Roaring Twenties !
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Roaring Twenties !
Roaring Twenties !Joel VasquezTable of ContentsEconomicsSociety & Culture
Other WomenIn much of the U.S., women only read about flappers in magazines, and many disapproved of flappers or wouldnt dare to be so reckless.Some older womens rights reformers thought flappers were only interested in fun.Many did not take flappers seriously.One popular image that reflects changes for women in the Roaring Twenties was the flapper, a young woman of the era who defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior. FlappersFlappers shocked society by cutting their hair, raising hemlines, wearing makeup, smoking, drinking, and dancing.The dress style was popular among young, rebellious girls..The term flapper suggested an independent, free lifestyle.Flappers mostly lived in cities, though rural people read about them in magazines.The flapper craze took hold mainly in American cities, but in many ways the flappers represented the rift between cities and rural areas.Effects of UrbanizationThough the 1920s was a time of great economic opportunities for many, farmers did not share in the prosperity.Farming took a hard hit after World War I, when demand for products went down and many workers moved to industrialized cities.The 1920 census showed that for the first time ever, more Americans lived in cities than in rural areas, and three-fourths of all workers worked somewhere other than a farm.The rise of the automobile helped bring the cities and the country together, and rural people were now likely to spend time in town and were less isolated.Education also increased, and by the 1920s many states passed laws requiring children to attend school, helping force children out of workplaces.
School attendance and enrollment increased as industry grew because more people could afford to send their children to school, not to work.
Conflicts over ValuesAmericans lived in larger communities, which produced a shift in values, or a persons key beliefs and ideas.In the 1920s, many people in urban areas had values that differed from those in rural areas.Rural America represented the traditional spirit of hard work, self-reliance, religion, and independence.Cities represented changes that threatened those values.The Ku Klux Klan grew dramatically in the 1920s, and many of its members were people from rural America who saw their status declining.Members of the Klan continued to use violence, targeting African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and all immigrants.In the 1920s, the Klan focused on influencing politics.The Klans membership was mostly in the South but spread nationwide.The Klans peak membership was in the millions, many from Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio.Membership declined in the late 1920s because of a series of scandals affecting Klan leaders.Prohibition in PracticeEnforcing the new Prohibition law proved to be virtually impossible, as making, transporting, and selling alcohol was illegal, but drinking it was not.Prohibition gave rise to huge smuggling operations, as alcohol slipped into the country through states like Michigan on the Canadian border.Newspapers followed the hunt for bootleggers, or liquor smugglers, but government officials estimated that in 1925 they caught only 5 percent of all the illegal liquor entering the country.Many people also made their own liquor using homemade equipment, and others got alcohol from doctors, who could prescribe it as medicine.The illegal liquor business was the foundation of great criminal empires, like Chicago gangster Al Capones crew, who smashed competition, then frightened and bribed police and officials.3,000 Prohibition agents nationwide worked to shut down speakeasies, or illegal bars, and to capture illegal liquor and stop gangsters.Millions of Americans violated the laws, but it would be many years before Prohibition came to an end.In 1919 - more than 3,600 strikesA general strike in Seattle, Washington, nearly paralyzed the city, and U.S. Marines were sent in to restore order. The strike failed.The greatest single labor action, also ended in failure, was the Great Steel Strike in January 1920. It involved 350,000 steelworkers in several Midwestern states.FAILURESSteel mill owners, political leaders, and newspapers accused the strikers of being linked with radicals and turned against the workers. Strikers were called radicals and violent, and the business leaders, political leaders and newspapers turned against the workers, leading to the decline in the union movement.Racial Unrest1917 Race riots occurred in Houston, Philadelphia, and East St. Louis.1919 White mobs terrorized black communities from Texas to Washington, D.C.In Chicago, a white mob stoned a black swimmer to death who had strayed into the white section of the beach. 38 more people were killed in the violence that followed.Since 1890, thousands of blacks died in lynchings in the South. NAACPNational Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleBegin an anti-lynching campaign, asking Congress to make lynching a federal crime. The Senate refused.NAACP continues to use the courts to attack segregation, disenfranchisement, and lynchings, winning few victories. The RED SCAREFears brought on by strikes and race riots, were often blamed on foreigners.Fear in particular of Communism - a system in which property is owned by society as a whole instead of by individuals.1917 - The Communist victory in the Russian Revolution. In 1919, now the Soviet Union, begins to export revolution around the world.Americans blame revolutionaries for the troubles here.Radios & Automobiles Make An EntranceThe radio and the automobile influenced daily life in many different ways. The radio provided a source of entertainment to the people of America who were gaining more free time due to labor movements. The automobile made transportation easier and increased the amount of time that families spent together. In the 1920s only twenty-thousand people received wireless radio messages. As an experiment, Frank Conrad of the Westinghouse Company began to broadcast recorded music and baseball scores over the radio. He received such a great response that the company began broadcasting programs on a regular basis. By the fall of 1920, the country had its first commercially operated radio station, Pittsburghs KDKA. By 1922, over five hundred stations had formed with a quarter of them being controlled by newspapers. Networks such as the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) brought together many individual stations in order to play much of the same programming on different radio stations. Soon much of the country was able to hear the same jokes, commercials, and music at the same time.Thanks to the automobile many different Americans were able to particularize their lifestyles in their own way. Because of Henry Ford, who invented the automobile, he made it possible to expand the United States industries thus influencing the 1920s. Many people who were not wealthy were able to travel great distances if they chose to. Because of this the government built new road systems, parks and beaches for people of all economical statues. These developments helped the economy by stimulating the construction, rubber, gasoline, and petroleum, advertising, and tourist industries. Thanks to Henry Ford and his automobile we have made great strides in society.
