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  • RIVERBANK FILTRATION

  • Water Science and Technology Library

    VOLUME 43

    Editor-in-Chief

    V. P. Singh, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, U.S.A.

    Editorial Advisory Board

    M. Anderson, Bristol, U.K.L. Bengtsson, Lund, Sweden

    J. F. Cruise, Huntsville, U.S.A.U. C. Kothyari, Roorkee, IndiaS.E. Serrano, Lexington, U.S.A.

    D. Stephenson, Johannesburg, South AfricaW.G. Strupczewski, Warsaw, Poland

    The titles published in this series are listed at the end of this volume.

  • RIVERBANK FILTRATION

    Improving Source-Water Quality

    edited by

    CHITTARANJAN RAYUniversity of Hawaii at Mnoa,

    Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

    GINA MELINNational Water Research Institute,Fountain Valley, California, U.S.A.

    and

    RONALD B. LINSKYNational Water Research Institute,Fountain Valley, California, U.S.A.

    in collaboration with

    NWRI National Water Research Institute

    Fountain Valley, California, U.S.A.

    KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERSNEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW

  • eBook ISBN: 0-306-48154-5Print ISBN: 1-4020-1133-4

    2003 Kluwer Academic PublishersNew York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow

    Print 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers

    All rights reserved

    No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher

    Created in the United States of America

    Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.comand Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com

    Dordrecht

  • Acknowledgements

    This book is the direct result of the many excellent presentations and ideas brought forwardat the International Riverbank Filtration Conference, held by the National Water ResearchInstitute in cooperation with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, LouisvilleWater Company, and Cincinnati Water Works, in November 1999. The efforts of the followingindividuals are gratefully acknowledged.

    Editors

    Chittaranjan Ray, Ph.D., P.E.University of Hawaii at MnoaHonolulu, Hawaii, United States

    Gina MelinNational Water Research InstituteFountain Valley, California, United States

    Ronald B. LinskyNational Water Research InstituteFountain Valley, California, United States

    Contributors

    Harish Arora, Ph.D., P.E.OBrien & Gere Engineers, Inc.Landover, Maryland, United States

    Kay BallLouisville Water CompanyLouisville, Kentucky, United States

    William P. Ball, Ph.D., P.E.Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore, Maryland, United States

    Philippe Baveye, Ph.D.Laboratory for Environmental GeophysicsCornell UniversityIthaca, New York, United States

    v

  • vi

    Philip Berger, Ph.D.Ijamsville, Maryland, United States

    Edward J. Bouwer, Ph.D.Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore, Maryland, United States

    Jrg E. Drewes, Ph.D.Colorado School of MinesGolden, Colorado, United States

    Rolf Gimbel, Ph.D.IWW Rheinisch-Westflisches Institut fr WasserforschungInstitut an der Gerhard-Mercator-Universitt DuisburgMlheim a.d. Ruhr, Germany

    William D. GollnitzGreater Cincinnati Water WorksCincinnati, Ohio, United States

    Thomas Grischek, Ph.D.Institute for Water ChemistryDresden University of TechnologyDresden, Germany

    Alison M. Gusses, M.S.University of CincinnatiCincinnati, Ohio, United States

    David L. Haas, P.E.Jordan, Jones, and GouldingAtlanta, Georgia, United States

    Thomas Heberer, Ph.D.Institute of Food ChemistryTechnical University of BerlinBerlin, Germany

    Stephen Hubbs, P.E.Louisville Water CompanyLouisville, Kentucky, UnitedStates

    Henry Hunt, CPGCollector Wells International, Inc.Columbus, Ohio, United States

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii

    Ronald B. LinskyNational Water Research InstituteFountain Valley, California, United States

    Hans-Joachim Mlzer, Ph.D.IWW Rheinisch-Westflisches Institut fr WasserforschungInstitut an der Gerhard-Mercator-Universitt DuisburgMlheim a.d. Ruhr, Germany

    Ilkka Miettinen, Ph.D.National Public Health InstituteDivision of Environmental HealthKuopio, Finland

    Gina MelinNational Water Research InstituteFountain Valley, California, United States

    Till Merkel, M.Sc.DVGW Water Technology CenterKarlsruhe, Germany

    Charles OMelia, Ph.D., P.E.Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore, Maryland, United States

    Chittaranjan Ray, Ph.D., P.E.University of Hawaii at MnoaHonolulu, Hawaii, United States

    Michael J. Robison, P.E.Jordan, Jones, and GouldingAtlanta, Georgia, United States

    Traugott Scheytt, Ph.D.Technical University of BerlinBerlin, Germany

    Jack Schijven, Ph.D.National Institute of Public Health and the EnvironmentMicrobiological Laboratory for Health ProtectionBilthoven, The Netherlands

    Dagmar Schoenheinz, M.Sc.Institute of Water ChemistryDresden University of TechnologyDresden, Germany

  • viii

    Jrgen Schubert, M.Sc.Stadtwerke Dsseldorf AGDsseldorf, Germany

    Thomas F. Speth, Ph.D., P.E.United States Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnati, Ohio, United States

    R. Scott Summers, Ph.D.University of ColoradoBoulder, Colorado, United States

    Ingrid M. Verstraeten, Ph.D.United States Geological SurveyBaltimore, Maryland, United States

