaque Solids 410Radiation Between Surfaces 413Radiation to Semitransparent Materials 423Combined Heat Transfer by Conduction-Convection

    and Radiation 425Symbols 427Problems 428References 430

    15 Heat-Exchange Equipment 431Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 432Plate-Type Exchangers 446Extended-Surface Equipment 449Scraped-Surface Exchangers 455

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  • Condensers and Vaporizers 456Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessels 459Heat Transfer in Packed Beds 463Symbols 467Problems 469References 471

    16 Evaporation 473Types of Evaporators 475Performance of Tubular Evaporators 479Evaporator Capacity / Evaporator EconomyVapor Recompression 498Symbols 500Problems 500References 502

    SECTION IV Mass Transfer and Its Applications

    17 Principles of Diffusion and Mass TransferBetween Phases 511Theory of Diffusion 512Prediction of Diffusivities 518Mass-Transfer Theories 523Film Theory / Boundary Layer Theory / Penetration Theory /Two-Film TheoryMass-Transfer Coefficients 530Experimental Measurements / Coefficients for Mass Transfer throughKnown AreasSymbols 540Problems 542References 544

    18 Gas Absorption 546Packings and Packed Tower Design 546Principles of Absorption 557Absorption from Rich Gases 574Mass-Transfer Correlations 580Absorption in Plate ColumnsAbsorption with Chemical Reaction 588

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  • Symbols 590Problems 592References 594

    19 Humidification Operations 596Definitions 596Humidity Chart 600Wet-Bulb Temperature 604Cooling Towers 608Theory of Counterflow Cooling TowersSymbols 618Problems 619References 621

    20 Equilibrium-Stage Operations 622Equipment for Stage Contacts 622Principles of Stage Processes 625Equilibrium-Stage Calculations for Multicomponent SystemsSymbols 639Problems 639References 640

    21 Distillation 641Flash Distillation 641Continuous Distillation with Reflux 645Material Balances in Plate Columns / Number of Ideal Plates; McCabeThiele MethodEnthalpy Balances 672Design of Sieve-Plate Columns 681Plate Efficiencies 689Theory of Plate EfficiencyDistillation in Packed Columns 699Batch Distillation 700Symbols 704Problems 706References 711

    22 Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation 713Phase Equilibria in Multicomponent Distillation 713Flash Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures 717

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  • Fractionation of Multicomponent Mixtures 718Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation 734Symbols 735Problems 736References 738

    23 Leaching and Extraction 739Leaching 739Leaching Equipment / Principles of Continuous Countercurrent LeachingLiquid Extraction 747Extraction Equipment / Principles of ExtractionSpecial Extraction Techniques 766Supercritical Fluid ExtractionSymbols 768Problems 769References 772

    24 Drying of Solids 773Principles of Drying 775Phase EquilibriaCross-Circulation Drying 782Through-Circulation Drying 790Drying of Suspended ParticlesFreeze-Drying 793Drying Equipment 794Dryers for Solids and Pastes / Dryers for Solutions and Slurries /Selection of Drying EquipmentSymbols 807Problems 809References 810

    25 Fixed-Bed Separations 812Adsorption 812Adsorption Equipment 813Equilibria; Adsorption Isotherms