Seven Deadly Sins / Seven Heavenly Virtues

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Wrath Envy Sloth Lust Gluttony Greed Pride Humility Liberality Abstinence Chastity Diligence Kindness Patience

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Transcript of Seven Deadly Sins / Seven Heavenly Virtues

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    Inferno Purgatorio

    Inferno is the first part to Dante Alighieris epic poem, The Divine Comedy. Inferno tells the story of Dantes passage through the nine circles of Hell, guided by the Ro-man poet Virgil.The Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul towards God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin.The poem begins on the night before Good Friday in the year 1300. Dante find himself alone in a dark wood, chased by three beasts he can not evade; a

    lion, a leopard, a she-wolf. The Inferno shows the soul seeing sin for what it really is and the three beasts represent three types of sin: the self-indulgent, the violent, and the malicious. The three types of sin are what separates Hell. The first five Circles) for the self-indulgent sins; Circles six and seven for the violent sins; and Circles eight and nine for the mali-cious sins.Dante passes through the gate of Hell, which bears an inscrip-tion. The final line of the inscription

    been Lasciate ogne speranza, voi chintrate which translates as Abandon all hope, ye who enter hereDante and his guide travel through the Nine Circles and find Lucifer at the Centre. They climb down his fur, pass through the centre of the Earth and emerge in Purga-tory just before dawn on Easter Sunday.

    Purgatorio is the second part to Dantes Divine Comedy. Purgato-rio tells the story of Dantes climb up the Mount of Purgatory. The mountain is made up of a bottom section called An-te-Pugatory, Seven levels of torture and spiritual growth and then Earthly Paradise at the top.Having survived the depths of Hell Dante and Virgil ascend out of the undergloom and up to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of the world. The Mountain is an is-land, the only land

    in the Southern Hemisphere. Dante describes Hell as existing under-neath Jerusalem, created by the impact of Satans fall from Heaven. Mount Purgatory, on exactly the op-posite side of the world, was created by a displacement of rock, caused by the same event.Upon their arrival on the shores of Purgatory, Dante and Virgil are reprimanded by Cato, a pagan who is repsonsible for guarding the mountain. Dante starts the ascent of Mount Purgato-ry at sunrise. The gate of Purgatory

    is guarded by an angel who uses the point of his sword to draw the letter P seven times on Dantes Forehead.The angel at the gate then warns Dante not to look back, lest he should find himself outside the gate again, symbolizing Dante having to overcome and rise above the hell that he has just left and thus leaving his sinning ways behind him. Virgil guides the pilgrim Dante through the seven terraces of Purgatory. These correspond to the seven deadly sins, each terrace purg-ing a particular sin.

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    Seven Deadly Sins

    Sin is a term used to describe an act that violates moral rule. It is a term mainly used in a religious context in which the moral code of conduct is decreed by a divine entity. In some religions a sin refers to the actions, thoughts and feelings that are considered wrong and thus prohibited. It is believed that God will punish those that commit sin in this life or the next. The first recorded use of the term sin is in the early Ninth Century and derives from the Old English synn.

    In Biblical Hebrew the generic word for sin is het. It means to miss the mark.The CatholicChurch separated sin into two classifications: Venial Sins, which could be easily forgiven through Sacrements of the Church; the second classification is Mortal Sin and are much more severe.The modern concept of the Seven Deadly Sins(Pride, Greed, Gluttony, Lust, Sloth, Envy and Wrath) derives from the list of Eight Evils produce in the 4th century by Evagrius Ponticus, The Eight

    were translated into Latin and revised by Pope Gregory in 590AD to form the Seven Deadly Sins known today. Each of the seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven contrary virtues In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven contrary virtues are humility, charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence.

    The Earthly Paradise

    Mountain of Purgatorio

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    Pride is considered to be the sin from which all other sins arise. In some cultures, it is considered a virtue but is associated with excessive belief in ones own abilities.Thomas Aquinas said of Pride inordinate self-love is the cause of every sin ... the root of pride is found to consist in man not being, in some way, subject to God and His rule. Dantes definition was love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for ones neighbor. In Dantes Puragtorio

    the Prideful are made to carry giant blocks across their backs and unable to stand up straight.

