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  • 1. CHAPTER FOURConsumer Motivation

2. Learning Objectives1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and Motives and the Meaning of Goals.2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation, Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals.3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs Developed by Researchers.4. To Understand How Human Motives Are Studied and Measured.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 2 3. Motivation as a Psychological Force Motivation is thedriving force withinindividuals that impelsthem to action. Needs are the essenceof the marketingconcept. Marketers donot create needs butcan make consumersaware of needs.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 3 4. Model of the Motivation Process Figure 4.2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 4 5. Types of Needs Innate Needs Physiological (or biogenic) needs that areconsidered primary needs or motives Acquired Needs Learned in response to our culture orenvironment. Are generally psychological andconsidered secondary needsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 5 6. Goals The sought-after results of motivatedbehavior Generic goals are general categories of goalsthat consumers see as a way to fulfill theirneeds Product-specific goals are specifically brandedproducts or services that consumers select astheir goalsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 6 7. How Does this Ad Appeal to Ones Goals?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 7 8. It Appeals to Several PhysicalAppearance-related goals.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 8 9. The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend ontheir: Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goals accessibility in the physical and socialenvironmentCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 9 10. Discussion Questions What are three generic goals you have set foryourself in the past year? What are three product-specific goals you have set inthe past year? In what situations are these two related? How were these goals selected? Was it personalexperiences, physical capacity, or prevailing culturalnorms and values?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 10 11. Motivations and GoalsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 11 12. Bloggers Motivation - Table 4.1 (excerpt)ConstructItemsBlogging for I use my blog to free my mind when I am moody.self-I express myself by writing in my blog.expressing My blog is the place where I express what I feel.Blogging for I use my blog as my diary to document my life.life By writing text and posting video/audio files, I keep a record of my life.documentingBlogging for Im willing to comment on what other bloggers say.commenting Id like to respond to other blogs that I read (no matter if I know of the blogger or not). Id like to receive peoples comments on what I post on my blog.Blogging for Blogging helps me to make more like-minded friends.forumIn my blogroll I have friends with whom I can share things.participatingBy blogging I interact with a set of blogs that have contents similar to what I put in my blog.Blogging for Blogging helps me extract information behind events that interest me.informationBlogging helps me explore more information about products and/orseekingservices. To me it is convenient to search for information by blogging.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallChapter Four Slide 12 13. Rational versus Emotional Motives Rationality implies that consumers selectgoals based on totally objective criteria, suchas size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection ofgoals according to personal or subjectivecriteriaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 13 14. Discussion Questions What productsmight be purchasedusing rational andemotional motives? What marketingstrategies areeffective whenthere are combinedmotives?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 14 15. The Dynamics of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new andhigher goals for themselvesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 15 16. Substitute Goals Are used when a consumer cannot attain aspecific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy aneed The substitute goal will dispel tension Substitute goals may actually replace theprimary goal over timeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 16 17. Frustration Failure to achieve a goal may result infrustration. Some adapt; others adopt defensemechanisms to protect their ego.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 17 18. Defense Mechanisms- Table 4.2 (excerpt)ConstructItemsAggression In response to frustration, individuals may resort to aggressive behavior in attempting to protect their self-esteem. The tennis pro who slams his tennis racket to the ground when disappointed with his game or the baseball player who physically intimidates an umpire for his call are examples of such conduct. So are consumer boycotts of companies or stores.Rationalization People sometimes resolve frustration by inventing plausible reasonsfor being unable to attain their goals (e.g., not having enoughtime to practice) or deciding that the goal is not really worth pursuing(e.g., how important is it to achieve a high bowling score?).Regression An individual may react to a frustrating situation with childish or immature behavior. A shopper attending a bargain sale, for example, may fight over merchandise and even rip a garment that another shopper will not relinquish rather than allow the other person to have it.Withdrawal Frustration may be resolved by simply withdrawing from the situation. For instance, a person who has difficulty achieving officer status in an organization may decide he can use his time more constructively in other activities and simply quit that organization.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallChapter Four Slide 18 19. Arousal of Motives Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousalCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 19 20. How Does This AdArouse Ones Needs?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 20 21. The Ad Is Designed to Arouse Ones Yearningfor an Adventurous Vacation by Appealing to the Sense of TouchCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 21 22. Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives Behaviorist School Behavior is response to stimulus Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School Behavior is directed at goal achievement Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized,and transformed into attitudes and beliefsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 22 23. Types and Systems of Needs Henry Murrays 28 psychogenic needs Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs A trio of needsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 23 24. Murrays List of Psychogenic NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 24 25. Murrays List of Psychogenic Needs (continued)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 25 26. Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsFigure 4.10Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 26 27. To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 27 28. Both Physiological and Social NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 28 29. To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 29 30. Egoistic NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 30 31. To Which of Maslows Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 31 32. Self-ActualizationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 32 33. Discussion Questions What are three types of products related tomore then one level of Maslows Hierarchy ofNeeds? For each type of product, consider twobrands. How do marketers attempt todifferentiate their product from thecompetition?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 33 34. A Trio of Needs Power individuals desire to control environment Affiliation need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualizationneedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 34 35. To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 35 36. The Affiliation Needs Of Young, Environmentally Concerned AdultsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 36 37. To Which of the Trio of Needs Does This Ad Appeal?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 37 38. Affiliation NeedCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 38 39. Power And Achievement NeedsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 39 40. Measurement of Motives Researchers rely on a combination of techniques Qualitative research is widely used Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallChapter Four Slide 40 41. Qualitative Measures of Motives Table 4.7 (excerpt)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 41 42. Motivational Research Term coined in the 1950s by Dr. Ernest Dichter Based on premise that consumers are notalways aware of their motivations Identifies underlying feelings, attitudes, andemotionsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 42 43. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior writtenpermission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing asPrentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Four Slide 43