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    (J))..1 " ~ 1.:p.~~Lateral Arm Raises 9- .

    I;:"'-:\ ',- ~ h' Position: Stand erect with your feet shoulder width apart~ { \ C5.;T L... V with toes pointing outward.Grip: Have palms facing the body and the dumbells at thesides.Action: Lift the dumbells directly sideways, going overthe head to where the dumbells will meet. Return to thestarting position and repeat. Keep your elbows slight1y bent.Muscles strengthened: Shoulder(middle and anteriordeltoids, and serratus anterior) and back(trapezius).G

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    -~ eMif'~ J~Forward Arm RaisesPosition: Stand erect with your feet shoulderwidth apartwith toes pointed outward.Grip: Have your palms facing the body and thedumbells in front of your thighs.Action: Elevate one arm forward till that armis straight over your shoulder. Lower slowly tothe starting position. Repeat with the other arm.Muscles Strengthened: Shoulder(middleand anterior deltoid and serratus anterior) andback (trapezius).

    ~ 7~~ ~~~ ..I

    Position: Stanq erect with your feet shoulder width apartand toes pointing outward.Grip: Pronated grip with the dumbells at your side.Action: Move the dumbells behind you and upward asfar as possible without bending at the trunk or hips. Lowerthe weights slowly to the starting position and repeat.Muscles strengthened: Shoulder(teres major and pos-terior deltoid) and back(latissimus dorsi, rhomboids andmiddle trapezius).

    Backward 2Arm Raises --


    ,{J@ '-"~Bent Over Lateral Arm RaisesPosition: Stand with your feet shoulder widthapart and bend over at the waist until the torsois parallel to the f1oorGrip: Hold the dumbells in front of you withpalms facing each other.

    Action: Raise your arms sideways as high aspossible. Lower slowly and repeat.Muscles Strengthened: Shoulder(posteriordeltoid) and back(trapezius aand latissimusdorsi).



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    ~ 1"c ~,::::' -~, 1'-


    Sit-ups Position: Lie down on your back and bend your knees at about a 30 degree angle. Crossyour arms, touching your left shoulder with your right hand and your right shoulder withyour left hand.Action: Curl your torso up until your elbows touch your knees. Return in the oppositesequence to the starting point. Repeat as required. Bending your legs eases he strain on yourback. Also, do not jerk when curling up to touch your knees, it is a total waste of time!Muscles Strengthened: Stomach(frontal abdominals) and the hip f1exors.


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    Good Morning or HyperextensionsPosition: Stand erect with feet shoulder width apart and toes pointed out. Place a lightbarbell behind your neck and across your shoulders. Unlock the knees slightly.Grip: Grab the bar near the weights pronated.Action: Slowly bend forward until your torso isparallel to the floor. Return to the starting pointJ":":'\ and repeat.Position: Get on a hyperextension bench facedown, your heels hooked securely under the padsand your hips supported by the large pad. Slide for-ward until the top of your pelvis is directly over theedge of the large pad. Put your hands behind yourneck and sag your body forwad until your torso ishanging straight down.Action: Do a reverse sit-up, arching up backwardpast the point of being level. Return to the startingposition and repeat.Muscles Strengthened: Lower back(erectorspinae).

    ~ ' ,-vt 6'~-

    I use a variety of the above work outs so I do not get bored. During thewinter times, I spend more time in the exercise room where I can do stationarybiking one day, lift the next, use the power stepper the next, lift the next, etc. Also,I have displayed a lot items in the exercise room, including pictures of tourna-ments, targets, awards, plaques, etc. in order to keep me motivated. Using theseimages gives me more positive feelings and I can do my mental training at thesame time as I do the physical work outs.Mental training can be implemented whiledoing Cardio vascular or physical work outs. Theamount of mental training the archer does couldeasily give them the edge. Since they are spendingtime lifting weights or working on Cardio, theymight as well spend that time doing some mentalworkout too.

    GOALSEmNG 101

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    MENTALAPPROACHThe mental approach to a tournament can give an archer the edge on thecompetition. If an archer goes into the event with a good positive feeling of totalpreparation, they will do better than if they go into the event with doubt. Mostarchers hope to shoot well, champions expect it. Depending on the personality, an

    archer will come into the event with an air of cockiness, while another one willcome into the event with an air of confidence. One will need to say it to anybodywho willlisten, while the other does not have to saya word. Their mannerisms, theway they talk willlet you know that they are one to reckon with. The archer will dothe talking on the field with his/her shooting. That is the difference betweenconfidence and cockiness in the mental approach.How do these archers approach the mental game before they get to the tour-nament? Some will start to get ready for an event according to the degree of it'simportance to them. An expert archer who has won many events including na-tional and international will focus more on the National Championships or above.Some archers may be just starting to climb the ladder and will put a similar focuson a regional championship event or even a club event. An elite archer will use theclub, state or regional event to test something. It could be a new piece of equip-ment that has proven very well in practice and now they are ready to give it a tryin a tournament. It could be a new part of their form. They may want to try itunder a pressure situation to make sure it will work when it really counts. It couldbe a new mental strategy that they want to try .A1l of these things do not take awaythe competitive spirit for the elite archer. It may be a small handicap to them dueto the extra effort they have to put in, but you can be assured that they are still atthe tournament to do their best and will not settle for anything less than 100%effort. Basically, I will start to think about a national championship level event orhigher about one month before the event. This gives me time to check out myequipment, my form, my physical and mental condition. I will begin to start imag-ining myself in the competition almost every night before I go to sleep. I willimagine who will be there and what they will possibly shoot. I will imagine myselfshooting a better score, usually above my personal best. Each practice session Iwill start to focus on my form and give myself compliments and imagine I am atthe tournament needing to shoot these arrows for a really good end in order towin.

    All of this is preparing me for the pressure and stress I will feel at the event.Since I try to imagine all of the possibilities, I should not be surprised at any out-come. I am prepared for the worst as well as the best. I am able to focus on myform during the event and have a confident feeling that I have prepared myself tothe best of my abilityat this time and should feel no remorse if I do not fair well orno elation if I do fair well.The week before the event I intensify my mental psyche. I am getting myselfinto an emotional elevation that feels a lot like challenging oneself to go do some-thing better than before. There is an air of confidence that builds to a crescendo.If everything works well there will be complete satisfaction of knowing that doingthings right is fun and exciting.The day before the tournament, I shut down my mental emotions about the102 GOAL SEmNG

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    event. I have toId myself that it is out of my hands now. I cannot expect to win orlose. I will just do my best and if I stay with my plan I will do fine. I start to focuson the enjoyment of the event. It is good to see friends I have not seen for sometime and it is good to be at a tournament where with each shot I am seeking plea-sure in executing that good arrow.

    MENTALCONTROL Once the tournament starts, then I have to keep my mental control at a levelthat is highly structured towards shooting good form and reading or feeling theshots so I can make adjustments if necessary. My focus should not be on thetournament it should be on my form.I try to think that I am in my back yard practicing and I am working onshooting good arrows. The feel is important and I am working on that feel to makesure that everything goes as smoothly as possible. If I get anxious I try to concen-trate on breathing. Usually this will settle me down. If that does not work, I willwork on timing or continuation of the shot. I will concentrate on one item at a timechecking to see if my form is at it's optimum.As I am doing this I am making sure my arrows are grouping. I do not wastetoo many shots before I move my sight. That is why feeling the shot is so impor-tant. If my form feels wrong and I shoot a poor shot, I will try to correct it on thenext shot. If I cannot make that correction (form wise), then I will make a sightadjustment in order to get more gold. During this time I am working on correctingmy form, but at the same time I am still shooting gold. Eventually, I will work outthe problem and my sight will need adjusting again, but I do not waste manypoints on trying to change my form. I move the sight in order to score well andcontinue to work on that problem. I see too many people shoot a lot of arrows inthe red or blue and shoot good groups, but refuse to move the sight because theyknow it is a form flaw that is causing the arrows to group there. So they work onthe problem and loose points at the same time. Why not work on the problem andstill get the points at the same time?If I am close to a personal record, I try not to think about it. I continue to tryto focus on my form or something that works at the moment to shoot gold. I also

    1993 World Championships with 1346.GOAL SETTING 103

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  • 8/22/2019 Rick McKinney 3 P


    4 The "New 01ympic Round" (NOR) was developed by FITA Council under the direc-tion of president Mr. Jim Easton. The efforts were directed towards having head tohead competition. The excitement generated by this new round can be shownthrough the archers, the spectators and media. A11have liked it. It is simple tofollow for all involved.