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    Greed is the sin associated with the desire for material gain. Originally, Greed was originally known as Avarice. Avarice was a blanket term and covered all different types of Greed - disloyalty, betrayal and treason for material gain.Thomas Aquinas said of Greed: it is a sin directly against ones

    neighbor, since one man cannot over-abound in external riches, without another man lacking them.Mammon is a term, derived from the Christian Bible, used to describe material wealth or greed. It also the name given to the False God of Greed.In Dantes Purgatorio the penitent were bound and laid face down on the

    ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts.


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    Gluttony denotes, not any desire of eating and drinking, but an inordinate desire leaving the order of reason, wherein the good of moral virtue consists.He also listed six ways to commit gluttony: Praepropere (eating too soon), Laute (eating too expensively), Nimis (eating too much), Ardenter (eating

    Gluttony is the sin linked with an inordinate desire to consume more than that which one requires. The word Gluttony derives from the Latin word gluttire meaning to swallow. Gluttony is not universally considered a sin; depending on the culture, it can be a sign of status.Thomas Aquinas said of Gluttony:

    too eagerly), Studiose (eating too daintily) and Forente (eating wildly). In Dantes Purgatorio the Gluttonous are purged from eating and drinking for their sins.


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    Lust is a term to describe the inordinate desire for the pleasure of the body. Thomas Aquinas said of Lust:...wherever there occurs a special kind of deformity whereby the venereal act is rendered unbecoming, there is a determinate species of lust. This may occur in two ways: First, through being contrary to right reason, and this is common to all lustful vices; secondly, because, in addition, it is contrary to the natural order of the venereal act as

    becoming to the human race: and this is called the unnatural vice. This may happen in several ways. First, by procuring pollution, without any copulation, for the sake of venereal pleasure: this pertains to the sin of uncleanness which some call effeminacy. Secondly, by copulation with a thing of undue species, and this is called bestiality. Thirdly, by copulation with an undue sex, male with male, or female with female, as the Apostle states and

    this is called the vice of sodomy. Fourthly, by not observing the natural manner of copulation, either as to undue means, or as to other monstrous and bestial manners of copulation.In Dantes Purgatorio the lustful are purged amongst flames.


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    Sloth is a sin associated with physical and spirtual apathy.

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    Envy is described as an obsession with the traits/qualities of an other. Thomas Aquinas said of Envy: Envy according to the aspect of its object is contrary to charity, whence the soul derives its spiritual life... Charity rejoices in our neighbors good, while envy grieves over it.In Dantes Purgatorio the Envious are punished by having their eyes sewn shut and forced to wear clothing that makes them indistinguishable from the ground.


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    Wrath is manifested in the individual who spurns love and opts instead for fury.

    Thomas Aquinas said Anger is the name of a passion. A passion of the sensitive appetite is good in so far as it is regulated by reason, whereas it is evil if it set the order of reason aside. In Dantes Purgatorio the wrathful are purged by walking around in acrid smoke Souls correct themselves by learning how wrath has blinded their vision, impeding their judgment (the sin of wrath represents a perversion of the natural love of justice).

  • Paradiso

    Enneagram of Personality

    The Enneagram of Personality is mostly taught and understood as a psychospiritual

    typology (a model of personality types) but is also presented in ways intended

    to discover and develop higher states of being, essence and enlightenment.


  • Patience is the

    virtue that

    counters the

    sin of unjust

    anger, also called

    wrath or rage.

    Where the sin of

    wrath is about

    quick temper

    and unnecessary

    vengeance, the

    virtue of meekness

    focuses on

    patiently seeking


    resolution to

    conflicts, and

    on the ability to

    forgive and show


    Honore de Balzac

    All human

    power is a

    compound of

    time and pa-




  • Kindness, or love

    for ones neighbor,

    is the virtue which

    counters the sin

    of envy. Envy, in

    contradiction to

    Gods law of love,

    is manifest in a

    persons sorrow

    and distress over

    the good fortune

    of another person.


    kindness is

    manifest in the


    compassionate and

    charitable concern

    for others.

