Software Metrics

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Software Metrics Faculty Faculty Faculty Faculty Prof.V.Narayana Prof.V.Narayana Prof.V.Narayana Prof.V.Narayana K.S.Prakasa Rao K.S.Prakasa Rao K.S.Prakasa Rao K.S.Prakasa Rao P.Linga Reddy P.Linga Reddy P.Linga Reddy P.Linga Reddy Software Metrics Faculty Faculty Faculty Faculty Prof.V.Narayana Prof.V.Narayana Prof.V.Narayana Prof.V.Narayana K.S.Prakasa Rao K.S.Prakasa Rao K.S.Prakasa Rao K.S.Prakasa Rao P.Linga Reddy P.Linga Reddy P.Linga Reddy P.Linga Reddy

Transcript of Software Metrics

Page 1: Software Metrics

Software MetricsFacultyFacultyFacultyFaculty

Prof.V.NarayanaProf.V.NarayanaProf.V.NarayanaProf.V.NarayanaK.S.Prakasa RaoK.S.Prakasa RaoK.S.Prakasa RaoK.S.Prakasa RaoP.Linga ReddyP.Linga ReddyP.Linga ReddyP.Linga Reddy

Software MetricsFacultyFacultyFacultyFaculty

Prof.V.NarayanaProf.V.NarayanaProf.V.NarayanaProf.V.NarayanaK.S.Prakasa RaoK.S.Prakasa RaoK.S.Prakasa RaoK.S.Prakasa RaoP.Linga ReddyP.Linga ReddyP.Linga ReddyP.Linga Reddy

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Software Metrics - TopicsSoftware Metrics - TopicsWhy measureWhat to measureWhen to measureData collection Metric analysis Simple statistical toolsImprovements Issues

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Why measure ?Why measure ?Software project goals Software project goals

quality of deliverables quality of deliverables timely delivery and timely delivery and costcost

If you do not measure, you do not know If you do not measure, you do not know where you are and do not know what to where you are and do not know what to improve improve

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Why measure ?Why measure ?Need Quantitative DataNeed Quantitative Data

to monitor progressto monitor progressto analyze trendsto analyze trendsto identify areas that need improvementto identify areas that need improvementto initiate improvementsto initiate improvements

Continuous improvementContinuous improvement

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Why measure ?Why measure ?MeasurementMeasurement -- A quantified observation For A quantified observation For egeg., ., effort in person days in completing a task or number effort in person days in completing a task or number of defects reported in testing a moduleof defects reported in testing a module

MetricMetric -- A comparative measure of the performance A comparative measure of the performance of software product or process For e.g.., Effort of software product or process For e.g.., Effort deviation percentage (planned versus actual)deviation percentage (planned versus actual)Defect density = defects per unit size of work Defect density = defects per unit size of work product.product.

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What to measure ?What to measure ?Project management metricsProject management metrics

Schedule metricsSchedule metricsEffort metricsEffort metricsPhasePhase--wise effort distributionwise effort distribution

Quality metricsQuality metricsDefect metricsDefect metricsCustomer satisfactionCustomer satisfactionMaintenance metricsMaintenance metrics

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What to measure ? (cont’d)What to measure ? (cont’d)Cost metricsCost metrics

Cost varianceCost varianceCost of QualityCost of Quality

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Schedule metricsSchedule metricsTo monitor the trends in the actual calendar days To monitor the trends in the actual calendar days spent on completion of specific tasks/ activities spent on completion of specific tasks/ activities against planned calendar daysagainst planned calendar daysDevelopment projects Development projects -- phase wise phase wise measurementsmeasurementsSustenance projects Sustenance projects -- work request wise work request wise measurementsmeasurementsUsed for reUsed for re--planning at the project level and as planning at the project level and as input for estimation at the company levelinput for estimation at the company level

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Schedule metrics (cont’d)Schedule metrics (cont’d)

Schedule deviation = (Schedule deviation = ((Actual calendar days (Actual calendar days --Planned calendar days)/Planned calendar days) * Planned calendar days)/Planned calendar days) * 100 100

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Effort metricsEffort metricsTo monitor the trends in the person days spent To monitor the trends in the person days spent on completion of specific tasks/ activities against on completion of specific tasks/ activities against planned person daysplanned person daysDevelopment projects Development projects -- phase wise phase wise measurementsmeasurementsSustenance projects Sustenance projects -- work request wise work request wise measurementsmeasurementsUsed for reUsed for re--planning at the project level and as planning at the project level and as input for estimation at the company levelinput for estimation at the company level

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Effort metrics (cont’d)Effort metrics (cont’d)Effort deviation = (Effort deviation = ((Actual person days (Actual person days --Planned person days)/ Planned person days) * Planned person days)/ Planned person days) * 100100

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Phase-wise effort distributionPhase-wise effort distributionAnalysis of effort spent on each phase for Analysis of effort spent on each phase for different kinds of projectsdifferent kinds of projectsComparison with size of work product at Comparison with size of work product at each phaseeach phaseProvides norms at the company level Provides norms at the company level

for preparation of proposalsfor preparation of proposalsfor project planning for project planning

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Defect metricsDefect metricsTo monitor trends in defects at each To monitor trends in defects at each phase of development as well as during phase of development as well as during acceptance by the customeracceptance by the customerClassification by severity of defect and Classification by severity of defect and origin of defect helps in initiating origin of defect helps in initiating corrective actionscorrective actions

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Defect metrics (cont’d)Defect metrics (cont’d)Defect densityDefect density

No of defects/size of the work productNo of defects/size of the work product

Severity of defectsSeverity of defectsclassification of defects as critical, major & minor classification of defects as critical, major & minor and their distribution at each phaseand their distribution at each phase

Origin of defectsOrigin of defectsclassification of defects based on the origin of classification of defects based on the origin of defects such as requirements, design or codingdefects such as requirements, design or coding

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Defect metrics (cont’d)Defect metrics (cont’d)

Defects seepageDefects seepageDefects reported by customer during Defects reported by customer during acceptance as a percentage of total defects acceptance as a percentage of total defects reported during prereported during pre--delivery system testingdelivery system testing

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Customer satisfactionCustomer satisfactionBased on customer satisfaction survey, analyze Based on customer satisfaction survey, analyze the data and identify areas of strengths and the data and identify areas of strengths and weaknessweaknessIdentify causes that result in customer Identify causes that result in customer dissatisfaction and take corrective actions dissatisfaction and take corrective actions

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Maintenance metricsMaintenance metricsAnalysis of defects reported during warranty Analysis of defects reported during warranty supportsupportMean time taken to resolve problems reported by Mean time taken to resolve problems reported by the customer the customer

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Cost metricsCost metrics

Cost variance = ((Actual cost Cost variance = ((Actual cost -- Planned Planned cost)/Planned cost) * 100cost)/Planned cost) * 100Cost of Quality Cost of Quality

Prevention costPrevention costAppraisal costAppraisal costFailure cost (Internal failures and external failures)Failure cost (Internal failures and external failures)

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When to measureWhen to measurePeriodic Periodic -- on a time bound basis (daily or on a time bound basis (daily or weekly) weekly) Milestone Milestone -- on completion of a specific on completion of a specific mile stone mile stone

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Data collectionData collectionPlanned start date and close date for Planned start date and close date for each phaseeach phaseActual start date and close date for each Actual start date and close date for each phasephasePlanned effort for each phasePlanned effort for each phaseActual effort for each phaseActual effort for each phaseDefects at each phase of review and Defects at each phase of review and testingtesting

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Data collection (cont’d)Data collection (cont’d)Customer satisfaction survey dataCustomer satisfaction survey dataCustomer feedback and complaints dataCustomer feedback and complaints dataSustenance projects Sustenance projects -- schedule and schedule and effort (planned and actual) for each work effort (planned and actual) for each work requestrequest

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Metric analysis Metric analysis

Schedule varianceSchedule variance = ((Actual calendar days = ((Actual calendar days --Planned calendar days)/ Planned calendar Planned calendar days)/ Planned calendar days)) * 100days)) * 100Effort varianceEffort variance = ((Actual effort in person days = ((Actual effort in person days --Planned effort in person days)/ Planned effort in Planned effort in person days)/ Planned effort in person days)) * 100person days)) * 100Effort distribution metric Effort distribution metric = Percentage of effort = Percentage of effort spent for each phasespent for each phase

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Metric analysis (cont’d)Metric analysis (cont’d)Defect metricsDefect metricsDefect densityDefect density = Number of defects/size of = Number of defects/size of the work productthe work productDefect distributionDefect distribution = Percentage of defects by = Percentage of defects by defect severity and origin of defectsdefect severity and origin of defectsDefects seepage Defects seepage = Defects reported during = Defects reported during acceptance as a percentage of defects acceptance as a percentage of defects reported during internal testingreported during internal testing

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Metric analysis (cont’d)Metric analysis (cont’d)Customer satisfaction surveyCustomer satisfaction survey

Customer satisfaction survey is conducted Customer satisfaction survey is conducted quarterly/milequarterly/mile--stone for large projects and end of stone for large projects and end of project for small projectsproject for small projectsParameters measured Parameters measured -- Quality, Delivery, Service, Quality, Delivery, Service, Communication, Relationship and ValueCommunication, Relationship and Value

Rating for each parameter Rating for each parameter -- 5 Excellent, 4 Fully 5 Excellent, 4 Fully satisfied, 3 Average, 2 Fair and 1 Poor satisfied, 3 Average, 2 Fair and 1 Poor

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Metric analysis (cont’d)Metric analysis (cont’d)Customer satisfaction survey (cont’d)Customer satisfaction survey (cont’d)

Each parameter to have a score of 3 plus and Each parameter to have a score of 3 plus and an overall score of more than 70% an overall score of more than 70% Analyzed for each customer and plotted for Analyzed for each customer and plotted for score of each parameter and total scorescore of each parameter and total score

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Metric analysis (cont’d)Metric analysis (cont’d)

Maintenance MetricsMaintenance Metrics

Analysis of Time taken to respond to customer Analysis of Time taken to respond to customer reported defects reported defects Analysis of type of defects by type and severityAnalysis of type of defects by type and severity

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Metric analysis (cont’d)Metric analysis (cont’d)

Cost MetricsCost Metrics

Cost varianceCost variance = ((Actual cost = ((Actual cost -- Planned cost)/ Planned Planned cost)/ Planned cost)*100cost)*100Cost of QualityCost of Quality

Prevention cost (Planning, training etc.,)Prevention cost (Planning, training etc.,)Appraisal cost (Reviews and testing)Appraisal cost (Reviews and testing)Failure cost (Rework, customer complaints etc.,)Failure cost (Rework, customer complaints etc.,)

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Simple statistical toolsSimple statistical toolsScatter diagramScatter diagramHistogramHistogramPareto AnalysisPareto AnalysisBrainstormingBrainstormingCause and effect diagramsCause and effect diagramsControl chartsControl charts

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Scatter diagramScatter diagramDiscover, confirm or display Discover, confirm or display relationships between two sets of datarelationships between two sets of data

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HistogramHistogramDisplay the dispersion or spread of dataDisplay the dispersion or spread of data

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HistogramHistogram

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Pareto AnalysisPareto AnalysisIdentify major factors and distinguish the Identify major factors and distinguish the most important causes from less most important causes from less significant ones.significant ones.

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Pareto Analysis (cont’d) Pareto Analysis (cont’d)

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Brainstorming Brainstorming Generate, clarify and evaluate a sizeable Generate, clarify and evaluate a sizeable list of ideas, problems or issueslist of ideas, problems or issues

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Cause and effect diagramCause and effect diagramSystematically analyze cause and effect Systematically analyze cause and effect relationships and identify potential root relationships and identify potential root causes of a problem.causes of a problem.

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Cause and effect diagram (cont’d)Cause and effect diagram (cont’d)

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Control charts Control charts Every process is subject to variationEvery process is subject to variationVariation is part of natureVariation is part of natureCauses of variationCauses of variation

Natural causesNatural causesAssignable causesAssignable causes

Natural CausesNatural CausesCannot be avoided but can be improvedCannot be avoided but can be improved

Assignable causesAssignable causesCan be avoidedCan be avoided

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Control charts (cont’d) Control charts (cont’d)

Control charts help us in identifying Control charts help us in identifying assignable causes and to eliminate them assignable causes and to eliminate them

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Control charts (cont’d) Control charts (cont’d)

Steps in control chartsSteps in control chartsDefine company baseline for metrics that need to be Define company baseline for metrics that need to be controlledcontrolledWork out the upper and lower control limits Work out the upper and lower control limits Plot the metrics on a periodic or milestone basisPlot the metrics on a periodic or milestone basisIn case metric out control identify the case and initiate In case metric out control identify the case and initiate action to eliminate the causeaction to eliminate the cause

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ImprovementsImprovementsCorrective actionsCorrective actionsPreventive actionsPreventive actionsEstimation, planning & tracking methodsEstimation, planning & tracking methodsGoal setting Goal setting -- company level and project company level and project level level

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IssuesIssues

Data collection Data collection -- Manual methods (cumbersome and Manual methods (cumbersome and do not assure authentic data)do not assure authentic data)Automate the data collectionAutomate the data collectionIdentify centralized department (like QA) for analysis Identify centralized department (like QA) for analysis and reportingand reportingShare information among allShare information among allMetrics are for process improvements and not for Metrics are for process improvements and not for evaluation of persons evaluation of persons

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Issues (cont’d)Issues (cont’d)Keep the metrics process Keep the metrics process

SIMPLE and PRACTICALSIMPLE and PRACTICAL

OpennessOpennessCommunication and preparedness to improveCommunication and preparedness to improveReport metrics in ERC and MRCReport metrics in ERC and MRC

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