SOIL TESTING FOR OHIO LAWNS, LANDSCAPES, … Testing for... · SOIL TESTING FOR OHIO LAWNS,...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    11-Jul-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    229
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of SOIL TESTING FOR OHIO LAWNS, LANDSCAPES, … Testing for... · SOIL TESTING FOR OHIO LAWNS,...

  • SOILTESTINGFOROHIOLAWNS,LANDSCAPES,FRUITCROPS,ANDVEGETABLEGARDENS

    O H I O S T A T E U N I V E R S I T Y E X T E N S I O N

    extension.osu.eduagnr.osu.edu

    HYG1132LastUpdated:07/08/2016

    JoeBoggs,AssistantProfessorandExtensionEducator,AgricultureandNaturalResources,HamiltonCountyCindyMeyer,ExtensionEducator,AgricultureandNaturalResources,ButlerCountyGaryGao,AssociateProfessor,DepartmentofHorticultureandCropSciences,SouthCentersJimChatfield,AssociateProfessorandExtensionSpecialist,DepartmentofPlantPathology,DepartmentofHorticultureandCropScience

    Soiltestsprovidemorehelpfulinformationonsoilsthananyotherresource.Itisaninexpensivewaytomaintaingoodplanthealthinlawnsandlandscapes,andtomaximizeproductivityofvegetablegardensandfruitcrops.Soiltestresultspinpointplantnutrientneedsandsoiltestlabrecommendationsguidefertilizerapplicationssojusttherightamountisused.Testresultsalsoprovideinformationformakingplantselectiondecisionsbasedonrightplantrightplace.Ifgoodplantsgobad,asoiltestcanhelpdiagnosewhatwentwrong.

    Soilsamplesaresenttoanaccreditedsoiltestinglab(seelistatend).Resultswillbesentalongwithrecommendationsfortakingcorrectiveactionsifneeded.Thisincludestheamountoffertilizersandotheradditivesneededtosupporthealthyplants.Withanaccuratesoilsampleandtest,reliablefertilizerrecommendationscanhelphorticultureprofessionalsandgardeningenthusiastsimproveplantqualityandproductivity,reducenutrientrunoff,andsavemoney.

    Astandardsoiltestprovidesinformationonchemicalpropertiesofthesoilthatrepresentssoilfertility.Thisincludestheamountofpositivelychargedplantnutrients(cations)foundinthesoilincludingphosphorous

    (P+),potassium(K+),calcium(Ca++),andmagnesium(Mg++).Thesechemicalelementsarecalledmacronutrientsbasedontheamountneededandusedbyplantstomaintainhealthygrowthanddevelopment.Thetestwillalsorevealthecationexchangecapacity(CEC)ofthesoil,whichisameasureofhowwellthesoilholdsontothesechemicalelements.ThehighertheCEC,thebetterthesoilholdsontocationsagainstwaterleaching.

    OneofthemostimportantchemicalpropertiesissoilpH.Figure1showshowsoilpHinfluencestheavailabilityofimportantchemicalelementstoplants.Thesameamountofthenutrientisinthesoilregardlessofthewidthofthebandhowever,wherethebandsarewide,theelementisinawatersolubleformtobetakenupbyplantroots.Wherethebandsarenarrow,elementsarechemicallyboundintoanonsolubleformthatplacesthemoutofthereachofplantroots.

    Foradditionalfees,soiltestinglabswillprovideinformationonotherchemicalpropertiesofthesoilsuchas

  • theconcentrationofessentialmicronutrients(sometimescalledtraceelements).Micronutrientstatusisbased

    ontheamountoftheelementrequiredbyplants.Theseincludeiron(Fe++),manganese(Mn++)zinc(Zn++),

    andcopper(Cu+)aswellasafewotherelements.Micronutrientsarejustasimportantasmacronutrientsformaintaininggoodplanthealthamicronutrientdeficiencycanbejustasdamagingtoplanthealthasamacronutrientdeficiency.Althoughmostlabschargeanextrafeeforamicronutrientanalysis,theresultsareimportanttolearningifyouhaveaproblemwiththisgroupofelements.

