Self confidence and self-efficacy 2013

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Transcript of Self confidence and self-efficacy 2013

  • SelfConfidence The most consistent difference between elite and less successful athletes is that elite athletes possess greater self-confidence (Gould et al.)
  • Self-Confidence A global term or general term Belief that one has the internal resources, particularly abilities, to achieve success Rooted in beliefs and expectations (Advances in Sport Psychology, Thelma S. Horn, 2008)
  • Self-Efficacy Bandura put forward the notion that as people become competent in particular skills and situations they develop a feeling of selfefficacy. Self-efficacy is self confidence in a specific situation. The expectation that they will be competent and successful in a particular task Self-efficacy can effect the choice of activity, the amount of effort expended and persistence at the task.
  • Self efficacy is different from self confidence. Someone may be generally self confident in sport but when it came to playing golf which they werent particularly good at, they may have low self efficacy in that situation. Self-Efficacy
  • Bandura Suggested: People with High Self-Efficacy; Seek challenges approach behaviour Attribute success to internal factors such as ability and effort The above would elevate confidence and increase expectation of success in next challenge Where have we heard this type of description before??
  • Bandura suggested: People with low Self-Efficacy; Adopt avoidance behaviour Give up easily and become anxious when task is difficult They attribute failure to internal factors The above would decrease confidence and reduce expectation of success in next challenge and induce learned helplessness Mmm, where have I heard this before?
  • Task Vealeys Theory of Sport Confidence Banduras Theory of Self-efficacy Your table will be allocated a theory above to investigate You are to produce a colourful and interesting factsheet and prepare to teach another group about your theory You will have 30min to prepare and 15 min to produce your fact sheet Teaching your work will take 20 minutes and then you will feedback to your table about what you have learned (10 -15 min)
  • Banduras Theory of SelfEfficacy ..in more detail
  • Task 1 Write down 5 situations in sport where you feel a low sense of self efficacy. How do you account for these feelings of low self confidence? E.g.s In football, a midfielder having to play in goal. A male having to play in a netball game.
  • Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy Our expectations of self-efficacy depend on 4 types of information: 1. Performance accomplishments a) b) These probably have the strongest influence on self confidence. If success has been experienced in the past, then feelings of self confidence are likely to be high
  • Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy 2. Vicarious experiences a) b) This refers to what we have observed before. (Better if performer is of same ability level) If we watch others perform and be successful, then we are more likely to experience high self efficacy.
  • Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy 3. Verbal persuasion a) If we are encouraged to try a particular activity, our confidence in that situation may increase.
  • Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy 4. Emotional arousal a) Our perceptions of how aroused we are can effect our confidence in a particular situation.
  • Performance accomplishments Vicarious experiences Verbal persuasion Emotional arousal Efficacy Expectations Behaviour patterns Choice Goals Effort Worry Persistence Attributions Performance
  • You would like a fellow student to attempt a high jump but he has low self confidence. Using Banduras four factors which influence selfefficacy, state how you would try and raise the athletes self efficacy in this situation.
  • Try to give him initial success by lowering the bar to start with or using some flexi rope Demonstrate how it can be done, or if you are much better than him, use someone of a similar ability Verbally encourage the athlete. Tell him that he should have a go. Tell him that to be worried is a natural, very positive response because it prepares the body well
  • How do we increase our Self-Efficacy? - Summary Banduras Self Efficacy Theory Previous Accomplishments 1. 2. Reminder of previous success in skill (practical) Vicarious Experiences 3. Watching others perform the skill Verbal Persuasion 4. Convincing athlete of their ability to perform the skill Emotional Control Evaluation of physical state
  • Vealeys Sport Specific Model of Sport Confidence Vealey defines sports confidence as the belief or degree of certainty individuals possess about their ability to be successful in sport.
  • Sports confidence theory Sports Confidence Theory measures 2 Factors TRAIT SPORT CONFIDENCE Its innate and described as a natural disposition Relatively stable Is the amount of confidence a person has in their overall sports ability STATE SPORT CONFIDENCE Is the degree of confidence in a specific situation i.e. taking a penalty Can be developed through learning and is unstable and changeable.
  • State Sports Confidence has immediate impact on the skill which is to be performed e.g. determines quality of the penalty kick. The degree of State Confidence is determined by the interaction of 3 factors: 1. Trait Sports Confidence 2. The objective Sports Situation 3. The performers Competitive Orientation The Objective Sport Situation Trait Sports Confidence Competitive Orientation State Sports Confidence
  • Sport Specific Model of Sports Confidence 1 Trait sport confidence (SCtrait) 1 2 5 3 Positive results increase trait confidence 4 The Sport Situation 1 Competitive Orientation State sport confidence (SCstate) Performance in the sport situation (behavioural responses) a)Results of Performance b) Subjective Outcomes c)Perceived Success d)Perceived attributions e)Performance satisfactions Positive results cause the type of goal to be changed for the next 6 performance
  • Practical Example of Vealeys Sport Specific model of Sports Confidence. 1. The sports situation is a cricketer going into bat with the score at 250 for 1 (very good situation). 2. SC-trait = High confidence due to a high score in the previous game. 3. Competitive orientation = The batsman has an outcome goal of scoring 40 runs. If he gets any less than that he would consider it a failure.
  • 3. 4. The combination of the previous factors (1) would determine the SC-state, which in this case would be very high. The combination of 1 and 2 would determine how well the cricketer will perform. In this case the chances are that he will perform quite well considering the previous factors.
  • 4. Depending on how well the cricketer performed (3) the following factors will be evaluated after the match. a. Results of performance (was he successful or not according to his goal) b. Subjective outcome (How did other people rate the performance) c. Perceived Success (whether the goal was met or not, did he feel like he succeeded?) d. Perceived Attribution (Why did he perform well / badly. Was it internal / external reasons e. Performance satisfaction (Was he happy with the performance)
  • 5. If the outcomes of 3 and 4 were positive then this will lead to an increase in trait confidence 6. If the goals that were set in 1 were met, the cricketer will change the goal next time around. The cricketers last outcome goal was to score 40 runs. If he scored 80 in the previous innings then this goal would be increased to say 50 or 60. 7. If he failed to meet his 40 run target then this would stay the same for the next innings.
  • EFFECTS OF A SUCESSFUL OUTCOME 1. Trait sports confidence and competitiveness will increase 1. Trait sports confidence and competitiveness will decrease 2. Increased trait confidence will increase state confidence for future competition 2. Decreased trait confidence will decrease state confidence for future competition
  • The variations in the levels of trait sports confidence and competitiveness orientation produces the following effect. . . A Decrease in trait sports confidence and competitiveness will: An increase in trait confidence and competitiveness will: Depress state confidence Eleva