Seven Deadly Sins - wikipedia

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    even deadly sins

    om Wikipedia, the free encyclopediap://enwikipediaorg/wiki/even"deadly"sins

    eronymus $osch%s The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things

    varice& ()*+), -y .esus olana

    e Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vicesor Cardinal Sins, is a classification of o-0ectiona-levicesristian ethics that have -een used since early 1hristiantimes to educate and instruct 1hristians concerning fallen
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    manity%s tendency to sin he currently recogni2ed version of the sins are usually given as wrath,greed, sloth,pride

    vy, and gluttony

    e 1atholic 1hurchdivides sin into two categories: venial sins, in which guilt is relatively minor, and the more severortal sins heologically, a mortal or deadly sin is -elieved to destroy the life of graceandcharitywithin a person an

    eates the threat of eternal damnation &Mortal sin, -y attacking the vital principle within us 3 that is, charity 3 necessiw initiative of 4od%s mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished 5for 1atholics6 within the set

    e sacrament of reconciliation&5+6

    1atholics the seven deadly sins do not -elong to an additional category of sin 7ather, they are the sins that are see

    gin (&capital& comes from the Latin caput, head of the other sins ' &deadly sin& can -e either venial or mortal, dep

    the situation8 -ut &they are called %capital% -ecause they engender other sins, other vices&5)6

    ginning in the early +9th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among uropean artists of the tentually helped to ingrain them in many areas of 1atholic culture and 1atholic consciousness in general throughout

    orld ;ne means of such ingraining was the creation of themnemonic&'L

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    iblical lists

    the $ook of Prover-s(Mishlai, ing olomonstated that the Lord specifically regards &siE things the Lord hateth,

    e seventh #is soul detesteth& namely:596

    + ' proud look) ' lying tongue

    = #ands that shed innocent -lood

    9 ' heart that devises wicked plots? Feet that are swift to run into mischief

    @ ' deceitful witness that uttereth lies

    A #im that soweth discord among -rethren

    hile there are seven of them, this list is considera-ly different from the traditional one, with only pride clearly -eing


    nother list, given this time -y the pistle to the 4alatians(4alatians ?:+D3)+, includes more of the traditional sevenhough the list is su-stantially longer: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, va

    mulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, &and such like&5?6ince ain

    es on to say that the persons who commit these sins &shall not inherit the ingdom of 4od&, they are usually listed

    ossi-le mortal sins rather than 1apital Bices

    evelopment of the traditional Seven Sins

    n allegorical image depicting the human heart su-0ect to the seven deadly sins, each represented -y an animal (clock

    adG avarice8 snakeG envy8 lionG wrath8 snailG sloth8pigG gluttony8 goatG lust8peacockG pride
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    e modern concept of the even >eadly ins is linked to the works of the 9th century monkvagrius Ponticus, who

    ght evil thoughtsin 4reekas follows:5@6

    HIJKNIOI (gastrimargia gluttony

    QRSTI (porneiaprostitution, fornication

    UVIOI (philargyriaavarice XTYZISI (hyper[phaniahu-ris3 in the Philokalia, this term is rendered asself3esteem

    \]XY (lyp[ sadness3 in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as envy,sadness at another%s good fortune

    O^ (org[wrath

    _TSR`RI (kenodoEia-oasting

    bY`I (ak[dia acedia3 in the Philokalia, this term is rendered asdejection.

    ey were translated into the Latin of Western 1hristianity (largely due to the writings of .ohn 1assian 5A6 , thus -ecom

    rt of the Western tradition%s spiritualpietas(or 1atholic devotions, as follows:5C6

    4ula (gluttony

    Fornicatio (fornication, lust 'varitia (avarice/greed

    uper-ia (hu-ris,pride

    ristitia (sorrow/despair/despondency


    '> ?D*, a little over two centuries after vagriuswrote his list, Pope 4regory

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    socordiaslothwas su-stituted for acedia

    s this revised list that >anteuses he process of semantic changehas -een aided -y the fact that the personality tra

    t collectively referred to, in either a cohesive or codified manner, -y the $i-le itself8 other literary and ecclesiasticare instead consulted, as sources from which definitions might -e drawn 5citation needed6Part ante%sDivine !o"edy

    rgatorio, has almost certainly -een the -est known source since the 7enaissance5citation needed6

    e modern 7oman 1atholic 1atechism lists the sins in Latin as &superbia, avaritia, invidia, ira, luxuria, gula, pigriti

    edia&, with an nglish translation of &pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth/acedia&5+=6ach of the seadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven holy virtues(sometimes also referred to as the contr


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    ain article: 4luttony


    l-ert 'nker, +CD@

    rived from the Latingluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony(Latin,gula is the over3indulgence andnsumptionof anything to the point of waste

    1hristian religions, it is considered a sin -ecause of the eEcessive desire for food, and its withholding from the need

    cause of these scripts, gluttony can -e interpreted as selfishness8 essentially placing concern with one%s own interest

    ove the well3-eing or interests of others

    edieval church leaders (eg, homas 'uinas took a more eEpansive view of gluttony,5+96arguing that it could alsoo-sessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and eEcessively costly foods 5+?6'uinas wen

    to prepare a list of siE ways to commit gluttony, including:

    #raepropere3 eating too soon

    Laute3 eating too eEpensively

    &i"is3 eating too much

    'rdenter3 eating too eagerly (-urningly

    Studiose3 eating too daintily (keenly

    Forente3 eating wildly (-oringly


    ain article: 4reed
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    *D painting The orship o%)a""on-y velyn >e Morgan

    reed(Latin, avaritia, also known as avariceor covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of eEcess #owever, g

    seen -y the church is applied to a very eEcessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of material possessions t hom

    uinas wrote that greed was &a sin against 4od, 0ust as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal fo

    ke of temporal things& ante%s Purgatory, the penitents were -ound and laid face down on the ground for havingncentrated too much on earthly thoughts &'varice& is more of a -lanket term that can descri-e many other eEample

    eedy -ehavior hese include disloyalty, deli-erate-etrayal, or treason,5citation needed6especially for personal gain, for eE

    ough-ri-ery cavenging5citation needed6andhoardingof materials or o-0ects, theftandro--ery, especially -y means ofolence, trickery, or manipulationof authorityare all actions that may -e inspired -y greed uch misdeeds can inclu

    mony, where one attempts to purchase or sell sacraments, including #oly ;rdersand, therefore, positions of authori

    e 1hurch hierarchy

    defined outside of 1hristian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acuire or possess more than one needs, espeth respect to material wealth5+@6


    ain article: loth (deadly sin


    rable o% the heat and the Tares-y '-raham $loemaert, Walters 'rt Museum

    oth(Latin, Socordia can entail different vices While sloth is sometimes defined as physical la2iness, spiritual la2in

    mphasi2ed Failing to develop spiritually is key to -ecoming guilty of sloth

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    oth has also -een defined as a failure to do things that one should do $y this definition, evil eEists when good men

    ver time, the &acedia& in Pope 4regory%sorder has come to -e closer in meaning to sloth he focus came to -e on thnseuences of acedia rather than the cause, and so, -y the +Ath century, the eEact deadly sinreferred to was -elieve

    e failure to utili2e one%s talents and gifts5citation needed6

    ven in >ante%s time there were signs of this change8 in his#urghad portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed


    ain article: Wrath


    .aco- Matham

    rath(Latin, ira, also known as &rage&, may -e descri-ed as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and angrath, in its purest form, presents with self3destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feudsthat can go on

    nturies Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead Feelings of anger can m

    different ways, including impatience,revenge,and vigilantism,_Jacob_Matham.png
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    rath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self3interest, although one can of course -e wrathfu

    fish reasons, such as 0ealousy, (closely related to the sin of envy >antedescri-ed vengeance as &love of0usticepe

    revengeand spite& al-yneder 1hunmark

    ke greed and lust, Envy(Latin, invidia is characteri2ed -y an insatia-le desire nvy is similar to 0ealousy in that th

    th feel discontent towards someones traits, status, a-ilities, or rewards he difference is the envious also desire thad covetit

    vy can -e directly related to theen 1ommandments, specifically &either shall you desire anything that -elongs

    ur neigh-our& >ante defined this as &a desire to deprive other men of theirs& ante%s Purgatory, the punishment

    vious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire -ecause they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others -roughtuinas descri-ed envy as &sorrow for another%s good&5+A6


    ain article: Pride
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    ilding the ower of $a-elwas, for>ante,an eEample of pride Painting -yPieter $rueghel the lder

    almost every list, pride(Latin,superbia, or hubris(4reek, is considered the original and most serious of the seve

    adly sins, and the source of the others

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    lure to love *od with all one+s heart, all one+s "ind and all one+s soul8 to him it was the "iddle sin, the only one

    aracterised -y an a-sence or insufficiency of love ome scholars5who6have said that the ultimate form of acedia was

    spair which leads to suicide


    ain article: Banity

    ainglory(Latin, vanagloria is un0ustified -oasting Pope 4regoryviewed it as a form of pride, so he folded vainglo

    de for his listing of sins5citation needed6

    e Latin termgloriaroughly means boasting, although its nglish cognate 3glory3 has come to have an eEclusively

    sitive meaning8 historically, vainroughly meant%utile, -ut -y the +9th century had come to have the strong narcissidertones, of irrelevant accuracy, that it retains today5+C6's a result of these semantic changes, vaingloryhas -ecom

    ely used word in itself, and is now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity(in its modern narcissistic sense

    atholic Seven Virtues

    e 7oman 1atholic 1hurchalso recogni2es seven virtues, which correspond inversely to each of the seven deadly si

    Vice Latin Virtue Latin

    t Luxuria 1hastity !astitas

    ttony *ula emperance Te"perantia

    ed 'varitia 1harity !aritas

    h 'cedia >iligence $ndustria

    ath $ra Patience #atientia

    y $nvidia indness -u"anitase Superbia #umility -u"ilitas

    ssociations #ith demons

    +?CD, Peter $insfeldpaired each of the deadly sins with a demon, who tempted people -y means of the associated s

    cording to $insfeld%s classification of demons, the pairings are as follows:

    Lucifer: Pride (super-ia

    Mammon: 4reed (avaritia

    'smodeus: Lust (luEuria Leviathan: nvy (invidia

    $eel2e-u-: 4luttony (gula or gullia

    atan: Wrath (ira

    $elphegor: loth (acedia
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    is contrasts slightly with an earlier series of pairings found in the fifteenth century nglishLollardtractLanterne o%

    hich differs in pairing $eel2e-u- with nvy, '-adon with loth, $elphegor with 4luttony and matching Lucifer wit

    de, atan with Wrath, 'smodeus with Lust and Mammon with 'varice5+D6


    cording to a )**D study -y a .esuit scholar, the most common deadly sin confessed -y men is lust, and for women,