    Soiltextureisanimportantphysicalpropertyofsoilandisbasedonthepercentageofsand,siltandclayinthesoil.Thesearecollectivelyknownasthemineralcomponentsofthesoilandareseparatedbasedonparticlesizewithsandbeingthelargestandclaybeingthesmallestparticles.Soiltestinglabsusesievestoperformasoiltexturetestbyseparatingsoilparticlesintothethreesizeclasses.Oncethepercentsand,siltandclayisknown,yoursoilcanbeplacedintoatexturalclassificationastheyappearontheSoilTexturalTriangleinFigure2.

    Soillabsusuallychargeanextrafeetoperformasoiltexturetesthowever,understandingthetextureofyoursoilisimportantifyouareplanningtoaddadditionalsoilsuchasbuyingandspreadingtopsoil.Waterdoesnotmovefreelybetweensoilswithextremesinparticlesizetheproblemisknownassoilincompatibility.Forexample,placingasiltyclayontopofaloamysand,orviceversa,couldhaveseriousconsequenceswithwaterdrainage.

    Figure1:SoilpHinfluencestheavailabilityofcertainnutrientsforplantstouptake.GraphicbyJoeBoggs,

    OhioStateUniversityExtension.

    Figure2:Soiltexturesandpercentages.GraphicbyJoeBoggs,OhioStateUniversityExtension.

    WhyDoINeedtoSoilTest?Theguidanceprovidedbysoilteststohorticultureprofessionalsandgardeningenthusiastsissometimescomparedtotheguidancethatbloodtestsprovidetophysicians.Inthisvein,asoiltestislikeabloodtestforthesoil.Soiltestscanbeusedforfourpurposes:maintainingpropersoilfertilityguidingplantselectionperformingplantproblemdiagnosticsandforconformingtoindustryapprovedstandardpractices.

    1.MaintainingProperSoilFertility.Healthyplantsneedcertainlevelsofsoilnutrientstothrive.Duringthegrowingseason,thesoilnutrientsandfertilitymayfluctuate.Thisisinfluencedbythequantityand

  • Figure3:Coloradobluespruceshowingsymptomsofmanganese(Mn)deficiency.PhotobyJoeBoggs,Ohio

    StateUniversityExtension.

    availabilityofplantnutrientsthatarealteredbytheadditionoffertilizers,manure,compost,mulch,andlimeorsulfur,inadditiontoleaching.Furthermore,largequantitiesofplantnutrientsareremovedfromsoilsasaresultofplantgrowthanddevelopment,andtheharvestingofcrops.

    Asoiltestwilldeterminethecurrentfertilitystatusandprovidethenecessaryinformationtomaintainoptimumfertilityyearafteryear.Soilteststaketheguessworkoutoffertilizationandareverycosteffectivetheyeliminatewastefulspendingonunnecessaryfertilizerproducts.Testresultsandrecommendationshelpprotectourenvironmentbydiscouragingtheoverapplicationofplantnutrients.Excessnutrientsnotusedbyplantsmayescapeintogroundwater,streamsandlakes.

    2.GuidingPlantSelection.SomeplantswillgrowinawiderangeofsoilpHlevels,whileothersrequireanarrowrangeofpH.Mostturfgrasses,flowers,ornamentalshrubs,vegetables,andfruitsgrowbestinslightlyacidsoilswhichrepresentapHof6.1to6.9.Plantssuchasrhododendron,azalea,pieris,mountainlaurel,andblueberriesrequireamoreacidicsoiltogrowwell.

    Asoiltestwilldeterminewhetherthesoilisacidicoralkaline.ItisthemostcosteffectivewaytomatchthepHrequirementsofplantsthatyouselectwiththepHofthesoilyoureplantingthemin.