    Kindness in


    creates love.

    Lao Tzu



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    Diligence, or

    persistence, is

    the virtue which

    counters the sin

    of sloth. Sloth,

    as a capital sin,

    refers to laziness

    in matters of

    Faith and spiritual

    combat. Diligence

    manifests the


    zealous attitudes

    toward living and

    sharing the Faith.


    Decay is in-

    herent in all


    things. Strive

    on with dili-




  • Chastity is the


    to the sin of

    lust. Chastity

    embraces moral


    and purity, and in

    both thought and

    action treats Gods

    gift of sexuality

    with due reverence

    and respect.

    John 4:8

    God is love.

    God is faithful

    God is pure.



  • The virtue of


    or abstinence

    counters the sin

    of gluttony. To

    be gluttonous is

    to overindulge.

    On the opposite

    hand, the virtue

    of temperance

    is centered on

    self-control and


    Robert South


    is the great


    and clearer of




  • Liberality

    consists rather

    in giving rea-

    sonably than


    Liberality, or

    generosity, is

    the virtue that

    is counter to

    greed the sin

    of immoderate

    desire for earthly

    goods. The virtue

    of liberality is

    focused not merely

    on the appropriate

    concern regarding

    ones earthly

    goods, but also on

    generosity and a

    willingness to give,

    freely and without

    request for


    Jean de la Bruyere



  • Humility is the

    virtue that

    counters pride.

    As pride leads to

    other sin, true

    humility clears a

    path for holiness.

    Pride is a sin

    based on undue

    and inappropriate

    appreciation of

    ones self worth.


    the virtue of

    humility is about

    modest behavior,

    selflessness and

    the giving of


    Thomas Merton

    Pride makes

    us arti cal

    and humil-

    ity makes us




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    Seven Contrary Virtues

    The Contrary

    Virtues were

    derived from the

    Psychomachia, an

    epic poem written

    by Prudentius

    Practicing these

    virtues is alledged

    to protect one

    against temptation

    toward the Seven

    Deadly Sins:

    humility against

    pride, kindness

    against envy,

    abstinence against

    gluttony, chastity

    against lust,

    patience against

    anger, liberality

    against greed, and

    diligence against


    The intense

    popularity of this

    work in the Middle

    Ages helped to

    spread the

    of holy virtue

    throughout Europe.

    Restraint is the

    keystone of the

    seven holy virtues.

    The other holy

    virtues are created

    through selfless


    Humility: Pursuit

    of Modesty

    Liberality: Pursuit

    of Will

    Abstinence: Pursuit

    of Giving

    Chastity: Pursuit

    of Courage and


    Diligence: Pursuit

    of Ethics

    Kindness: Pursuit

    of Charity

    Patience: Pursuit

    of Peace

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    PrudentiusContest of the Soul/Psychomachia

    Aurelius Pruden-

    tius Clemens was

    a Roman Christian

    poet, born in the

    Roman province of

    Tarraconensis (now

    Northern Spain)

    in 348.

    The poetry of

    Prudentius is

    influenced by early

    Christian authors,

    such as Tertullian

    and St. Ambrose,

    as well as the Bible

    and the acts of the

    martyrs. His hymn

    Da, puer, plectrum

    (including Corde

    natus ex parentis:

    Of the Fathers

    Love Begotten)

    and the hymn for

    Epiphany O sola

    magnarum urbium

    (Earth Has Many

    a Noble City),

    both from the

    Cathemerinon, are

    still in use today.

    The allegorical


    however, is his

    most influential

    work and became

    the inspiration

    and wellspring of

    medieval allegori-

    cal literature.

    The Psychoma-

    chia (Battle for

    Mansoul) by the

    Late Antique Latin

    poet Prudentius

    is probably the

    first and most

    influential pure

    medieval allegory

    he poem describes

    the conflict of

    vices and virtues

    as a battle in the

    style of Virgils


    Christian faith is

    attacked by and

    defeats pagan

    idolatry to be

    cheered by a

    thousand Christian


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