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Transcript of Research proses
What is Research?Research is simply the process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors.
Definition of ResearchBusiness research as an organized, systematic, databased, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, under taken with the purpose of finding answer or solution to it.Examples: Brand loyalty, product life cycle, and product innovation; Updating policies and procedures in keeping with the latest governments regulations and organizational changes.
Scientific ResearchDecisions based on the results of scientific investigations tend to be more effective than those that are not.Scientific research is focused on the goal of problem solving and pursues a step-by-step logical, organized and rigorous method to identify problems, gather data, analyze them and draw valid conclusions therefrom.
The Hallmarks of Scientific ResearchPurposivenessRigorTestabilityReplicabilityPrecision and ConfidenceObjectivityGeneralizabilityParsimony.
ExampleThe case of a manager who is interested in investigation how employees commitment of the organization can be increased.How research may be considered as scientific research.
PurposivenessA definite aim or purpose for the research.
The focus is on increasing the commitment of employees to the organization, which will be helpful in many ways. An increase in employee commitment will mean less turnover, less absenteeism, and probably increased performance levels, all of which would benefit the organization. The research thus haves a purposive focus.
RigorA good theoretical base and a sound methodological design would add rigor to a purposive study.Rigor connotes carefulness, scrupulousness, and degree of exactitude in research investigation.
In the case of our example, let us say the manager of an organization asks 10 to 12 employees in the organization to indicate what would increase their level of commitment to it. If on basis of their responses alone, the manager reaches several conclusions on how employee commitment can be increased, the whole approach to the investigation would be unscientific. That would lack rigor because, to mention just a fews reasons,
The conclusions would be incorrectly drawn since they would be based on the thoughts of a few employees whose opinions may not be representative of those of the entire workforce.
2. The manner of framing and addressing the questions could have introduced bias or incorrectness in the responses
3. There might be other important influences on organizational commitment that this small sample of respondents did not or could not verbalize during the interviews, and the researcher would have failed to include them
Because of the above, conclusions drawn from an investigation that lacks a good theoretical foundation, as evidence by reason (3), and methodological sophistication, as evident from (1) and (2) above, would be unscientific.
Rigorous research involves a good theoretical base and a carefully thought-out methodologis. These factors enable the researcher to collect the right kinds of information from an appropriate sample with minimum degree of bias, and facilitate appropriate analysis of the data gathered
TestabilityIf, after talking to a random selection of employees of the organization and study of the previous research done in the area of organizational commitment, the manager or researcher develops certain hypotheses on how employee commitment can be enhanced, then these can be tested by applying certain statistical tests to the data collected for the purpose.
For instance, the researches might hypothesize that those employees who perceive greater opportunities for participation in decision making would have a higher level of commitmnet. This a a hypothesis that can be tested when the data are collected. A correlation nalysis would incicate whether or not the hypothesis is substainted.
ReplicabilityThe results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported againand again when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances.
Precision and confidencePrecision refer to how close the findings, based on a sample, are to reality. In other words, precision reflects the degree of accuracy or exactitude of the results based on the sample, to what really exists in the universe.Confidence refers to the probability that our estimations are correct.
ObjectivityThe conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts resulting from the findings from actual data, and not based on our own subjective or emotional values.
GeneralizabilityGeneralizability refersto the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organizational setting to other settings
ParsimonySimplicity in explaining the phenomena or problems that occur, and in generating solutions for the problems, is always preferred to complex research frameworks that consider an unmanageable number factors.
For instance, if two or three specific variables in the work situation are identified, which when change would raise the organizational commitment of the employees by 45%, that would be more useful and valuable to the manager than if he were recommended a change of 10 different variables to increase organizational commitment by 48%.
The Building Blocks of SciencdeDeduction and InductionDeduction is the process by which we arrive at reasoned conclusion by logically generalizing from a known fact.For example we know that all high performers are highly proficient in doing his job
Induction, on the other hand, is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions.In other words, in induction we logically establish a general proposition based on observed facts.
The method, starting with a theoritical framework, formulating hypothesis, and logically deducing from the results of the study is known as the HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE METHOD.
The Building Blocks of ScienceDeduction and InductionIdentification of problem areaTheoretical framework or Network of associationsObservationRefinement of theory (pure) research or Implementation (applied research)ConstructsConceptsOperational definitionsAnalysis of dataData CollectionHypothesesResearch designInterpretation of data
The Hypothetico-Deductive MethodObservationPreliminary information gatheringTheory formulationFurther scientific data collectionData analysisDeduction
Ch 4: The Research ProcessTwo distinct aspects of Scientific inquiry in the hypothetico-deductive method:The process of developing the conceptual framework and the hypotheses for testingThe design which involves the planning of the actual study, dealing with such aspects as the location for the study, how to select sample and collect the data and how to analyze the data.
The research process for basic and applied research
OBSERVATIONBroad area of research interest identified
PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERINGInterviewing Literature Survey
PROBLEM DEFINITIONResearch problem delineated
Variabel Clearly identified and labeled
GENERATION of HYPOTHESES
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN
DATA COLLECTON, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION
DEDUCTIONHypotheses substantiated? Research question answered?
Managerial Decision Making1234567891011 Statement Permasalahan(Gap antara yg seharusnya dng kenyataan)
Purpose of the studyTypes of InvestigationExtent of researcher interferenceStudy settingMeasurement and measuresPROBLEM STATEMENTExplorationDescriptionHypothesis testingEstablishing: Causal relationship Correlation Group difference, ranks, etcMinimal: Studying events as they normally occur
Manipulation and/or control and/or simulationContrivedNon contrivedOperational definitionItems (measure)Scaling CategorizingCodingUnit of analysis (population to be studied) IndividualsDyadsGroupsOrganizationsMachinesetcSampling designProbability/non probabilitySampleSize (n)TimehorizonOne-shot (cross sectional)LongitudinalData Collections MethodInterviewing QuestionnaireObservationUnobtrusive methods DATA ANALYSIS
1. Feel for data
2. Goodness of data
3. Hypotheses testing DETAILS OF STUDYMEASUREMENT
Step 1: ObservationIdentifying the broad problem area through process of observing and docusing on the situation.The specific issues that need to be research within this situation may not be identified at this stage.
Example of Broad Problem Area:Training program are perhaps not as effective as anticipated.Saturation of Islamic Bank Market.Lack of confidence of the ummah on Islamic Bank.Role of zakah on poverty alleviationDinar/Dirham as an alternative of fiat money
Step 2: Preliminary Data CollectionNature of Data to be Collected: - Background information of the org - Information on structural factors and management philosophy. - Perception, Attitutes and behavioral res ponses.
Literature Survey: - the documentataion of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work form secondary sources of data in the area of specific interest. - Reviewing the literature on the topic area at this time helps the researcher to focus the interviews more meaningful
Reasons for literature surveyTo ensure that no important variable is ignored.To discover something that has been thoroughly researchA surve