    3.PerformingPlantProblemDiagnostics.Soiltestsareanimportanttoolforlearningwhygoodplantsgobad.Forexample,iftreesareexhibitingyellowing(chlorotic)leavesorneedlesduringthegrowingseason,asoiltestmayrevealwhetherthesymptomiscausedbyalackofanessentialnutrientoraproblemwiththesoilpHorboth.AsshowninFigure1,mostsoilnutrientsarereadilyavailablewhensoilpHisat6.5.WhenpHrisesabovethisvalue,nutrientelementssuchasiron(Fe),copper(Cu),zinc(Zn),andmanganese(Mn)willbecomelessavailable.However,whensoilpHdropsbelow6.5,thereleaseofcertainelementssuchasmanganese(Mn)canreachatoxicitylevelforsomesensitiveplants.

    AnexampleofusingasoiltestfordiagnosingaplantproblemisillustratedwiththeyellowingofinnerneedlesonaColoradobluespruceinfigure3.Thesymptomisconsistentwithamanganese(Mn)deficiency.ThelackofMncouldbeduetoadeficiencyofMninthesoil,highsoilpHmakingMnunavailabletothetree,orboth.BlindlyapplyingMntocorrectaperceivedMnsoildeficiencyorapplyingasoilacidifiertolowerthesoilpHtoreleaseMnwithouttestingthesoilcouldhavedamagingconsequencesexcessiveMncanbetoxictoplants.Inthiscase,asoiltestshowedthatthesoilpHwas6.8meaningthedeficiencywasnotapHproblem.However,thetestalsorevealedthesoiltobeextremelydeficientinMn.TheproblemwascorrectedwithanapplicationofMnbasedonthesoiltestrecommendation.TheslightacidityofthesoilmeantMnwouldbereadilyavailabletobetakenupbythetree.

    Anotherexampleofwhysoiltestingissoimportantforcorrectlydiagnosingplantproblemsisshownwithfigures4and5.TheredmaplesymptomsareconsistentwithaMndeficiencyinthefoliageandtheproblemisoftenblamedonahighsoilpH.Likewise,thechlorosis(yellowing)ontheoakisfrequentlydiagnosedoffthecuffasaniron(Fe)deficiencythatislikewiseblamedonanalkalinesoilcondition.However,bothsymptomscouldbecausedbyanutrientdeficiencyinthesoilaswellasothersoilorrootrelatedissues.A

  • soiltestisthefirststepindiagnosingthetruecauseofthesymptoms.Otherwise,youarejustguessing.Astheoldaxiomstates,dontguess,soiltest!

    4.ConformingtoIndustryApprovedStandardPractices.TheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI)isaprivatenonprofitorganizationthatoverseesthedevelopmentprocessandapprovalofvoluntaryconsensusstandardsfortheprivatesectorintheUnitedStates.TheTreeCareIndustryAssociation(TCIA)isaccreditedbyANSItodeveloptheactualstandardsknownasANSIA300TreeCareManagementstandards.Theyarethegenerallyacceptedindustrystandardsfortreecarepractices.

    FollowingarerecommendationsfromtheANSIstandardsspecifictosoiltesting:A300(Part2)2011SoilManagement14.4.4Soiltestingshouldbedonepriortodesigning,plantselection,planting,and/ordevelopingmanagementplansforlandscapes.15.2Soiland/orfoliarnutrientanalysisshouldbeusedtodeterminetheneed,formulation,andrateoffertilizer.15.6.3Whennewplantsarespecified,theyshouldbetolerantofthenativesoilpH.

    A300(Part6)2012PlantingandTransplanting63.3Plantandsiteinspectionsfortransplanting63.3.5SoilattheinstallationsiteshouldbeanalyzedandtestedforpH,structure,texture,density,nutrientsandpercolation.

    Figure4:RedMapleChlorosis.PhotobyJoeBoggs,OhioStateUniversityExtension.

    Figure5:OakChlorosis.PhotobyJoeBoggs,OhioStateUniversityExtension.