Movies Take the Center StageThe arrival of major film companies and entertainment advances created new and distinct subcultures in America during the 1920s. Films blossomed during this era expanding upon the foundations from earlier years. Most of the US films of the decade were made in or near Hollywood on the West Coast. Throughout the majority of the decade, silent films were the most popular having evolved from vaudevillian roots.Many new film studios emerged. There were major studios that became known as the Big Five Studios. Those five were: Warner Bros. Pictures, which was incorporated in 1923 by the Warner brothers, MGM, first named Metro-Golfwyn Pictures former in 1924, RKO (Radio-Keith-Orpheum Pictures), which went into business in 1928 as a subsidiary of RCA, Famous Players, which formed in 1916, and Fox Film Corporation which later became known as 20th Century Fox, and was formed through a merger in 1935.Movie palaces also began to arise everywhere. The Grauman Chinese Theater, seated 3,300 people. This theater opened in 1914 in New York City and marked the beginning of an age of the movie palaces. New subcultures of actors and actresses arised as movies were being filmed more and more frequently. Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford were two of the biggest silent movie stars of the era. Mary Pickfords marriage to Douglas Fairbanks Sr. in March of 1920 was a major cultural event. As a wedding gift, she was presented with the Pickfair a twenty-two room palatial mansion in Beverly Hills. This made the start of the movement of stars to lavish homes in West Hollywood and the making of Hollywood royalty. There had previously been no clearly visible distinction between the rich and poor people of America. Movies and entertainment brought upon great cultural changes. The stars that appeared in silent pictures became known specifically for that and will always be remembered as the great stars of that decade. Without movies and entertainment advances, we would not have the Hollywoodness of society today. The 1920s film stars were clearly paving the way for the great stars to come.
Medical Advances The Invention of PenicillinDiscovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928Was discovered when trying to find a way to kill bacteriaCompleted in 1940 by British scientistsDerived from the fungus PenicilliumActs by killing bacteria and inhibiting their growthDoes not kill organisms at a resting stageSide effects may include allergic reactions which can be detectedCollected 25 Honorary DegreesCollected 26 MedalsCollected 18 Prizes
Society Embraces the AutomobileCar sales soon went through the roof, as the public came to realize the benefits of an automobile. Auto-touring (vacationing) became extremely popular, with campsites and filling stations springing up around America. . . . As the end of the decade neared, Ford and Chevrolet locked horns in a fierce pricing battle that continued through the Thirties. Other automakers, such as Cadillac, Packard, and Chrysler, began to have an impact on the market. . . . Alas, the end of the 20's saw the stock market crash. The crash forced many smaller, obscure makers to close their doors and declare bankruptcy. Some companies soldiered on into the Thirties and Forties, but eventually faded from the scene. Few companies have survived to modern times, but those that have are some of the world's leaders in production and sales today. http://yourpage.blazenet.net/keimpjad/autosindex.htm or http://20sautos.cjb.net
1. This document belongs to standard 11.5.7. Discuss the rise of mass production techniques, the growth of cities, the impact of new technologies (e.g. the automobile, electricity), and the results in prosperity and the effect on American landscape. 2. This document is a good example of the 1920s and the standard described above because when the automobile became more widely used, more and more companies began to compete for the business of auto-buying customers. This led a great conflict in the business aspect of things. With so many new companies arising, the older and newer companies were constantly battling for profit. This led to a stock market crash and the bankruptcy of many companies. 3. This document falls under the main idea of technological change influencing daily life because the automobile made life easier for the consumers of America, but more difficult for the dealers that were trying to make it in business. The automobile manufacturers had to struggle continually to keep their business.4. This resource fulfills my purposes for choosing it because it talks about the advancements of modern technology in the form of the automobile and its effect on the consumers as well as the producers of the automobile.
Objective: To analyze the effect the car had on U.S. society.
1927 Ford Model T
The following industries grew as a result of the booming car industry:
construction (roads and bridges)steelrubberglasspaintoilhousing (as the suburbs grew)* Employment and the standard of living increased.* As World War I ended, technology focused on consumer goods. Ex) radios, washing machines, telephones, and cars* An increase in wages caused an increase in buying power.
1925 RCA Radiola Super VIII