    Jack Wang, Ph.D.Louisville Water CompanyLouisville, Kentucky, United States

    W. Joshua WeissJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore, Maryland, United States

    Graphic Design

    Tim HoganTim Hogan GraphicsWestminster, California, United States

  • Table of Contents

    RIVERBANK FILTRATION: IMPROVING SOURCE-WATER QUALITY

    IntroductionC. Ray, Ph.D., P.E.,J. Schubert, M.Sc., R.B. Linsky, and G. Melin

    What is Riverbank Filtration?Historical SignificanceUnrecognized RBF PlantsSimilarities Between RBF and Slow Sand FiltrationSurface-Water Contaminants of ConcernCase Studies of Log Removal Credit in the United StatesThe Value of Applying RBF as a Pretreatment Technology

    Part I: Systems

    Chapter 1: Conceptual Design of Riverbank Filtration SystemsH. Hunt, CPG, J. Schubert, M.Sc., and C. Ray, Ph.D., P.E.

    IntroductionWell Types and the Suitability of Vertical Versus

    Horizontal Collector WellsEvolution of the Design of Horizontal Collector Wells

    Chapter 2: American Experience in Installing Horizontal Collector WellsH. Hunt, CPG

    IntroductionTimelineHistorical ProgressionCollector Well ConstructionHydrogeological Investigation/TestingDesign and Construction Details

    Chapter 3: German Experience with Riverbank Filtration SystemsJ. Schubert, M.Sc.

    IntroductionRiver Characteristics for Siting RBFFlow Dynamics of Rivers and the River/Aquifer InteractionField Studies on RBF Hydraulic Aspects

    Chapter 4: Riverbank Filtration Construction Options Consideredat Louisville, KentuckyS. Hubbs, P.E.,K. Ball, D.L. Haas, P.E., and M.J. Robison, P.E.

    IntroductionSite ConditionsSite Hydraulic CharacteristicsSoft-Soil Tunnel OptionHard-Rock Tunnel Option with Horizontal Collector WellsHard-Rock Tunnel Option with Vertical WellsConventional Collector Well DesignConstruction Cost Estimate NotesEvaluation of Alternatives

    1

    19

    29

    35

    49

    ix

  • x

    Chapter 5: Operation and Maintenance ConsiderationsH. Hunt, CPG, J. Schubert, M.Sc., and C. Ray, Ph.D., P.E.

    IntroductionSelect Operating Wells in the United StatesSelect Operating Wells in GermanyOther ApplicationsConclusion

    Part II: Contaminant Removal

    Chapter 6: Removal of Pathogens, Surrogates, Indicators, and ToxinsUsing Riverbank FiltrationJ. Schijven, Ph.D., P. Berger, Ph.D., and I. Miettinen, Ph.D.

    IntroductionWhy RBF for Microbial Pathogens?Pathogen Occurrence in Surface WaterHealth EffectsOutbreaks Related to the Use of Riverbank-Filtered

    Drinking WaterRequired Treatment of Surface Water for Drinking-Water

    Production in the United States, Finland, andThe Netherlands: Implications for RBF Treatment

    Hydrology and HydrogeologyMicroorganism Removal by RBF: ProcessesSurrogate Microorganisms and Other IndicatorsRemoval by RBF and Artificial InfiltrationCyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Riverbank Filtration Case Study at Louisville, KentuckyJ. Wang, Ph.D.

    IntroductionPrevious Studies Conducted at Louisville, KentuckyDescription of the RBF FacilityDetermination of Water Time Travel and Groundwater DilutionNOM and Disinfection Byproduct Precursor RemovalRemoval of Microbial ContaminantsSummary

    Chapter 8: Reduction in Disinfection Byproduct Precursors and PathogensDuring Riverbank Filtration at Three Midwestern United StatesDrinking-Water UtilitiesW.J. Weiss, E.J. Bouwer, Ph.D., W.P. Ball, Ph.D., P.E., C.R. OMelia, Ph.D., P.E.,H. Arora, Ph.D., P.E., and T.F. Speth, Ph.D., P.E.

    IntroductionSite DescriptionsInorganic MonitoringMicrobial MonitoringDisinfection Byproduct Formation Potential TestingSimulated Conventional TreatmentUniform Formation Conditions TestingRisk Calculations for Disinfection Byproduct Formation DataConclusions

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    73

    117

    147

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS xi

    Chapter 9: Occurrence, Characteristics, Transport, and Fate of Pesticides,Pharmaceuticals, Industrial Products, and Personal Care Productsat Riverbank Filtration SitesI.M. Verstraeten, Ph.D., T. Heberer, Ph.D., and T. Scheytt, Ph.D.

    IntroductionPhysical and Chemical Characteristics

    of Selected Classes of OrganicsThe Presence of Pesticides, Pharmaceuticals, Industrial Products,

    and Personal Care Products in Riverbank-Filtered WaterCase StudiesConclusions

    Chapter 10: Effectiveness of Riverbank Filtration Sitesto Mitigate Shock LoadsH. Mlzer, Ph.D., J. Schubert, M.Sc., R. Gimbel, Ph.D.,and C.Ray, Ph.D., P.E.

    IntroductionExperience Ga