    WhenDoISoilTest?Asoiltestisusedasaplanningtoolandthefirststepinlearningwhatyouneedtodo,ornotdo.Soilsamplescanbetakenanytimeoftheyear,aslongasthesoilisworkable.However,youshouldallowplentyoftimetoreceiveandevaluateyoursoiltestresults,andthentakeactiontoimproveyoursoilfertility.Anyrecommendedadjustments,suchasafertilizerapplication,shouldbemadeattheappropriatetimeoftheyear.Forexample,fallisthebesttimeoftheyeartomakealimeapplicationtoraisethesoilpH,whilespringisthemostappropriatetimeoftheyearforasulfurapplicationtolowerthepH.

    HowFrequentlyShouldISoilTest?Asoiltesteverytwotothreeyearsisusuallyadequateformaintainingsoilfertility.Samplemorefrequentlyifyoudesireaclosermonitoringofthefertilitylevels,orifyougrowplantsthatrequiremorenutrients.Soiltestsfordiagnosticpurposescanbemadeasneeded.

  • Figure6:TheThandleprobeorThandlestepprobeprovideasimplemethodforcollectingsoilsamples.PhotobyJoeBoggs,OhioState

    UniversityExtension.

    WhatSoilSamplingToolsDoINeed?1.SoilProbeAsoilprobeistheeasiesttoolfortakingsoilsamples.Soilprobesquicklyextractsamplestoaconsistentdepthsimplifyingthejoboftakingsoilsamples,especiallywhentakingmultiplecompositesamples.Soilprobesarealsousefulforassessingsoilmoisturetomonitorirrigationneedsandforevaluatingotherphysicalpropertiesofthesoilsuchascompaction.Purchasingasoilprobeisagoodinvestmentforhorticultureprofessionalsandseriousgardeners.Figure6showstypicalsoilprobesavailableforpurchase.TheThandlestepprobeisrecommendedformorecompactedsoilsorwhencollectingsamplesinalargeareasuchasalawn.Thelongerlengthandweldedstepreducesbackandshoulderstrainfrombendingoverandapplyingpressuretoinserttheprobeintothesoil.

    2.GardenSpade,Knife,orHandTrowelAgardenspade,heavygaugedknife(e.g.soilknife),orhandtrowelasshowninfigure7canalsobeusedtotakethinslicesorsectionsofsoilforgatheringsoilsamples.Thesetoolsrequiremoretime,effortandskillfortakingprecisesoilsamplescomparedtoasoilprobe.However,theyareeffectiveifyouaresamplingloosesoilsuchasinvegetablegardensandflowerbeds.Theyarealsocosteffectiveforlawnsandlandscapesifyouareonlyperformingplantnutrientmaintenancetestsoversmallareaseveryfewyears.

    3.PlasticBucketSoilsamplesshouldbecollectedinacleanplasticbucketorboxasshowninfigure8.Metalbuckets,suchasaluminumorzincplatedbuckets,shouldneverbeusedasthemetalsmayleachintothesamplesandinfluencethetestresults.

    Figure7:Handtrowelforsoilsampling.Theorganiclayerwillbeexplainedinthesectionbelowon

    samplingtips.PhotobyTurfRoots.

    Figure8:Soilsamplesshouldbecollectedinaclean,plasticbucket.PhotobyJoeBoggs,Ohio

    StateUniversityExtension.

  • HowDoITakeSoilSamples?Thevalidityofsoiltestresultsandrecommendationsdependonthequalityofthesamplestakenandsenttoatestinglab.Soilfertilityvariesthroughoutalawn,landscape,fruitplanting,orvegetablegarden.Becauseofthis,thesoilsamplesenttothelabmustberepresentativeoftheentirearea.Submittingacompositesamplereducestheinfluenceofsoilfertilityvariations.Acompositesampleisanumberofindividualsubsamplescollectedovertheentiretestarea.Thesubsamplesaremixedtogetherandasmallamountofsoil,about1pintinvolume,issentasarepresentativesampletothetestinglab.

    Figure9showsexamplesofsubsamplenumbersandpatternstocreateacompositesample.Thenumberofsubsamplesdependsuponthesizeoftheareabeingtested.Ingeneral,5to10subsamplesaresufficientforsmallareassuchasflowerbedsand10to15samplesarerecommendedforlargerareassuchaslawns.Subsamplesshouldbetakenatrandominazigzagpatternovertheentireareaandeachsubsampleshouldbetakentothesamedepthandsoilvolume.

    SoilSamplingTips:1.Separatesoiltestsshouldbeusedfor:Areasthathavereceiveddifferentapplicationsforsoilfertilityprograms.Soilsdistinguishablebycolor(i.e.lightvs.dark),drainage,orotherfactors.Differenttypesofplantcultivation(i.e.turfgrass,vegetablegardens,trees/shrubs,etc.).Figure9showsdifferentzonesforsoilsampling.

    2.Samplewhensoilsaresuitableforspadingorplowing.

    3.Organicmatterontopofthesoilshouldnotbeincludedinsoiltestsamples.Thisincludesplants(e.g.turfgrassplants),thetypical1inchorlessorganiclayertypicallyfoundoverOhiosoils,mulch,thatch,etc.Figure10showstheorganiclayerinasoilprobeandfigure7earlierinthefactsheetshowsthelayerinahandtrowel.

    Figure9:Thisgraphicshowsfivezonesthatwillbesoiltested.Thestarsinthegraphicshowwherethesubsamplesshouldbetaken.Thesubsamples

    shouldbetakeninazigzagpattern,shownbytheyellowdottedlines.GraphicbyJoeBoggs,Ohio

    StateUniversityExtension.

    Figure10:Theorganiclayershouldberemovedandnotincludedinthesoilsample.PhotobyJoeBoggs,OSU

    Extension.

    Coarseorganicmattersuchasmulchorthatchshouldberemovedbeforetakingasoilsample.Theorganiclayerincludedinsoilprobeorhandtrowelsamplescanberemovedpriortodroppingthesampleintoaplastic

  • bucket.Soilshouldbesampledtorootdepth,whichtypicallymeans5to8inchesfortrees,shrubs,flowerbeds,andvegetablegardens,and3to4inchesforlawns.Ofcourse,rootdepthmayvarybasedonsoiltypeandotherconditions.Sampleavegetablegardenbetweenrowstoavoidfertilizerbandswhereapplicationsweremadedirectlytoplants.

    HowtoPrepareSoilSamplesforSubmission1.Contactasoiltestinglabforinstructions,soiltestkits,andappropriateforms.Alistofaccreditedtestinglabsisattheendofthisfactsheet.

    2.Breakuplumpsandairdrythesoilonparchmentpaperorbutcherpaper(donotusenewspaperorcoloredpaper)atroomtemperaturewithnoartificialheat.

    3.Dryuntilthelumpscanbecrushedtothesizeofwheatgrainsorsmaller.4.Mixwellandremoverootsandotherlargepiecesoforganicdebris.5.Takeaboutonepintofthecompositesampleandplaceitinthesamplebagassociatedwiththekit.

    Figures1115belowillustrateatypicalsoiltestkitthatyouwillobtainfromthelab.Makesuretheinformationontheformsiscompletesoyoureceiverecommendationsforyourlawn,landscape,fruitorvegetableneeds.PhotosbyJoeBoggs,OhioStateUniversityExtension.

    Figure11:Atypicalsoiltestkityouwillreceivefromthesoiltestinglab.

    Figure12:Completeallformsrequiredbythetestinglab.

    Figure13:Takeaboutonepintofthecompositesampletobesentfortesting.

  • Figure14:Thebagisfilledandreadytobesenttothetestinglab.

    Figure15:Theformiscompletedandreadytobemailedwiththefilledbag.

    WhereDoISendMySoilSample?Table1showsalistofsoiltestinglabsinOhioandneighboringstatesaswellasthetypesofmaterialstheywilltest.ThelabslistedbelongtotheNorthAmericanProficiencyTesting(NAPT)programthatisoperatedunderthesupervisionoftheSoilScienceSocietyofAmerica(SSSA).Forafee,theselabswillprovidebasicsoiltesting.Somelabsalsooffermoreadvancedtestingsuchasananalysisofsoillessmedia,compost,planttissue,andwateraswellastestsforsolublesaltsandtheamountoforganicmatterfoundinthesoil.

    Contactthesoiltestinglabbeforecollectingthesoilsamples.Generally,soiltestinglabswillprovideacompletesetofinstructions,eitherwithsamplekitsoruponrequest.Followtheinstructionscarefully.Youwillneedtomailsoilsample(s),completedsampleform(s),andappropriatepaymenttothesoiltestinglabselected.

    HowLongDoestheSoilTestTake?Soiltestresultsandfertilizerrecommendationsareusuallymailedintwoweeks,dependingonthetestinglab.Makesureyoureadandfollowthedirectionsforfillingoutthesoiltestingform(s)accuratelyandcompletelyincompleteformsmaycausedelaysinreceivingresultsandrecommendations.Forexample,unlessyoufillouttheformforthetypesofplantsyougroworwillbegrowing,norecommendationswillbegiven.

    WhatKindsofSoilTestsAreAvailable?Thekindsofavailabletestsvarywithdifferentsoilandtissuetestinglabs.Someofthecommonsoiltestsarelawnandgarden,horticultural,agronomic,andsoillessmediatest.RefertoTable1forasuggestedpartiallistofsoilandtissuetestinglabsandthetypesoftestsavailableinOhioandneighboringstates.Pleasenotethetypesofteststhatindividuallabsoffermaychangewithoutnotice.Contactthelabforcurrenttestsavailable.

    TheinclusionofalabonthislistdoesnotnecessarilyimplyanyendorsementbyOhioStateUniversityExtension,nordoestheexclusionofalabimplyanycondemnation.Hence,OhioStateUniversityExtensiondoesnotassumeanyliabilitiesassociatedwiththeselectionanduseoftheselabs.

  • Table1.AListofSoilandTissueTestingLabsandtheTypesofMaterialsTested.*

    Name,Address,andPhoneNumberofSoilandPlantTissueTestingLabs

    TypesofMaterialsTested

    SoilandPlantNutrientLaboratoryMichiganStateUniversityDepartmentofPlant,SoilandMicrobialSciencesPlantandSoilSciencesBuilding1066BogueStreet,RoomA81EastLansing,MI488241325Phone:(517)3550218http://www.css.msu.edu/SPNL/

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,compost,nutrientsolution,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    AgriculturalAnalyticalServicesLaboratoryPennStateUniversity111AgAnalyticalSvcsLabUniversityPark,PA16802Phone:(814)8630841http://www.aasl.psu.edu

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,manure,compost,sludge,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    UniversityofKentuckySoilTestingLab103RegulatoryServicesBldg.Lexington,KY405060275Phone:(859)2572785http://soils.rs.uky.edu/index.php

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,compost,nutrientsolution,water,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    AgriAnalysis,Inc.280NewportRoadLeola,PA17540Phone:(717)6569326http://www.agrianalysis.com

    Soil,planttissue,feed,manure,compostandwater.

    AgriLabs,Inc.915CardinalCtAuburn,IN46706Phone:(517)3696052http://www.agrilabsinc.com

    Soil,planttissue,andmanureanalysis.

    A&LGreatLakesLaboratories3505ConestogaDriveFortWayne,IN46808Phone:(260)4834759http://www.algreatlakes.com

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,feed,manure,compost,sludge,nutrientsolutions,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    BrooksideLaboratoriesINC.200WhiteMountainDriveNewBremen,OH45869Phone:(419)9772766http://www.blinc.com

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,feed,manure,compost,sludge,nutrientsolutions,water,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    CLCLabs325VentureDriveWesterville,OH43081Phone:(614)8881663NoWebsite

    Soil,planttissue,water,andotheranalysisuponrequest.

    SpectrumAnalytic,Inc.1087JamisonRdNW,WashingtonCourtHouse,OH

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,feed,manure,compost,sludge,nutrientsolutions,water,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    http://www.css.msu.edu/SPNL/http://www.aasl.psu.edu/http://soils.rs.uky.edu/index.phphttp://www.agrianalysis.com/http://www.agri-labsinc.com/http://www.algreatlakes.com/http://www.blinc.com/

  • Ohioline http://ohioline.osu.eduOhioStateUniversityExtensionembraceshumandiversityandiscommittedtoensuringthatallresearchandrelatededucationalprogramsareavailabletoclienteleonanondiscriminatorybasiswithoutregardtoage,ancestry,color,disability,genderidentityorexpression,geneticinformation,HIV/AIDSstatus,militarystatus,nationalorigin,race,religion,sex,sexualorientation,orveteranstatus.ThisstatementisinaccordancewithUnitedStatesCivilRightsLawsandtheUSDA.

    RogerRennekamp,AssociateDeanandDirector,OhioStateUniversityExtension

    ForDeafandHardofHearing,contactOhioStateUniversityExtensionusingyourpreferredcommunication(email,relayservices,orvideorelayservices).Phone18007500750between8a.m.and5p.m.ESTMondaythroughFriday.Informtheoperatortodial6142926181.

    Copyright2016,TheOhioStateUniversity

    Phone:(740)3351562Phone:(800)3211562http://www.spectrumanalytic.com

    LoganLabs,LLC620NorthMainStreetP.O.Box326Lakeview,OH433310326Phone:(937)8426100http://www.loganlabs.com

    Soil,planttissue,water,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    StarLabWooster,OH44691Phone:(330)2633683

    Soil,soillessmedia,planttissue,feed,manure,compost,sludge,water,andotherspecialanalysisuponrequest.

    TheFarmClinic2574SouthStateRd.39Frankfort,IN46041Phone:(765)6591783

    Soil

    *LabslistedarepartoftheNorthAmericanProficiencyTestingprogramhttp://www.naptprogram.org/about/participants/all.Thelistingoflaboratoriesinthisfactsheetdoesnotimplyendorsementnordoesexclusionofanylabimplyanycriticismordisapproval.ContactyourlocalOSUExtensionofficeorthelabofyourchoiceformoreinformation.

    ReferencesANSIA300(Part2)2011forTreeCareOperationsTree,Shrub,andOtherWoodyPlantManagementStandardPractices(SoilManagementa.Modification,b.Fertilization,andc.Drainage).TreeCareIndustryAssociation,Inc.,Londonderry,NH.http://tcia.org/business/ansia300standards/part2ANSIA300(Part6)2012forTreeCareOperationsTree,Shrub,andOtherWoodyPlantManagementStandardPractices(PlantingandTransplanting).TreeCareIndustryAssociation,Inc.,Londonderry,NH.http://tcia.org/business/ansia300standards/part6Davis,R.O.E.andH.H.Bennett.1927.Groupingofsoilsonthebasisofmechanicalanalysis.UnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureDepartmentalCirculationNo.419.Horneck,D.A.,SullivanD.M,OwenJ.S.,J.M.Hart.2011.SoilTestInterpretationGuide.EC1478.Corvallis,OR:OregonStateUniversityExtensionService.Magdoff,F.andH.vanEs.2010.BuildingSoilsforBetterCrops,SustainableSoilManagement(3rdEd.).HandbookSeriesBook10,SustainableAgricultureResearchandEducation(SARE),UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark,MD.http://www.sare.org/LearningCenter/Books/BuildingSoilsforBetterCrops3rdEditionTruog,E.19431947.TheLimingofSoils.In:Stefiferud,A.(Editor),TheScienceofFarming:TheYearbookofAgriculture19431947:566576Weil,R.R.,R.C.Weil,R.R.Weil,N.C.Brady,andR.Weil.2016.TheNatureandPropertiesofSoil(15thEd.).PearsonEducation,NewYork,NY.

    http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/http://www.loganlabs.com/http://www.naptprogram.org/about/participants/allhttp://tcia.org/business/ansi-a300-standards/part-2http://tcia.org/business/ansi-a300-standards/part-6http://www.sare.org/Learning-Center/Books/Building-Soils-for-Better-Crops-3rd-Edition