Saving A Byte

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Transcript of Saving A Byte

  • 1.How to Save a Byte Information Technology Standards Electronic Records Management Conference Gina Strack Utah State Archives

2. 3. Introduction

  • The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archival records remain available, accessible, and understandable through time.
  • International Council on Archives, Electronic Records Workbook (2005)

4. Scope

  • WHAT (retention schedules)
  • WHY (the law)
  • HOW: Long-term preservation*
    • Requirements
    • Methods
    • Formats
  • *beyond the life of the original software or media, includes PERMANENT

5. Basic Requirements

  • authentic;
  • complete;
  • accessible and understandable;
  • processable; and
  • potentially reusable
  • Source: International Council on Archives

6. Authentic

  • The electronic record is what it claims to be
  • Examples
    • dates (creation, receipt)
    • applicable process
    • part of a larger system
  • Not a comment on content of record

7. Complete

  • Nothing added or removed inappropriately

8. Methods

  • Plan systems, technology, formats & specifications well
  • Be aware of available standards
  • Preservation vs. Access (more later)

9. Formats

  • The ideal preservation format is:
  • stable and standardized
  • free of patent rights (public domain)
  • as simple as possible
  • fully self-descriptive, not dependent on external sources
  • suitable for containing structured and self-selected metadata
  • fully documented (open specification)
  • not application or platform based, but easily exchangeable
  • used and implemented widely
  • easy to implement and to check for errors (validation)
  • Digitale Archivering in Vlaamse Instellingen en Diensten (DAVID) Project [Antwerp City Archives]

10. Images - TIFF

  • T aggedI mageF ileF ormat
  • Uncompressed or Lossless compression available
  • Widely supported
  • Independent of operating system
  • Documented specification
  • Large file sizes, end-users sometimes cannot view

11. Images - JPEG

  • Avoid if possible!
  • lossy compression = unrecoverable information
  • Small file size
    • derivative or access images

12. Preservation vs. Access

  • Separate standards and formats forseparate functions
  • Access methods (printing, copying, viewing on the web) change and will keep changing
  • Plan from beginning how to handle both

13. Text

  • Recommended
    • XML
    • XHTML, HTML
    • SGML
  • Acceptable
    • TXT
    • Word DOC
    • PDF
  • Library and Archives Canada. Guidelines for Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards

14. XML

  • Open international standard
  • Successor to HTML
  • Structured
  • Flexible, e X tensible
  • Programming and Formatting available (XQuery, XSLT, style sheets)

15. XML Examples

  • iTunes music and movie information
  • Medical records exchange
  • Transportation fleets
  • Online descriptions of Archives records (finding aids)
  • and thousands more

16. Reading XML

  • Harry Potter
  • J.K. Rowling

tags can be anything though often defined by industry- or platform-specific standards nested tags for structure 17. PDF

  • Preserves original layout & format
  • Proprietary (Adobe) though openly documented
  • Widespread use

18. PDF/A

  • International Standard
    • ISO 19005-1
  • Latest version July 10, 2006
  • Adopted by National Archives for permanent Federal records
  • Based on PDF 1.4 (~ Reader 5.0)
  • developed to allow PDF to be used as an archival format

19. Archives Digital Collections

  • Master TIFF
  • Display JPEG (smaller dimensions)
  • Metadata (description of content, creation & process) in XML

20. Summary

  • open standards
  • uncompressed
  • will not alter record
  • minimum tools/software to use

21. References

  • Brown, D. L. (2004). Library and Archives Canada: Guidelines on Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards.
  • International Council on Archives. (2005). Electronic records: A workbook for archivists.
  • National Archives. NARA Electronic Records Management (ERM) Guidance on the Web. http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/initiatives/erm-guidance.html
  • All references linked on Resources for Further Study on Archives Electronic Records web page:http://archives.utah.gov/main/index.php?module=Pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=201

22. Fine

  • Gina Strack
  • Utah State Archives
  • 801.531.3843
  • [email_address]