Smart Cities….Smart Future
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Transcript of Smart Cities….Smart Future
Smart Cities.Smart Future*
Payam BarnaghiInstitute for Communication Systems (ICS)/5G Innovation Centre University of SurreyGuildford, United Kingdom
The IET Surrey Network, December 2015
A hundred years hence people will be so avid of every moment of life, life will be so full of busy delight, that time-saving inventions will be at a huge premium
It is not because we shall be hurried in nerve-shattering anxiety, but because we shall value at its true worth the refining and restful influence of leisure, that we shall be impatient of the minor tasks of every day.The March 26, 1906, New Zealand Star:Source: http://paleofuture.com
IBM Mainframe 360, source Wikipedia
Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had 64 kilobytes of memory operated at 0.043MHz.
An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds of up to 1.3GHzand has 512MB to 1GB of memoryCray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating point operations per second (FLOPS)10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS
An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS nearly a thousand times more
Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt powerSource: Nick T., PhoneArena.com, 2014image source: http://blog.opower.com/
Computing Power*Smaller sizeMore PowerfulMore memory and more storage
"Moore's law" over the history of computing, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.
Smaller in size but larger in scale*
The Internet: A brief history*1961: Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961.1962: J.C.R. Licklider of MIT discussed his "Galactic Network" concept - a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site.1968: an RFQ was released by DARPA for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP's). The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by Frank Heart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN).
Source: Internet Society
The Internet: A brief history*1970: the Network Working Group (NWG) working under S. Crocker finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP).
1972: Bob Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public.
1972: the first "hot" application, electronic mail, was introduced.
Source: Internet Society
The old Internet timeline*Source: Internet Society
Submarine cables*Image source: mail online
Fibre optic cables around the worldA single fibre can transmit as much as 100 billion bits per second (100 Gbps, about ten thousand times faster than a typical home broadband connection)
- A cable can contain hundreds of fibres, a single cable can have enough capacity for the communications of millions of users.Source: http://www.vox.com/a/internet-mapsSource: http://www.vox.com/a/internet-maps
Countries at risk of getting disconnected from the internetSource: http://www.vox.com/a/internet-maps
Connectivity and information exchange was (and is ) the main motivation behind the Internet; but Content and Services are now the key elements;
and all started growing rapidly by the introduction of the World Wide Web. *
The World Wide Web*Tim Berners-Lee
Early days of the web*
Search on the Internet/Web in the early days*
And there came Google!*
Google says that the web has now 30 trillion unique individual pages;
Source: Intel, 2012
*Data VolumeSecurity, Reliability, Trust and PrivacySocietal Impacts, Economic Values and ViabilityServices and ApplicationsNetworking andCommunication
*Sensor devices are becoming widely available- Programmable devices- Off-the-shelf gadgets/tools
*More Things are being connected Home/daily-life devicesBusiness and Public infrastructureHealth-care
*Internet of Things (IoT)Extending the current Internet and providing connection, communication, and inter-networking between devices and physical objects, or "Things," is a growing trend that is often referred to as the Internet of Things.
The technologies and solutions that enable integration of real world data and services into the current information networking technologies are often described under the umbrella term of the Internet of Things (IoT)
1GAMPS, NMT, TACS
2GGSM. GPRS, TDMA IS-136, CDMA IS-95, PDC3G UMTS, CDMA2000, 4G5G
PeopleThingsVoiceTextData 5G technologiesand standards Connection + Control M2M/IoTChange in the communication technologies
Internet of Things: The story so farRFID based solutions Wireless Sensor andActuator networks, solutions for communication technologies, energy efficiency, routing, Smart Devices/Web-enabled Apps/Services, initial products,vertical applications, early concepts and demos, Physical-Cyber-Social Systems, Linked-data, semantics, M2M, More products, more heterogeneity, solutions for control and monitoring, Future: Cloud, Big (IoT) Data Analytics, Interoperability, Enhanced Cellular/Wireless Com. for IoT, Real-world operational use-cases and Industry and B2B services/applications, more Standards
Cities of the future*http://www.globalnerdy.com/2007/08/28/home-electronics-of-the-future-as-predicted-28-years-ago/
What does makes smart cities smart?
Smart Citizens (more informed and more in control)
Smart Governance (better services and informed decisions)
Providing more equality and wider reach
Context-aware and situation-aware services
Cost efficacy and supporting innovation What does makes smart cities smart?
*Source: BBC News
Image sources : The dailymail, http://helenography.net/, http://edwud.com/
Smart Cities: What type of problems we expect to solve?
*Source LAT Times, http://documents.latimes.com/la-2013/Future cities: A view from 1998
*Source: http://robertluisrabello.com/denial/traffic-in-la/#gallery[default]/0/Source: wikipedia
Back to the Future: 2013
Applications and potentials Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion, public transport, waste and event sensory data to provide better transport and city management.Converting smart meter readings to information that can help prediction and balance of power consumption in a city.Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare applications.Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real-time data collected by citizen and device sensors.Turning social media data (e.g. Tweets) related to city issues into event and sentiment analysis.Any many more
Live data Visualisation*
Analysing social streams*With
An example: Extraction of events and semantics from social media*City InfrastructureTweets from a cityP. Anantharam, P. Barnaghi, K. Thirunarayan, A. Sheth, "Extracting city events from social streams,, 2014.https://osf.io/b4q2t/
Activity 3.4 Event Detection for Social Media*
City InfrastructureYes it is police @hasselager there directing trafficCRF-based NER TaggingMulti-view EventExtractionLoc. Est. = hasselager, aarhusTemp. Est. = 2015-2-19 21:07:17Level = 2Event Type = Traffic
OSM Loc.CrimeTransp.City Event Extraction
CNN POS+NER Event term extractionCulturalSocialEnviro.SportHealthDataTransp.
Yes it is police @hasselager there directing traffic Yes it is police @hasselager ... there directing traffic
Not so good examples *
Social media analysis (deep learning under construction)*http://iot.ee.surrey.ac.uk/citypulse-social/
Future of the Internet *In next 5 years
Smart data collection Smart data collection
Intelligent data Processing (selective attention and information-extraction)
*(image source: KRISTEN NICOLE, siliconangle.com)
The rise of sharing economy*Source: the Economist
More broadband in remote areas*
More connected wearable devcies*
The rise of village notebook/internet kiosks*Source: wikipedia, green diary
More privacy/control issues*Source: wikipedia, the economist
Applications and Services*
Future of the Internet *In next 25 years
Mind will be the machine *And all will be connected!
The borders blend*Source: IEEE Internet Computing
Information will find you, not you the information*
Boundary between human, technology and devices*
Desire for innovation *Driverless Car of the Future(1957)Image: Courtesy of http://paleofuture.com
Lets hopeThe Internet of the Future will be For everyone, everywhere, available at anytime,People will have control on their dataData will be used for helping peopleSmart applications will contribute to a better life and to a better use of of our resources in the world!
EU FP7 CityPulse Project:
http://www.ict-citypulse.eu/ @[email protected]