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    The end justifies the meansAlthough the New Olympic Round has been around for some time now, it isstill considered new in FITA terms. i prefer to ca1l t an Elimination Round, since ittruly eliminates an archer with head to head competition. It is an exciting roundthat has generated a lot of emotional feelings pro and con. Many traditiona1ists (in

    FITA terms) feel that the only way to choose a true champion is by shooting lotsand lots of arrows and the highest shooting archer will win and is determined achampion. All of my three World titles was determined by this method. That iswhat I am good at. It is not that I cannot be good at this new round, it is that I havetrained over twenty years with the "old" method. It takes time and a lot of effort tochange. First, an archer like myself, has to "unlearn" what he has learned and thenlearn some new tricks. I know that many "coaches" say that you should be able tocompete in any type of competition and still win no matter what. That is a greatutopia that very seldom happens in the real world.Most of us are very ego driven. Do not take that as a negative. As a matterof fact it is positive. If we take a look at all of the past champions, they will usuallybe similar in many ways. One of these similarities and a strong one is they are veryself centered. Again, the definition of self centeredness is not a negative comment.You have to be thinking more of yourself than someone else in order to stay fo-cused in order to win. I have yet to meet a champion in any sport who does nothave that capability when it comes to their sport. They may be a very givingperson overall, but when it comes to their specialty sport, they are very eager towin. EGO. What does all of this have to do with the NOR or elimination round? Iguess it justifies the means to an end.

    Like losing 150 gointsWhat does it take to win in an elimination round? I find that the personmust be very focused in shooting one arrow at a time. It is more crucial than in aFITA round (144 or 288 arrow round). A person has time to make up for mistakesin a FITA round. They have no time whatsoever to make up for even the slightestmistake on the elimination rounds. For those who are very analyticallets justbreak it down to something that makes sense to all of us. The World Champion-ships used 288 arrows to determine a champion in 1985 (the last time the doubleFITA was used for this event). When you miss the target out of 288 arrows it has ac~ --~cc .0035. factor of da~age to your perf~rmance.m,,:':::'~",.," ~ ~ That lS about 3/10 S of 1%. Ifyou mlss an ar-, row during an 18 arrow elimination round in

    comparison it would be a factor of .0556 in dam-age to the performance or 5.6%. That is over15 times the damage a 288 arrow round would



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    cause. If the point system wereequalized to 2880 points, themiss during the double FITA isa loss of ten points. The 18 ar-row round,a1though is just 180points total, if you equalized itto be 2880 points the misswould be like losing 150 points!Can you imagine what it wouldbe like with just a 12 arrowelimination round match? Thiscauses a lot more stress on thearcher knowing that EVERYar-row truly counts!So, what is the best strat-egy for shooting the elimina-tion rounds? As I mentionedbefore, it is very important tobe focused at shooting one ar-row at a time, like the coacheshave been preaching for years.If you are a person who thriveson the competition and needsto know exactly what the per-son shoots in order to do onepoint better, then this round isgreat for you. If you are a per-son who needs to learn to stayin their own zone and not want-ing to know what the competi-tor is shooting then it will takea lot of concentration and fo-cusing in order to accomplishthat feat. Obviously, it is im-portant to get into the "zone"if possible, but sometimes we cannot always get there on a given moment. Learn-ing to deal with this pressure is something that takes time and a lot of effort.Competing in these type of events is very important. Getting used to the roundhelps a lot. It is like anything else, once you get used to it, the objective becomesmore of a good habit and it can happen without thinking.

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    Shoot first or last?Should you shoot first or last during the round? Since the round is set up towhere an archer can get an advantage ( depending on how you view the situation)it is important to plan a strategy for the round and have a back up strategy if thefirst plan goes astray. For instance, you are a type of person who likes to get thefirst arrow off, giving you an advantage of shooting the first 10. This is great,however, you a1sobecome the person who has to shoot the last arrow of the round.Ifyou are the type that can take the lead in the beginning and keep it, the last arrowis not as critical as shooting the first arrow. If you are the type of person thatneeds a "jump start" in the beginning, it might be wise to let the competitor shootfirst, this way you can feed off of the archer's shot. It also gives you an edge at theend if you like to get finishedfirst and leave the final pres-sured arrow to the competitor .Obviously, it1s important

    to have a backup system just incase your first plan goes astray.Since the coin toss is subject toluck, you will not always getyour way, so you should plantwo mental strategies and beready to execute either one.The best case scenario is to becomfortable with either choice.Again, this takes practice. Get-ting comfortable with eitherchoice will help ease the pressure and you can be in that "Comfort Zone" as dis-cussed earlier .

    Unsgortsmanlike conduct?Another strategy to be prepared for is either shooting fast or slow during the40 second allowance time. Knowing the competitor is good since you can planyour strategy around that person. I know that many archers look at this as foulplay or unsportsmanlike conduct. However, there are no rules that say you cannotdo this and when an Olympic medal is being considered in this type of round, takethe gloves off and go out to win within the guidelines of the rules. We will all getput in an uncomfortable position at different times during an event. Being pre-pared for all different cases helps the person stay calm and focused. So, what dowe do? If you are a fast shooter, you need to learn to shoot slow. If you are a slowshooter, you need to learn to shoot fast. This is because you should be prepared tocompete under any type of condition thrown at you. I recall shooting with a topshooter who shoots fast and at the time I was struggling to get through the clickerwhich took considerable amount of time and energy to get the shot off. This per-son would immediately shoot his arrow once the allotted time was given to him.This meant I had only about 5 seconds of rest before I had to prepare for the nextshot. A1though it was difficult to deal with at the time, I learned to slow my shots


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    down when I need to so I can be prepared for this type of strategy. What we forgetthough is the opposing strategy. I was slowing down this person's rhythm as well.Since he liked to shoot fast and I was taking every bit of the 40 seconds allotted me,he had to wait before he could shoot his arrow. Thus it took him about 45 secondsto shoot an arrow and most of that time was waiting and thinking. Every force hasan opposing force. Take advantage of the either or situations and you will beprepared for just about anything.

    How to shoot the NOR in the windHow should an archer conduct themselves in the wind? If it were windy, Iwould probably let the competitor shoot first so I could get a good reading on thewind. However, you have to be careful when you do this since you are not surehow far the archer aimed off. The better the archer the less reliable this system is.But, if you can watch the arrow f1ight you may be able to pick up the type of windcurrents that are out there. Usually, the arrow willlay over one way or the other.Although this is not a surefire method, it does give you a small advantage. Youalso need to pay attention to all wind type flags on the field. Watch them one at atime and shoot an arrow ( this is usually done during the practice sessions andmaybe the qualification rounds). Eventually, you will be able to find a flag on thefield that is a good indicator of what your arrow may do. If you watch the toparchers, they are usually looking around a lot in the beginning. This is becausethey are experimenting to find which flag will give them the key to aiming off inthe wind. Most people think that the archer is looking around for fun or to see ifanyone is watching them. This may be true for some, but most are very busygetting prepared for the competition. Another good system to be prepared for inthe wind is during the practice sessions is to aim right at the center of the targetand see how far the arrow drifts in the wind. You usually get a feel as to how muchthe wind is blowing and so will be able to aim off more accurately during thetournament if you find out how much of a drifting pattern is out there. In otherwords, if the arrow drifts in the blue ring, you can aim in the opposite side in theblue and the arrow will drift in the gold. Veryaccurate.

    All of these strategies are very important and key to winning. The biggestelement of winning is to have confidence in what you are doing. If you are fullyP!epared your confidence will soar and it should be easier to be more competitive.Being all set does not always make it a guaranteed win. But if you are fully pre-pared and the competitor gives you an opportunity to win, you will be ready totake that lead and win. Strategy is more important now than ever. But the bottomline is that you must be focused and be able to concentrate and be ready to win.All of this is preparation which can only be accomplished by practicing. Practiceneeds to take place in your back yard or c1ub and then practice needs to take placeat the competitions. The more competitions you shoot the better prepared youwill be.


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    STO This section deals with Champions who have either won the WorldTarget Championships or the 01ympic Games(except one). Thepurpose is for you to consider studying their form, their attitudeand their determination. There are videos, books and artic1es aboutthese archers. If you get a chance to see them in action, it is highlyrecommended that you watch and learn. They have mastered theart of good execution and they have a winning attitude.


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    Sebastian FluteThe 1992 Olympic Gold Medalist has shown more consistency than most archersin the new elimination rounds. He won the European Championships, the WorldIndoor and the Olympics. He is not consid-ered to be one ofthe top FITA round shoot-ers, although he is competitive. His effortsare directed more towards the eliminationrounds and obviously those efforts havepaid off. Sebastion's form does not standout as being one of the best, but his mentalcontrol is without a doubt one of the finestI have ever encountered. He is able to keepcontrol of his emotions during the compe-tition. Some consider him to be cold. I seehim as focused. Sebastian earned his GoldMedal and without a doubt deserved it.

    Sebastian FlutePark K~ung-MoThe 1993 World Target Champion is master executioner of the NOR. It is too soonto tell of his true capabilities, but there is no doubt that at the 1993 World TargetChampionships he was in full control. Park is a product of the Korean coachingsystem that has proven to be very successful for the past several years. His formand technique is consistent with their philosophy.

    Simon FairweatherThe 1991 World Target Champion put together 9 excellent arrows to win at 90meters. The last major Grand FITA event, Simon is still struggling to find himselfwith the NOR. His form is excellent although it is unique due to his physicalattributes. Most archers work on endurance which is considered to be the best forarchery, not bulking up. Simon works very hard to bulk up. Very uncommon forarchers.

    Park Kyung-Mo Simon Fairweather12 TO M Y DEAR RIV ALS

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    Stanislov ZabrodskiThe 1989 World Target Champion broke Darrell Pace's la year old record of 1341.It took the Grand FITA to be able to do this. Most archers were able to improvetheir FITA round when shooting the Grand FITA. This does not mean that Stanislovdid not deserve the record. His form was strong and consistent through out theevent. Although he has an unorthodox style (Ukrainian technique) of putting thethumb behind his neck, he is one of the few who uses this technique correctly. Hisline and execution of the shot is superior. It is said that he has ice in his veins. Atthe World Championships it could have been true.Ja~ BarrsThe 1988 01ympic Gold Meda1ist earned this titleby shear determination. I had the fortunate oppor-tunity to watch Jay's training to prepare for theGames. Jay won the event with his mental prepara-

    tion. His form was good at the time. If he everlearns true back tension he could be even stronger .One of Jay's strongest assets is the tenacity to staywith proven equipment. While most top archers aretrying to figure out the new products, Jay waits forthe other archers to work out the bugs then he shootswhat works.Stanislov Zabrodski

    Vladimir EcheevThe 1987 World Target Champion is very similar to my style of archery. He hastremendous reflexes that keep him on track. Even when he gets out of line, he isable to "goose" them in! Vladimir is a1soone of the top equipment specialists. Hismajor emphasis is to get the fastest set up. This shows in his performance. Whenh~ is shooting exceptionally well the score is very competitive. If he is off just a bit,his critical set-up catches up with him.

    Jay Barrs Vladimir Echee1]3O M Y DEAR RIV ALS

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    Tomi PoikolainanThe 1980 Olympic Gold Meda1ist. Tomi hasbeen consistently in the top 10 in the Worldfor some time. He continues to improvehis form every year. Tomi has good execu-tion, although he holds longer than mosttop archers, he is strong enough to do it.

    Tomi Poikolainan

    Darrell Pace 1976 & 1984 Olympic Gold Medalist, 1975 & 1979 World Champion. Darrell istruly one of the greatest archers in modern history, His technique and form hasonly been equaled by Kim Soo-Nyung of Korea. Darrell's belief in himself hasnever been equaled by any other archer. That was one of his strength's and hisbiggest weakness. Although Darrell has not been competitive internationally forsome time, if he ever puts in the effort again, watch out!

    Darrell Pace


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    Kim Soo-N~ungWithout a doubt one of the greatest femalearchers in modern history. She is the firstarcher who would only shoot good arrows.She eliminated taking risks on shots she wasnot sure of. If they felt wrong, she let themdown. Her technique is the best there is barnone. I have learned more by watching herthan anyone else. Although she has retiredfrom internationa1 competition, an archer canlearn a lot by viewing videos of her .

    Kim Soo-Nyung

    Ed Eliason The oldest 1300 shooter with the youngest mind! There is no one more positiveout on the archery field. Ed is the only archer that I know who can adapt tochange. He was a top archer when 1100's were good, he was a top archer when1200's were good, he was a top archer when 1300's were good, he was a top archerwhen the Grand FITA was used (he placed 7th at the 1991 World Championships)and he is still a top archer with the NOR (he finished 8th at the 1993 World TargetChampionships). His enthusiasm is addictive. Most people want to be around himbecause of his positive and enthusiastic attitude.

    Ed Eliason


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    6 There are many different types of the menta1 game. First we shouldunderstand why the mental game is so important. Since there areseveral reasons for an archer to develop their mental skills, let uslook at these reasons and ways for improving our menta1 control.Each reason and each program are interlinked in many differentways. As I speak about one I may go into another because of thisclose interrelationship.

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    TYPE O F THE MENT AL G AMEAs mentioned in prior chapters, the mental game is a very important part ofa champion. We have discussed the physical part of the game including form,technique and physical conditioning. We have discussed equipment set up andthe valuable part that this plays in winning. Each of these are vitallinks to becom-ing a champion. An archer cannot win without learning and understanding allthree. But the mental game seems to be the biggest difference between most ar-chers and the champion. Many champions use some form of mental skills withoutrealizing it. If they could learn to understand this successful mental approach,they could make it stronger and make them harder to beat. The funny part of thisis that when a top archer says they do not use the mental game, it means they donot know they are using it and will not be interested it improving it causing themto lose the advantage they had.

    AttitudeThe attitude of the archer is very critical to performance. Most archersknow in the very beginhing how they may perform at an event. They do not knowwhy, but they can "feel" it. Many champions exude confidence. What makes anarcher so confident one day and not so confident on another day? If developingconfidence is so important then why are archers so reluctant to practice self confi-dence skills in order to become more consistent? There are several attitude skillsprograms available. The problem with any program is to get the archer to committo it. Dr. Denis Waitley who wrote "the Psychology of Winning" lists 10 importanttools a champion needs:

    Positive Self AwarenessPositive Self EsteemPositive Self ControlPositive Self MotivationPositive Self Expectancy


    Positive Self ImagePositive Self DirectionPositive Self DisciplinePositive Self DimensionPositive Self Projection

    I.2.3.4.S.Each of these tools are important for the competitive archer. Notice some-thing else that Dr. Waitely keeps emphasizing: positive and self. Both of theseare extremely critical to the champion archer. Most champion archers are consid-ered to be very positive when it comes to competing and they are definitely "I"

    people. Most are not team players, they will do it their way and they get results,because they know themselves very well. They know what it takes and they feelthey have a destiny to fulfill and no one will get in the way. This does not meanthey will not be a good team member. These archers will rise to the occasion whennecessary, but the biggest importance to them is the individual event.In order to develop this confidence the archer needs to practice variousskills that will enhance their belief in themselves. But first, have you ever seen orheard of an insecure champion? Not humble, but insecure. Believing in them-selves is critica1 to advancing. Most are impatient, but eventua1ly they will win outin the end. It is a matter of diligence and perseverance.There are four skills I work at to improve my positive attitude. The first isimagery, the second is self-talk, the third is relaxation and the fourth is


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    attention/focus. I will explain later how to use them and why they are so im-portant.Attention

    Being able to concentrate and focus on the proper stimulus at the right mo-ment is critical for an archer. When Sebastian Flute won the Gold Medal his focuswas not on the television cameras, photographers, spectators, his coach, his par-ents or even his competitor. The focus and concentration was on execution. Hisfocus was not on the noise or the heat. He was focusing on how to make correc-tions for his next shot. He was able to fine tune his focus and attentional skillsthrough a mental skill. Most of the time a champion will get into a "zone". This isa place when the archer is so focused and in so much control that everythingaround them is in slow motion. The archer is able to make corrections very quicklywhile things are going on in slow motion. They are in a world that is very hard todescribe unless one has experienced it. Usually it is easy to tell if an archer is inthe zone by their emotions during and after the event. They have a hard timegetting out of the zone causing them to look and act a bit like it was no big dealabout winning. It takes time to come out of the zone and so they must relish theexperience later. Also, most archers are asked how it felt and what they werethinking about during the competition. Most champions do not recall, becausetheir focus was not a "Kodak moment". They were too busy focusing on the jobthey had trained to do.There are a couple of mental programs that can enhance this part of themental game. One is Imagery and the other is one I call simply Concentra-tion/focus skills.

    Emotions Emotions, stress or arousal is very important for the champion archer. Firstwe need to understand stress created by the archer during competition. Stress isnot all bad. As a matter of fact, a lot of that stress is desired. When one becomesrobotic in nature, the thrill and joy is lost as well. Many champions love that feelof excitement. Most want to be able to feel it, but challenge themselves to control


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    it. That is the all time rush of excitement. But the key here is that the champiotlearns how to control this stress and convert it into positive energy to be usedduring the competition for winning. How is this possible?Most have heard about how to "psyche up, get psyched, get motivated " state-ments from some competitors or coaches. On the down side of these statementsare, getting "psyched out", he is just a "head case", she "tried too hard" or the bestone is "he choked". As a coach, it is important to watch what you say since it willaffect your archer's confidence level. As an archer, it is important to learn how todeal with all statements so nothing will bother you during the competition.Each archer has a perfect arousallevel just for them. Unfortunately, there isno perfect solution on how to find this except for trial and error. Each of us hasexperienced the day we went to a competition and we just could not feel anythingand we performed rather poorly. We could not put our finger on it, but it just wasnot an exciting ordeal. We got angry and frustrated and our performance climbedsomewhat (that is because we elevated our arousallevel). At other events we wereso nervous that we not only could feel our heart beat, but hear it as well! We couldnot control our shots and eventually shot so poorly that our feeling of excitementcame down to a feeling of depression. But our performance improved when theheart settled down once we realized our chances of a good performance had ended(that is because we lowered our arousallevel).Each archer has a different level of emotional arousal that will give them thebest performance. They need to recognize their arousallevel at each event andrecord it when they are under aroused, over aroused and perfectly aroused. And,what they did to achieve that status. Skills that could be practiced to improvearousallevels are Self-talk, Concentration/Focus, Relaxation, and Imag-ery.

    Since each archer has this different emotionallevel that it takes to be in fullcontrol of shooting, it is best for each archer to determine what is the best emo-tionallevel and how to get there. This makes the archer responsible for knowingand understanding their emotions during the competition. Awareness of the bodyis very important. The archer needs to recognize what factors combine for a poorperformance at a specific competition. It also is important to know the differencebetween poor performance related to emotions, equipment or weather, etc.It is important to develop a mental routine that will keep the emotionallevelthat will give a top performance. And as is said all the time, practice makes per-fect. Practice mental rehearsal over and over again. When the archer becomesover aroused, using relaxation techniques has a calming effect. Imaging good per-formances works too. A1so,putting the event in perspective works for some. Sim-ply stated, the archer should ask themselves just how important is this event inrelationship to living, dying, happiness, etc. A tournament is just that. An event tohave fun at.When under aroused the archer needs to ask why they feel down. Self-talkfor psyching-up or imaging to get aroused by maybe seeing how it felt before areally big event. I find that if I challenge myself, I can get up for anything. If I amshooting at a small event with no importance I may ask myself how embarrassingit would look if I get beat! Simple things to get the emotions up is important, butthe archer must know if they need to get up or down for an event and this takesgetting to know oneself very well.


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    Motivation In every champion is a strong burning desire to achieve a higher level thanever before. The drive, the desire, the tenacity, the urge, the want to be betterthan anyone else is very strong. Some archers sacrifice time and effort, champi-ons do not know the word sacrifice because they want to win or be the best andthey will do whatever it takes to get there. If an archer complains they do nothave enough time or they have other responsibilities, then the chances of thembecoming a champion are very minimal.Many archers need to look at why they are doing what they do. Why doesan archer spend all that time getting ready for an event? Why does an archerstand in the rain for 8 hours? Why does an archer spend all that money to go to acompetition? These questions should be asked and truthfully answered. Somearchers are motivated by their parents. Some parents really know how to put aguilt trip on the child to make them feel bad if they do not practice or train. Toobad many parents want to live through their child's experience. I wish they wouldlet their child achieve the level they want to achieve and not their parents expec-tations. Or how about the coach? Sometimes the coach lives through the archer aswell and forgets the most important part of archery -fun.I am sure we have all questioned why someone like Joe Montana, a seasonedAmerican football player still wanted to play after he was extremely wealthy, in-jured and older than most players. It was obvious to me, he stillloved the game.He had fun. Money was secondary to him.An archer needs to ask themselves why are they shooting and decide whatlevel they really are willing to commit to and why. What motivates them? Whenthey decide the motivating factor they will be able to implement a plan.

    Goal setting We discussed goal setting in a prior chapter. The reason I bring this uphere is because I consider it to be very important towards developing mentalskills. The archer needs to have a plan. Writing down this plan makes life somuch easier. The archer can follow the road map and see progress and learn somuch about themselves. If goal setting is used to develop good mental skills, thearcher will be headed towards that championship ladder of success.


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    TYPE OF THE MENTAL SKILLSSelf-talk This mental skill is used by most archers, but many fail to realize the impor-tance of it. Also, the program is poorly used and often times they do not knowthey are using it causing many to perform below their expectations.Self-talk is just that; the archer literally talks to themselves. Some speakinternally while others talk out loud causing more than one person to take a sec-ond look at a potentiallunatic! Self-talk will either improve ones self image orcause the archer to loose self image thus determining their performance. If selfimage improves, performance generally improves. However, since most archersare rather negative in their self-talk expressions, their self image decreases causinga drop in performance. And, when their performance drops, their self-talk be-comes more negative causing the self image to decrease even more. It can be seenthat this is a vicious cycle that can only be broken by changing bad habits anddeveloping self-talk skills in a positive way.Words are very strong tools, whether they are thoi.1ght or spoken. It is saidthat self-talk is 60 times more powerful than the actual experience. I am not surehow true that number is, but I know this mental method is powerful. Most archersuse a negative thought to either inspire, get the pressure off of themselves orbecause that was the way they were raised. No matter how this negative self-talkwas introduced, it needs to be reversed and the archer needs to start saying thingsin a positive way.The first thing the archer needs to do is to identify negative statements.These could be self deprecating statements such as putting themselves down ornegative pressure type statements or excuse or regret type statements or defensive

    pessimistic statements. A statement may be,"You idiot! Can't you do anything right!""I knew I would blow it, since I am such a looser!""If I don't miss the target I won't finish last!""If the wind would not blow so hard!""Try to keep from choking this time!""I have to keep from shooting so bad!"Do not use words with cannot, will not, could not, does not, etc. These wordsare negative. The wording needs just a few changes and positive statements can beused in order to improve self image and performance. Begin statements with: "I.11 " d " I "Wl ...an can... .It is a good idea to write down various positive statements in order to prac-tice them. The archer can make these statements anytime of the day, whether theyare shooting, lifting weights, jogging, or just sitting on a bus, subway, train, plane,etc. Let's use the statements just presented and turn them around to be positive:"I can do better than that and I will!""I learned from that shot and now I can become a winner!"" Just execute a good shot and do the best you can!""This wind is challenging. I like shooting in the wind! ""I know how to shoot a good shot and I wil1! ""You know you can do it!"These are just some of many positive statements that give an idea of what


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    can be done with negative statements. At first it will feel awkward to say some-thing positive, especially if it is not believed. However, give it time and eventuallyit will become a belief.Another method that 1 use are not statements but just certain words at mo-ments when it is important to keep thoughts down to a minimum. These thoughtsare positive and become que words that spark a complete picture. Words such as,"smooth", "effortless", "relax" are used. Also, simple statements that tell a com-plete picture, such as, "I feel good" and "stay focused". Another thing that I do isgive myself positive reinforcement after shooting good shots. These statementsmay be, "nice shot!" and "It feels good!" Again, these are just a few a person cancome up with that will give positive reinforcement and help the archer's self im-age which will increase performance.Sources of confidence could be from previous success, training and per-sonal goals and values. The closer to the truth these statements are the strongerthey become. This increases confidence. Keep an eye out for anything that couldcause a negative reaction.

    Concentration/focusLearning to concentrate on the right subject is very hard for most of us.Learning to focus is even harder! The best way to learn how to develop the focusand concentration effort is to use something that would develop a special imageduring the practice sessions.An easy way to learn how to focus and to concentrate is to learn how to lookat an object for a period of time without breaking the thought process. This takestime for an archer to learn how to do. However, once learned, it is an excellent wayto keep focused while competition gets more and more challenging. Usually, thewinner of the competition is the one who can stay focused and be able to concen-trate on the task at hand. The one who looses is the one who looses the capabilityof being able to think clearly and simply. Most of the time the loosing archer willstart thinking about winning or loosing. This is the worst kind of thought they canhave. If they just focus on doing the task of executing the shot like they have beendoing all along, the arrows will go in the middle and eventually the archer will win.But, the closer a person gets to a goal the easier they are distracted. This is whyfocusing on the target and learning to con-centrate at will is very important in orderto wip.

    Many years ago a top professionalarcher carne to me after I made my firstOlympic Team in 1976. He offered to giveme some advice in order to meet the cha1-lenge of competing at the most visibleevent in archery .He was an artist of sorts( draftsman) who was very good at draw-ing. He made a sma1l arget for me (abouttwice the size I use today). The wholepurpose was to be able to work on focus-ing on the target and thinking aggressivethoughts. He told me to try to do this at

    The men's ndividual final of the 1995 World Target Championshipsin Indonesia;Lee Kyung Chul vs. Wu Tsuing- Yi. THE MENTAL SKILLS 125

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    least once each day. I figured it would be worth a try since I had already found outthat the mental game was vitally important.I learned that the mental game was important when I was a Junior in HighSchool. I was a pole vaulter on the track and field team. During one of my lastevents of the year I accidentally learned about visual imagery. I was standing atthe end of the runway getting ready to take off towards the pit when all of asudden I just started to see myself running down the runway and planting the polein the box and vaulting myself up and over the bar for an easy attempt. When Itried the actual attempt I cleared the bar with ease. I was really surprised andexcited about what I learned. That night I went higher than I had ever gone byover one foot! My immediate thoughts were about how I could apply this to ar-chery , since archery was very important to me.I started to use this visual imagery more often for my archery. I would seemyself (like a video camera does -on the outside) drawing my bow with excellentform. I would then see myself (through my own eyes -on the inside) releasing thearrow. The bow arm was absolutely still, the follow through was smooth and flaw-less and the head was motionless. I then would see myself like a camera again ( onthe outside) letting go of the string with a smoothness accomplished by just a few.Then I would see the arrow fly thought the air (on the inside) and landingright in the middle of the "10" ring. This type of "visual imagery" helped me intwo different ways. The first way was giving me confidence of what I could do. Thepower of the mind is a wonderful thing and is not utilized to it's capacity. When aperson believes they can do something the easier it is to accomplish that goal. Thesecond way that it helped me was my focus. The more I practiced this imagery, thebetter I was able to keep my focus during a longer period of time.My performance improved substantially when I started working with thisprogram. When I was given a small target to work with, I was able to get deeperinto my visual imagery training and improve my performance again. In less thansix months I was able to become the World Champion. I am not saying that it is theonly reason, but it was a major part of the reason. .After I used the target that was given to me, I wanted to do more with it. Ifound that it was a bit too big for me to carry around and a bit too small for me tohang up on the wall or ceiling. I started to use bigger targets for my wall and wastrying to find a more portableone for my personal use whentraveling.

    Putting a target on the ceil-ing or wall in your bedroom isan excellent way to work on thementa1 game. It gives you an op-portunity to look at it just beforegoing to sleep at night and whenyou wake up in the morning.Taking a minute or two just be-fore getting out of bed to lookand visualize has a great impacton one's attitude.

    Cho Youn-Jeong checks her shooting behind the shooting line.126 THEMENTALSKILLS

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    Using a small target to carry around in a planner, notebook, wallet or purseis just an extension of the target on the ceiling or wall. When traveling, waiting inline for just about everything, or just sitting you can get the little target out andlook at it for just a few moments to do some mental training. If this procedure ispracticed a lot, the archer will notice a more positive approach to their shooting.Since the small target is with them at all times they will never have a moment ofdoing nothing.Just get it out and look at it at any time and all of a sudden you are on thecompetition field imagining shooting against the best archers of the world andcompeting head to head in a NOR round. You have only 12 arrows to shoot thebest you ever have and you shoot each arrow, one at a time. If done enough timesyou will get used to competing at a higher level. When it actually comes to realityyou may feel more relaxed and confident because you are used to it and then youcan enjoy the shooting! It is easier to stay focused and to concentrate.The purpose of using the small target is to stay motivated, confident, set newgoals, feel comfortable competing at bigger competitions, and to learn to focus andconcentrate. These are just some of the things that can help your shooting.As I stated earlier, you should keep the small face with you at all times. It iseven a good idea to have a few of them. I have one on my desk at work, carry onein my notebook when I travel, have one in my bow case and I have one at home.Anytime I get a chance to look at it and think positive thoughts about my shootingI do it!How should an archer think while looking at the small target? It is good toimagine yourself at the next competition you are going to. See yourself (in yourmind's eye -sort of like day dreaming) at the field ready to shoot the competition.Then when you start you try to imagine you are nervous (if that is normal for you) ,then you take a deep breath get relaxed and focus. All the time looking at thesmall target. Then you begin shooting the event under control, with confidence.You see yourself shooting good smooth arrows and they are going in the " lO" ringor "9" ring. You are shooting very well. I usually cut out all of the unnecessarydetails like loading the bow, walking to the target, scoring, etc. I usually just seemyself setting my hand in the bow, making sure my fingers are on the string,drawing the bow, continuing my motion while my arms are very relaxed and usingmy back while executing the shot, keeping my follow through good and seeing thearrow leave the bow, hitting the center of the target and now I am ready to shootmy next shot. After the first end I know my score and I try to improve it after eachend or I try to stay consistent. I usually add up my score after each distance andend up with a personal best by a few points. This just makes me more comfortableif and when I reach that point in a real tournament. I have been there mentallyand I just continue to keep my focus and concentration through out the event.Remember, the more you practice with the small target the more preparedyou will be. Focusing and concentration is a learned experience. The more you dosomething the easier it becomes. It takes time to learn a habit. This is a good habitto learn and that is why I keep saying to use the small target every chance you getduring free time. It only takes a few minutes.Also, set aside about 15 to 30 minutes each day so you can actually shoot awhole competition in your mind (just the important parts like shooting the arrowand seeing it hit). Each time you look at the target you should try to feel positive


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    about yourself and your shooting. Believe you will do better, you will shoot stron-ger, smoother, more relaxed and be in control of your shots. All of these positivestatements reconditions your mind into believing you can do it. Once you believe,you have a better chance in meeting your new goals.And finally, remember that since you have been practicing with the smalltarget, once you actually get on the field of competition, you will notice that onceyou look at your shooting target there will be a rush of positive excitement since itis just an extension of what you have been doing all along.

    Relaxation Relaxation skills are important not only for archery, but in everyday situa-tions. Most archers need to stay calm and relaxed during competition. With relax-ation skills the archer can leam to control their emotions and execute good shots.There are three different types of relaxation programs; progressive relaxation,meditation and hypnosis. I use a progressive relaxation program that teaches thearcher how to relax in a moments notice. I have not studied mediation or hypnosisskills.The archer begins with sessions that average between 30 to 45 minutes. Atfirst these sessions help the archer learn that they are usually tense and need tolearn the difference between tension and relaxation. The archer lies on the floor ina comfortable position. They are guided through tensing and relaxing 3 to 7 setsof muscles. (Depending on the method, some people combine groups of musclesdifferently). The purpose of tensing the muscle, then relaxing is to recognize thedifference. During competition many people will slowly tense up and not realizeit. This method helps them recognize the difference. In the beginning the archerlearns how to relax, and it does take some time to learn this. Once they learn torelax, they learn how to speed up the process. Once they are able to speed up the

    process to relax, the archer then sits in a chair and goes through the process again.Eventually, the archer goes from lying down taking 45 minutes to relax, sitting uptaking 30 minutes, standing up taking 10 minutes, shooting and between arrowstaking S to lO seconds.It does take some time getting to this last point, but when under pres$ure,the archer will be glad they took time to learn this program. They can relax andexecute good shots.Another reason for relaxation training is that it helps in imagery. When anarcher is relaxed the subconscious can focus more clearly. This helps makingimages more focused and clear. The more focused the image the stronger theimpact.Let's go over a portion of what would normally happen in a relaxation ses-sion. First the archer wou1d be asked to remove any restrictive clothing like shoes.They will be asked to lie down on the floor, mattress, etc. They are not to crosstheir legs and should put the arms by the side, not on the chest or crossed. Oncethey are comfortable, they are to close their eyes. The room should be dark. Noharsh lights. The person in control will guide the archer through the stages oftensing and relaxing the muscles. Each time they will ask the archer to concentrateon the breathing. Getting the archer to focus on breathing helps establish a rhythm.This is an effort to learn more about interna1 focusing. Once the archer goes througheach muscle group (feet, legs, stomach, arms, shoulders, neck and face) the morerelaxed the archer becomes. It is not uncommon for the archer to fall asleep be-


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    fore they get to the end of the session. This is common, because the archer isrelaxing for the first time. This should not bother the archer. Everyone falls asleepin the beginning. This is actually a stage of near sleep. The archer hears what isgoing on but will not be so mentally active (mind wondering). Once the archergets to this stage, they will be asked to think about a relaxed surrounding. Thiscould be the beach, in the park, at home. Any place that is very comfortable to thearcher. Then the person will guide the archer to a tournament or exciting experi-ence. This will make the archer become tense. The speaker will direct the archerback to a relaxing place in order to calm down. Eventually, there will be a relation-ship of thinking of something relaxing when becoming tense. This helps the ar-cher stay relaxed during emotional times. Do not expect miracles at first. Give ittime and it can give the archer advantages not considered before.

    Image!:y Imagery is the internal communication for the body and mind. It can bemental pictures, sound, taste, smell, or touch. It can be a combination of all ofthese things. For example, the skier may imagine a downhill race. They may seethemselves getting out of the gate as smooth as can be, hear the sounds of the fansalong the run, feel the sharp cold air while racing down the slopes, feel the musclestighten in the legs as they make their turns and they may smell the cool crisp fresh

    air. Imagery is the best communication to the subcon-scious mind. The more imagery is practiced the morethe confident the archer will be.Most people think of imagery as just visualiza-tion, but as mentioned before it is a whole lot more. Itcan open the door to a very powerful tool; the subcon-scious mind. Imagery can give an archer experiencewithout ever leaving home. Although this experience isa mental rendering, it is effective. We are what we think.The more we think positive experiences about ourselvesthe better our chances are of improvement. The archercan observe a champion performing at their peak andthen transfer that image to include themselves insteadof the champion. Or, the archer becomes the cham-"Small arget" evelopsoncentrationn he arget. pion. Imagery is a simple communication that takesless effort and time than speaking the same action. Thesaying, " A picture is worth a thousand words", is appropriate.

    Imagery is a skill that takes time to develop. The archer needs to practicethis skill just like they would practice physical technique in archery. At first it maybe difficult to image. However, in time it will be simple and easy to use, but veryvaluable. It takes an average of 21 to 35 days to develop a good habit. Patience isvery important in developing a new skill.The best way to use imagery depends on the skilllevel of the archer. Thebeginning or intermediate archer may want to work on the basics like form. Theadvanced archer may want to work on physiological controls, problem solving orcompetition scenarios. The archer should use a combination of imagery practicewith actual practice for best results. Also, using cassette tape programs is ideal.There are several commercial tapes available which will work. However, the most

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    effective tapes are ones especially developed for the individual archer. Get a pro-fessional sport psychologist to help and it should make it easier. Once the skilllevel has been determined then find a quiet place to practice this imagery. Usingrelaxation and/or attentional/focus skills with this helps a great amount. Theperception of the images will be enhanced. The vividness will increase. And, therational mind which screens the ideas or images created will be kept out of theway. However, when using relaxation or concentration/focus skills anything imag-ined is possible and can be believed.There are several areas in which imagery can be used for training and com-petition. Mental rehearsal is one. Using imagery to practice some part of trainingor competition. These images might relate to specific skills the archer needs tomaster, making these skills automatic duting competition. Using imagery to learnbasic skills is another use. Watching tapes or videos of champion archers gives thearcher great opportunity to review and image these role models. Imagery is alsoused to practice a scenario for a future competition. The archer might imaginewhere the next major event will be. This archer can imagine getting ready for the

    event, physically and mentally. Imagine startingthe event, shooting well and finishing the event.The archer can work on several strategies for dif-ferent scenarios. Imagine competing against cer-tain competitors, being behind them, close to themand leading them. Handling all different types ofsituations will help the archer be prepared for thesein reallife. And as a result itgives them more con-fidence.Imagery helps in problem solving too. Imag-ining various problems and how to correct thoseproblems prepares the archer for just about anysituation in a competition. Controlling their emo-tions during poor performances or excellent per-formances while imaging will prepare them beforethe real event. By associating with what works bestfor these performances during practice will help thearcher. They may need to imagine that their bowarm is like a steel inf1exible rod. This may makethe archer improve their bow arm. During a competition, they know to imagine

    this and it will work as well in reallife as in fictional. Learning to control anxiety orstress while imaging helps to prepare for these events and give them some degreeof control during the real thing. A good example would be when an archer shootsthe first arrow for competition. Normally, this is met with lots of nervousness, fearof the unknown. Practicing a breathing exercise and imaging positive results couldproduce a feeling of control or relaxation.Ignoring distractions or focusing attention to the right detail is another wayto use imaging. Say for instance the wind picks up. Instead of worrying aboutwhat to do, the archer has already imagined what to do. Make adjustments for thewind and aim off executing the shot with fu1l confidence. Setting goals and imag-ine reaching those goals helps the archer achieve the goals a lot faster .There are two different methods to use imagery. During practice many ar-


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    chers will use goa1oriented images. They may imagine setting new persona1 records,world records, winning championship events, etc. But during the competition it isbest to avoid these goal related images as a possible cause of increasing stress.Using task related images (form, weather, etc.) during the competition keeps thearcher focused on a series of steps that help guide them through the competition.It keeps the archer's mind on key basics of performance instead of winning orlosing, how well the competitors are doing, how the crowd is reacting, etc. Goalrelated images are great motivators and task related images are great attentional/focus for the immediate task.Some archers like to be very realistic when using imagery. Others like toexaggerate their imagery .Each archer will have to determine which way is best forthem. In exaggerating, the archer may imagine shooting nothing but 10's. Obvi-ously, this is not possible at the moment. But when doing this over and over again,it raises the archer's comfort zone and they become confident that their score canincrease. Another archer may not be able to believe such an action so they mustpractice the realistic imagery .The realistic imagery is one where an archer prac-tices imagery close to their shooting performance, but elevated just a bit higher inorder to increase their comfort zone and develop confidence for the next event.As is true for any skill, imagery must be practiced to be effective. It shouldbe included in the training regimen so it becomes a regular routine and not justanother gimmick or a low priority to be used only in desperation. Imagery can beused before practice for creating specific mental states or how to cope with differ-ent situations during practice. It can be used during practiceto emulate competi-tions. And, imagery can be used after practice to reinforce specific points madeduring the practice session.There are two levels to work on imagery skills. General skills can be workedon with the team or a group. When working on specific skills then the archerneeds to develop and work on them individually. Each archer will be at differentskilllevels of imagery. Just have patience and eventually the archer will be veryskilled at imagery.I use imagery in many different ways. I a1souse imagery with my other skillssuch as self-talk, relaxation and concentration/focus skills. It takes time to de-velop a good quality program, but once it is developed it will give the archer anadvantage over most of the competition. I image before I get out of bed eachmorning. It may be going over a major competition coming up. It may be imagingmy practice session planned later in the day. I also do short image sessions timesduring the day at work. This isa good break for me during a busy day at the office.I may use my attention/focus target and imagine shooting a world record. I maycompete against a top archer in the NOR. During my practice session I may imageshooting the major event talking to myself about the event and what is happening.I may image specific skill tasks in order to work on certain parts of my form. Andfinally, before I go to sleep at night I image a competition and record setting ac-complishments. As can be seen, my imaging is with me constantly. I am a verygood day dreamer!During competitions I image skill specific goals of what I want to accomplish.It may be to keep my bow arm solid or use my back before, during and after theshot. I image shooting good form and see the arrows hit the center. I image myselfto look like a top role model. This is effective for me. Each archer will have to try

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    many different types of imaging and eventually they will find what works best forthem. And do not forget that imaging helps the feel of the shot most of all.Others

    Reaffirmation, subliminal techniques and biofeedback. Reaffirmation isa menta1 skill that is used by Jay Barrs, the 1988 Olympic Gold Medalist. This formof mental training takes good planning like many other programs. The archerwrites down several (7-9) statements that will increase their comfort zone. Theythen read these statements several times during the day. Usually they will readthem when they get up out of bed, they read them before going to school or work,they read them before training and after training and before they go to bed atnight. These statements may consist of statements that say, "1 enjoywinning tour-naments." or " I am comfortable shooting 1300's". Each ofthese statements shouldbe written down in the archer's own hand writing. These are personal statementsthat do not need to be shared by others. This program was used successfully byJay Barrs during the 1988 Olympic Games.

    Subliminal techniques are statements made in a cassette tape that theconscious mind cannot hear, but the subconscious mind can. The tape is usuallymade up of soft music or ocean waves with the positive statements made in thebackground. The point is to listen to a relaxing tape (which we learned earlierhelps increase our subconscious awareness) and then the subliminal statementsare made to educate the subconscious. These tapes are available through varioussources.Biofeedback is a psycho physiological exercise that helps the archer learnto be more awareof their body. One example is a portable heart rate monitor thatthe archer can set for a low and high heart rate. The archer can hear when theheart rate is too low and too high. Also, the archer can do relaxation techniqueswith the monitor on to learn how to raise and lower their heart rate at any time.Takeshi Matsushita used one at the NM National Championships one year to ob-serve his heart rate during a major event. Although electronic devices are notallowed during FITA competition, this was not a tournament that held a majorimportance to Takeshi. He would not do this in a tournament that would causeconcern from other archers.Another example is a galvanic skin response device that measures nervous-ness from very small changes in the surface of the skin. This device is hooked upto the archer's pinkie (little finger) and can react similar to the heart rate monitor.Since it is smaller, it can be easier to use. The archer can work on techniques toeither get relaxed or become more excited in order to reach the perfect arousallevel. In a limited surrounding, the archer can work with scientists on severalElectomyographic (EMG) areas. These EMG's are generally hooked up to an archer'sspecific muscles. These could be muscles such as, release fingers, bow hand, etc.Then the scientists can tell the archer if they are too tense in strategic areas.

    As can be seen, there are many different ways to improve one's mentalstrength. Vladimir Echeev says that equipment, physical and mental are allinterlinked. They are like a chain. If one link is weak, the whole chain will break.In order to have a strong chain, none of these three parts can be weak. Find a goodmental program that works best for you and it will strengthen that chain.132 THEMENTALSKILLS

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    8 EquipmentThere are many different types of equipment offered in the world of archery .Thischapter tries to simplify the efforts to choose the right equipment and set-up.Although there are hundreds of different pieces of equipment to choose from it isimportant to keep things as simple as possible. The simpler the equipment is, theeasier it is to keep the equipment in top shape. Also, if the equipment breaksdown, it will be easier to fix as quickly as possible. Although equipment set-upsand tuning parameters are close to absolute and should work in theory, they canand will be different for each individual because of human differences. Essen-tially, it is very important to stay close to the recommendations. However, thefinal decision is the compatibility, grouping and consistency of the equipment andarcher.


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    BOWSANDTHECOMPONENTS~ Currently there are four types of risers an archer can shoot; wood, alumi-num/magnesium, machined aluminum and composites (carbon, ceramics, etc.).The wood riser has not been used competitively (World or Olympic Champion-ships) for some time. This is due to several reasons. Some of those are lack ofavailability, not considered to be as stable as metal risers, and the grip must bethicker than others because of how fragile wood is compared to metals and thelatest in composites. In 1972 Earl Hoyt introduced his first take down metal riserwhich was the catalyst to creating a variety of metal risers. Although this was notthe first metal riser, it was definitely one of the most popular. John Williams andDoreen Wilbur won Olympic Gold medals with these bows in 1972.These metal risers were made with an aluminum and magnesium mixture.Molds were made, metals were melted and poured into the molds. These riserswere extremely strong compared to wood bows and proved to be more stable thanwood bows and highly accepted in the archery community. When other parts ofthe equipment improved however, the riser had to be improved. The equipmentwas quickly becoming too fast and harsh for these risers and another generation ofriser was developed by the bow manufacturers: the machined aluminum riser .The machined riser is made from a solid piece of aluminum. The grades aredifferent per manufacturer. The machined riser is much stronger than moldedrisers, can be made smaller in the grip and additional features can be added. Themachined riser made it's major re-introduction in the early 90's. Although thisconcept has been around since the late 1960's, it was widely accepted just recentlydue to cost. Normally, the machined riser is heavier than the molded riser. How-ever, Hoyt introduced the innovative "Isogrid " design which allowed the riser to belighter than a molded riser .For years several manufacturers have been toying with a composite riserdesign. Yamaha introduced a carbon riser in the late 1980's. This riser was alimited riser made to celebrate Yamaha's 100th anniversary. Obviously, this typeof riser will be the future. The technology is not advanced enough to keep theprice reasonable for the average archer. Eventually other composites will be used;maybe ceramics, boron, etc. There are several risers on the market to-day. The archer needs to go with a bow that fits

    them personally. There are only a few that havebeen widely accepted by champion archers. I rec-ommend when the archer reaches a certain levelthat they go with one of the proven bows.Many archers are very critical with theirequipment and one of the biggest concerns abouta riser is it's straigthness. A crooked riser is noth-ing serious as long as it stays consistent. Mostarchers want a perfect riser when paying the pricefor a new riser. However, the manufacturers arein the market to make a riser that will be reason-ably priced for as many archers as possible. The


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    cost would be prohibitive if the manufacturers made a riser so perfect that it wouldsatisfy the most critica1 perfectionist. The champion archer usually takes a riserand makes many sma11 hanges to get the bow to fit them. It is like a pistol shooter.They usually purchase a gun, then take it to a gunsmith and make many changesto fit the individual.1JmQ There are various composites used for bow limbs. Years ago the limb wasmade of wood. Fiberglass was added to the limb making it more durable. Carbonwas added later to make the limb lighter causing a faster, stable and more consis-tent set-up. Hoyt came up with the syntactic foam to replace the wood core. Thismaterial has increased speed (it is lighter), added stability and consistency and itis impervious to the changes ofweather. Yamaha has introduced the ceramic limb.This limb is similar to the Hoyt limb 1n terms of consistency, speed and durability.The most important feature about limbs is to make sure they are straight. If theyare twisted a small amount and stay consistent, try to see if they can be tuned. If

    they can, they will perform exceptiona11ywell. Darrell Pace won the 1976 01ympicGold medal with twisted limbs. He knew they were twisted, but he also said thelimbs performed extremely well.Bow griQ Bow grips are one of the more important parts of the archer's equipment.Each archer has a slightly different shaped hand. Since all hands are a bit differentthe grip needs to be shaped for that hand. Over 20 years ago the archer did nothave a choice in grips since the bows were made of wood. lt was a major risk to

    work on the grip, because if it was messed up the archer had to replace the wholebow. Even the first metal risers had metal grips. Hoyt carne out with the firstinterchangeable plastic grip with three different shapes; a low, medium or highgrip. The high grip was not very popular and was discontinued. However, themedium and low grips were very popular. Since they were made of plastic thearcher could shape the grip to fit their hand. If they made a mistake they couldjust replace the grip at a fraction of the cost of the whole bow.

    Wooden grip fits to rny hand.EQUIPMENT 135

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    Grips are important because that is the last place the archer has to cau~edeflection of the shot. Once the arrow is released the arrow is still connected to thearcher through the grip. If the archer moves before the arrow leaves the arrowrest, the arrow will not hit what the archer was aiming at. Also, if the grip is notshaped properly for the archer's hand the bow will relieve itself of the torquecaused by pressures applied to the grip while at full draw.The best way to correct these two problems are as follows. First, the archerjust needs to make sure they do not move their bow arm and bow hand during theshot. This just takes practice, practice, and more practice. Just watch the cham-pion archers and it will be obvious that is what they did to make sure that bow armand bow hand stay strong and stable before, during and after the shot. Second isto eliminate torque. Torque is a twisting or rotation around an axis. The axis inthis case is the grip. When the archer draws the bow back and the pressure is notequal on the grip, the bow will rotate around the grip after the archer releases thestring to the least resistant area. The archer can eliminate this movement by filingand sanding the grip to fit the archer's hand.The easiest way to work on the grip is shoot some arrows and notice whichdirection the bow goes; If the center stabilizer goes left, then the right side of thegrip needs to be filed down. And, if the center stabilizer goes right (this will alsocause the archer to hit their arm with the bow string) then file the left side of thegrip. Make sure to keep the grip smooth and round. There should be no square orflat areas on the grip. This can cause inconsistent torquing.

    Stabilization Stabilization is a very sophisticated system to balance and stabilize the bowbefore, during and after the shot. Each archer is different in what they are com-fortable with. It is very important for the archer to find a comfortable set up thatperforms well for the archer, not for everybody else. I will cover these three differ-ent stages briefly.

    The 1995 World Outdoor Champion, Lee K yungChul's orthodox setting.Magnus Petterssen, 1995 World lndoorChampion, uses "Swing V-bar",136 EQUIPMENT

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    The first stage is before the shot. Stabilization in-fluences weight distribution and if the bow is too heavythe archer will have a difficult time in aiming. Althoughsome "specialists" say that the bow should be perfectlybalanced in three different dimensions the way they mea-sure this is in a static position. This does not influenceperformance in a dynamic position. The second stage,during the shot, is not as difficult to satisfy through stabi-lization. Since bow grip and tiller (1 will discuss this intuning) effects the bow reaction with stabilization, it ismost important to get the mass weight right so that thearcher can aim and execute the shot with enough energyleft over to finish the shot. The third stage is the mostimportant for the archer. Even though the arrow is al-ready on its way to the target and the influence of theshot is not possible, the archer will begin to anticipate theshot and make subconscious movements to make adjust-ments necessary for the archer to feel the shot the waythey want to. For example, the bow rotates too fast for the archer and the bottomlimb comes up and hits the archer in the chest or jaw. The archer will begin tomove their bow arm to the right during the shot to keep the limb from hittingthem. This physical adjustment will cause inconsistency. lf the bow is balancedproperly for dynamic execution, stabilization will help the archer. The two impor-tant parts is mass weight and weight distribution. If the archer gets these setproperly, they will be able to execute a good shot without being hindered by poorstabilization. Also, when there is an urge to play with stabilization, after the ar-

    cher is through with positioning their stabilizers to the right feel, make sure thatthe bow is re-tuned. Anytime the archer makes stabilization change causes thebow to be out of tuning adjustment. It will only take a few minutes to readjust thetune. Length and stabilizer placement varies per archer. I recommend the archertry all different stabilization positions. Experimenting takes a little time, but it isworth it. Especia11ywhen the archer finds the right position. The type of stabiliz-ers vary also. The harmonics of the bow is important. Different materials anddifferent shapes make the bow feel different. The feel of the bow will tell thearcher when it is right.Comgensators Compensators are used to dampen the vibration ofthe bow. Some archers believe that compensators arenot necessary. 1 eel they are very important to the feelof the bow and the well being of the archer. Vibration isenergy that could not be transferred to the arrow. Sincethe carbon arrows are so much lighter and leave the bowso much faster than aluminum arrows there is less en-ergy transferred to the arrow. This energy must go some-

    where. Usually it goes through the limbs, riser, stabiliz-ers, sight and the archer. Yes, he archer will absorb someEQUIPMENT 137

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    of the energy through the bow hand. If compensators are used, they will absorpmost of this excess energy. Usually archers put the compensators between thestabilizer and bow or v-bar. The latest thing is to use the compensator betweenthe stabilizer and weights. The difference of placement is up to the individual.Again, feel is very important to the archer. A1though, the feel comes after the shot,most archers will 'compensate' for the wrong feel to make it feel right.Bow sight

    Most bow sights are similar in design.The most important thing to consider witha sight is that it is stable, does not vibrateloose easily and is accurate in movementwhen the archer wants to move it. Somesights are heavy and some are light. Thesight can act as a stabilizer because of itsweight and length of extension. So whenmoving the sight in and out keep that inmind that it could cause your bow to actdifferently in two different positions.Most sights are made out of a formof aluminum. This aluminum works fine.It is heavier than the carbon sights that areavailable and the oscillation is different be-tween the two types of materials. The costof carbon discourages many archers. Although, carbon has a similar vibrationratio to the carbon arrows, many archers like the larger vibration of the aluminum.This is a persona1 feel and the archer will1iave to make the decision on which sightto use.

    Sight Qin Most sight pins are similar or look that way. If the archer likes to use a pin,look for one that satisfies the aim. Some archers like a large pin and other like avery small pin. Use one that is comfortable and makes the aim a secondary func-tion. Some archers like a ring sight with no pin. There are large rings and smallrings. Again, look for one that makes the aim comfortable. If the ring causes thearcher to hesitate to make sure the aim is cor-rect, it means that the ring is not suitable. Aim-ing needs to be secondary (the primary concernis proper execution of the shot) and in order todo that the pin or ring needs to fit the archer .

    There are many kinds of sight pins. M y favorite is "ringsight" with no pin.EQUIPMENT38

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    Bow Strings There are two types of string material being currently used by the top ar-chers. There are several modifications of the string developed in the Netherlands.It is ca1led Dyneema, Fast Flight and ASB Dyneema. I will call it 'spectra' to make itconsistent for all three. A company in the Netherlands invented the plastic mate-ria1 and a company from the United States and Japan received a license agreementto manufacture the product in America and Asia. Thesecompanies process the materia1 for our bow string manu-factures who finish the product to be sold to archers.All three products are similar and yet different enoughfor top archers to notice a difference in performance.The string materials are different in thickness and waxcontent. It is important to test these different strings tofind out which one will perform best for the archer. Twoof the three perform very well for me, however, I know

    top archers who prefer the third string material. I sug-gest that the archer test the different materia1s and findout for themselves which they are most comfortable.They will all perform good enough to shoot good scores.It is the one which gives the archer the most confidencein consistency, accuracy and durability that counts.Burnish the excesswax out of the string when new.Take a cloth or some old leather and rub gently up anddown the string. This helps in getting the excess waxout quickly. Some materia1 has an inconsistency of wax and will cause the string toperform inconsistently for a period of time. It will appear to stretch. One materia1has very little wax on it. This makes an excellent string, the material is not theeasiest to work with. It is a good idea to add some wax to the string once it is madeand then burnish it. When you burnish the string, make sure not to apply toomuch pressure or speed. These strings are made of plastic which has a low meltingpoint. I use a braided serving of 'spectra'. It is extremely durable material. Thereare a few good serving materials out there. They are usually a bit expensive, butwell worth it. If made properly, strings willlast for at least two years. This helps inmaking sure the archer has at least two goodshooting strings. They should be rotated inorder to make sure all strings are goodenough to have the confidence to shoot themduring the competition. If something goeswrong, the archer should not loose confi-dence in their back up string.The amount of strands to use is up tothe archer. There should be enough to makesure that the string does not elongate. Usu-ally 16 strands for around 30-35 pounds, 18strands for 35-40 pounds, 20 strands for 40-45 pounds and 22 strands for 45 and up.


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    This is just a rough estimate and the archer will have to determine what number ofstrands performs best. Again it takes time to test what works best, but once that isdetermined the archer will know for sure what to use.Some new material is out on the market. One is called Dyna-f1ight and theother is Magna-f1ight. The materia1s have less stretch and c1aimsto be more accu-rate. Magna-f1ight does not last as long as the 'spectra' material and it is heavier.Only time will tell if it is the new string for the future.

    Arrow RestsThere are many different arrow rests avail-able for the archer. In the beginning I recom-mend the archer use a rest that will be stableand consistent. Later on, once the archer hasdeveloped a knowledge and understanding ofequipment they can experiment with the manydifferent rests that are available. Trends change

    over time, but the Hoyt Super Rest has proven tobe one of the most widely used and stable arrowrest for many archers. I used it to shoot 1352and 1346. I do not have to worry about failureor inconsistency with this rest. The durability isnot as long as the metal rests available, however, it stilllasts for about 25,000shots. Good enough to use most of the year. It a1l depends on the tune of the bow.The hot rests of today are the metal wire, spring loaded or magnetic rests.With the carbon arrow, vertical compression is very critical. It should not happen!A firm rest helps keep the arrow stable. The spring loaded or magnetic designcompensates so that when the f1etch touches the rest, the wire collapses inwardletting the arrow continue it's f1ight unimpeded. These rests takes a litt1e tinkeringwith to make them work exactly the way the archer wants them. Again, the archermust experiment and tailor the rest to fit them.

    Plungers There are two types of plungers; working and non-work-ing. Most plungers are the latter. It is important to makesure the plunger stays smooth. I usually take my plungerapart and make sure it is clean and smooth several times peryear. It helps if this plunger can be put back together againeasily to the same place every time it is taken apart. Thereare only a few plungers like that. Also, I look for a very finitepluI1ger that I can tune with as much exactness as possible. Iuse a plunger that has a detent button in it to make sure itgoes to an exact place. The size of the spring will determinethe exactness. The larger the spring the more exact an archercan tune their bow. And finally, remember that you get whatyou pay for .

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    TUNIN GEaston has developed an excellent tuning system that has been implementedin most of their literature. It is commonly accepted world wide. Most of theseideas are in the Easton Technical Bulletin number 4. The following information is

    very similar to the Easton tuning recommendations. I have mainly tried to put theinformation into my own words presented in a similar but different way. Most ofthis information comes from Don Rabska and myself. Don is considered one of themost qualified experts in the field of recurve bow tuning. He has given tuningseminars all over the world with a great deal of acceptance. His knowledge of thesport of archery is truly extensive. And finally, all information is given for righthanded archers. Left handed archers need to do things opposite of what is recom-mended.Tuning the bow is important for several reasons. The first and most impor-tant reason is to make sure the proper arrow size is used. Easton's Arrow SelectionChart is the standard when trying to choose the proper arrow size. However, thereare so many different variables that come into play that the chart cannot give allscenarios. The chart is specifically designed to reach the majority of the archers orthe norm. Another reason is to make sure there is good clearance and finally,tuning can give a person a few extra points as their form improves.There are several methods for bow tuning. I will cover basic to advanced inthis section. Preliminary Equipment Setup which is important for all skilllevels is the first priority. Then we will discuss, Visual Inspection tuning,Bare Shaft Tuning, and Paper Tuning