River basin management Rhine river basin Mark Wiering Political Sciences of the Environment (Faculty...
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River basin management Rhine river basinMark Wiering Political Sciences of the Environment(Faculty of Management Sciences)
The River RhineRhein (in Germany ) Rijn (in Dutch) Waal Nederrijn IjsselFrance ; RhinSuisse: Rein, Rhy and Rhing (re/ ri = to flow)
RhineSprings at the Suisse AlpsImportant tributaries: Moselle river (left) and right: Neckar, Main, Lahn, Sieg, Ruhr, Lippe1320 km (fourth river of Europe, after Volga, Danube, Dnieper) Waterway, river ecosystem, also border between countries Suisse and Austria; Suisse and Germany, France and Germany (sometimes at war)
International Co-operation for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR)Problems:Chemical pollutionFrom industriesFrom agricultureSalination (salt), (French salt mines)Temperature of the Rhine (also climate change!)General ecology of the Rhine ecosystem(later Flooding issues)
Development of the Rhine regimeFive turning points (Dieperink, 1998):1949: first informal consultative body for Rhine river basin (initiative of Netherlands and Suisse)Treaty of Bern (1963): formalising co-operationMinisterial Conference riparian states Rhine (1972)1976: The Rhine Treaties on chloride and chemical pollution1986 : Rhine Action Program/ new Treaty on the protection of the Rhine
Characteristics of the regimeGenerally viewed as succesful co-operation. Why?From bilateral conflicts to the river basin as a whole: increases problem symmetryIncreasing knowledge of river basin, ecology, creating epistemic community, professionalisation of involved partiesIncreasing homogeneity of societal values
Characteristics of the regimepart 2Options for trade offs in negotiationA downstream state (NL) that is active and alert, and that has something to offer Financial compensation, or otherwise compensationSafe platform for knowlegde exchange and political negotiationComprehensive regime: all of the basin, and different topics discussed.
What is River basin Management?
Three ambitions 1. Integrating elements of the water systemWater quality- water quantity Flooding and droughtGround water Surface water Water chain management= Internal integration
What is River basin Management?
2. water management and other policy fieldsWater management and land useWater management and recreationWater management and housing Water management and nature, etc.
Policy fields: Spatial planning; agriculture; housing; nature conservation
= External integration
What is River basin Management?
3. Cross border water management- geographical borders- administrative borders (regions, administrations)
rivers are not impressed by geographical boundariesButAdministrations do not always care much about rivers
=cross border integration
RBM and institutionsRBM = a policy concept (the three ambitions; part of new discourse) RBM = new rules of the gameRBM = new policy organisations? RBM = new policy resources?
Reasons for RivercrossWhy co-operation in water management?Safety issues/ Flooding management/ Risk Management Water quality issues and Hydro-morphology in River Basin Management[Water Framework Directive][Flooding Management Directive?]Nature conservation/ Landscape/Spatial Planning/Tourism?
Partners in Rivercross (2)Netherlands-Germany: Water quality (Twente) River restoration (UDE) Flooding (Nijmegen)
Objectives of RivercrossTo investigate success and failure of regional cross-border co-operation throughout EuropeTo improve scientific knowledge on the determinants of successful cross-border co-operationTo formulate policy advice on how to improve cross-border river basin managementTo exchange experiences in cross-border river basin management and to build networks of water managers
Analysis using the policy arrangements approach (2)ActorsInterests of these actors (both water related as well as other interests)Resources of these actors (money, knowledge, manpower etc)LegislationPolitical culture (policy styles, organisational styles)Discourse (policy concepts used)
Regional cross-border co-operation in the river RhineAn example
Gelderland-North Rhine Westphalia border areaRiver Rhine Dutch-German cross-border area
New initiatives after flood threats of 1995International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine installs Working Group on Flooding
Regional Dutch-German Working Group on High Water
Working Group High WaterDutch participantsProvince GelderlandRijkswaterstaat Eastern NetherlandsWaterschap RivierenlandUnion of Dutch River MunicipalitiesRIZA
German participantsDep. Environment NRWDistrict DsseldorfLUA NRWStUA KrefeldKreis ClevesUnion of Deichverbnde
Activities of the Working GroupJoint researchEffects of extremely high water on Lower RhineCross-border coordination of measures to reduce flood risks Risk analysis of cross-border dike rings at the Lower RhineCommunicationRegular meetingsMagazineTwo yearly conferenceJoint projectsMight be started in the future
Extent of co-operation in the Working GroupExtent of co-operation in the Working GroupDifficult to judge effects on flood protectionConsiderable output (research, communication)Participants opinion: high levels of satisfaction
Possibilities for improvementNo focus on related issues yet (e.g. disaster management)No joint projects yet
Helpful regarding the Dutch policy arrangementPositive:Dutch organisations share the water system with their upstream neighbours from North Rhine Westphalia and depend on the organisations from North Rhine WestphaliaLarge availability of resources especially money and manpowerGerman knowledge is made available for Dutch organisationsCross-border co-operation has always been an important theme in the Netherlands
Helpful regarding the NRW Policy ArrangementPositive:The organisations in North Rhine Westphalia are dependent on the organisations in upstream German states and stress a discourse of solidarity between upstream and downstream neighboursCooperation with the Dutch also makes it possible for them to strengthen their position by using Dutch resources (especially knowledge, but also money and manpower)
the NRW Policy Arrangement (2)
Problematic:There is no representative from the Federal Navigation AuthorityLow availability of resources especially money and manpower
Differences and similarities between Policy ArrangementsPositive:Similar policy styles in both countriesLarge similarities between the national discourses (Space for the River)
ProblematicLarge differences between legal frameworks (e.g. expropriation is much more difficult in Germany)
characteristics of the initative itself (Working Group)Positive:All organisations have a regional backgroundLow involvement of politiciansPreference to discuss technical topicsInformal meeting habits during co-operation
Problematic:Low involvement of politiciansIn formal legal status / restricted mandate
FazitCo-operation is easier when differences between the countries involved are not too big (similar arrangements)
Start with low profile co-operationLow level of engagement of politiciansPriority for technical topics
Stress shared interestsTry to contact organisations with a similar regional backgroundMake knowledge, money and other resources available for organisations in the other country
Carefully create a discourse that stresses the importance of cross-border co-operation
**********FlessehalsNatuurgebied Ooijpolder/ Millingerwaard en DuffeltWoningbouw/ Waalsprong en herinrichting West ************