Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

of 35 /35
The Consumer Research Process CHAPTER TWO

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Page 1: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

The Consumer Research Process

CHAPTERTWO

Page 2: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Learning Objectives

1. To Understand the Importance of Consumer Research for Firms and Their Brands, as Well as Consumers.

2. To Understand the Steps in the Consumer Research Process.

3. To Understand the Importance of Establishing Specific Research Objectives as the First Step in the Design of a Consumer Research Project.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2Chapter Two Slide

Page 3: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Learning Objectives (continued)

4. To Understand the Purposes and Types of Secondary Consumer Research That Is Available for Making Decisions or Planning Future Consumer Research.

5. To Understand Specific Features and Applications of Different Research Methods to Be Carried Out in Consumer Research Studies.

6. To Understand Where Data Analysis and Reporting of Findings Fit in the Research Process.

7. To Understand How Each Element of the Consumer Research Process Adds to the Overall Outcome of the Research Study.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 3Chapter Two Slide

Page 4: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Why Do Marketers Regularly Test Print Ads Like This One Before They Are Placed in the Media?

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4Chapter Two Slide

Page 5: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

To Test the Impact of the Message Before Spending Large Amounts of Money

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5Chapter Two Slide

Page 6: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

The Importance of the Consumer Research Process

• Marketers must understand customers to design effective:– marketing strategies– products– promotional messages

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6Chapter Two Slide

Page 7: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

The Consumer Research ProcessFigure 2.2

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7Chapter Two Slide

Page 8: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

The Consumer Research Process

• Secondary research• Primary research– Qualitative– Quantitative

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8Chapter Two Slide

Page 9: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Developing Research Objectives

• Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design.

• A written statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9Chapter Two Slide

Page 10: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Discussion Questions

• Assume you are planning to open a new pizza restaurant near your campus. – What might be three objectives of a research plan

for your new business?– How could you gather these data?

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10Chapter Two Slide

Page 11: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Secondary Data

• Data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand

• Includes internal and external data

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11Chapter Two Slide

Page 12: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Types of Secondary Data

Internal Data• Data generated in-house• May include analysis of

customer files• Useful for calculating

customer lifetime value

External Data• Data collected by an outside

organization• Includes federal

government, periodicals, newspapers, books, search engines

• Commercial data is also available from market research firms

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12Chapter Two Slide

Page 13: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Discussion QuestionsPersonal Privacy

• Many people do not like the fact that their personal data are used for marketing.

• How can marketers justify their need for data?

• How can they acquire data and maintain customer privacy?

13Chapter Two SlideCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Page 14: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Designing Primary Research

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 14Chapter Two Slide

Page 15: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Qualitative Collection MethodDepth Interview

• Also called one-on-one interview• Usually 20 minutes to 1 hour• Nonstructured• Interviewer will often probe to get more

feedback (see following slide for probing)• Session is usually recorded

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15Chapter Two Slide

Page 16: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Probing Options for InterviewsFigure 2.3

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16Chapter Two Slide

Page 17: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Qualitative Collection Method Focus Group

• 8-10 participants• Respondents are recruited through a screener

questionnaire• Lasts about 2 hours• Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis• Often held in front of two-way mirrors• Online focus groups are growing

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17Chapter Two Slide

Page 18: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Discussion Guides for Research

• Step-by-step outline for depth interviews and focus groups

• Interviewers will often “improvise” and go beyond the discussion guide

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 18Chapter Two Slide

Page 19: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Focus Group Discussion Guide - Figure 2.4

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 19Chapter Two Slide

Page 20: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Qualitative Collection Method Projective Techniques

• Research procedures designed to identify consumers’ subconscious feelings and underlying motivations

• Consist of a variety of disguised “tests”

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 20Chapter Two Slide

Page 21: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Common Projective ExercisesTable 2.1 (excerpt)

Description

Word Associations

The researcher has a list of words, some of them to be studied and some just as “filler.” The researcher asks the respondent(s) to react, one-at-a time, to each word by stating or (in a focus group setting) writing on a pad the first word that comes to mind, and to explain the link.

SentenceCompletion

The researcher has a series of incomplete sentences that the respondent(s) needs to complete with a word or phrase.

Photo/Visual for Storytelling

The researcher creates/selects a series of photos of consumers, different brands or products, range of print ads, etc., to serve as stimuli. The respondents are asked to discuss or tell a story based on their response to a photo or some other visual stimulus.

Role Playing Is quite similar to storytelling; however, instead of telling a story, the participant(s) will be given a situation and asked to “act out” the role(s), often with regard to a product or brand, or particular selling situation.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 21Chapter Two Slide

Page 22: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Qualitative Collection Method Metaphor Analysis

• Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication

• Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 22Chapter Two Slide

Page 23: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Qualitative Collection Method “Looking-In”

• Look at information from threads and postings on social media, including blogs and discussion forums

• Methodology to capture consumers’ experiences, opinions, forecasts, needs, and interests

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 23Chapter Two Slide

Page 24: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Designing Primary Research

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 24Chapter Two Slide

Page 25: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Data Collection MethodsObservational Research

• Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products

• Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 25Chapter Two Slide

Page 26: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Data Collection Methods Mechanical Observational Research

• Uses mechanical or electronic device to record consumer behavior or response

• Consumers’ increased use of highly convenient technologies will create more records for marketers

• Audits are a type of mechanical observation which monitor sales

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 26Chapter Two Slide

Page 27: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Data Collection Methods Experimentation

• Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables

• An experiment is usually controlled with only some variables manipulated at a time while the others are constant

• Test markets are conducted on a single market area

• Experimentation can be conducted in laboratories or in the field

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 27Chapter Two Slide

Page 28: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Discussion Questions

• What might direct marketers test in experiments?

• How can they use the results?

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 28Chapter Two Slide

Page 29: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Data Collection Methods Table 2.2

Mail Telephone Personal Interview

Online

Cost Low Moderate High Low

Speed Slow Immediate Slow Fast

Response rate Low Moderate High Self-selected

Geographic flexibility

Excellent Good Difficult Excellent

Interviewer bias

N/A Moderate Problematic N/A

Interviewer Supervision

N/A Easy Difficult N/A

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 29Chapter Two Slide

Page 30: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Validity and Reliability

• If a study has validity, it collects the appropriate data for the study.

• A study has reliability if the same questions, asked of a similar sample, produce the same findings.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 30Chapter Two Slide

Page 31: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Attitude Scales

31Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide

Page 32: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Customer Satisfaction Measurement

• Customer Satisfaction Surveys– Analysis of

Expectations versus Experience

• Mystery Shoppers• Customer

Complaint Analysis

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 32Chapter Two Slide

Page 33: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Sampling and Data Collection

• Samples are a subset of the population used to estimate characteristics of the entire population.

• A sampling plan addresses:– Whom to survey– How many to survey– How to select them

• Researcher must choose probability or nonprobabililty sample.

Chapter Two SlideCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 33

Page 34: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

Data Analysis and Reporting Findings

• Open-ended questions are coded and quantified.

• All responses are tabulated and analyzed.• Final report includes executive summary,

body, tables, and graphs.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 34Chapter Two Slide

Page 35: Schiffman CB10 PPT 02

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

35Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide