Ray Bradbury

Ray Bradbury For the author’s 1975 story collection, see Ray Bradbury (collection). Ray Douglas Bradbury (August 22, 1920 – June 5, 2012) was an American fantasy, science fiction, horror and mystery fiction author. Best known for his dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451 (1953) and for the science fic- tion and horror stories gathered together as The Martian Chronicles (1950) and The Illustrated Man (1951), Brad- bury was one of the most celebrated 20th-century Amer- ican writers. He wrote and consulted on many screen- plays and television scripts, including Moby Dick [2] and most notably, It Came from Outer Space, and many of his works have been adapted into comic books, television shows, and films. 1 Early life Bradbury as a senior in high school, 1938 Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920 [3][4] in Waukegan, Illinois, [5] to Esther (née Moberg) Brad- bury, a Swedish immigrant, and Leonard Spaulding Bradbury, [6] a power and telephone lineman of English descent. [7] He was given the middle name “Douglas,” af- ter the actor Douglas Fairbanks. 1.1 Hometown Ray Bradbury was surrounded by a loving extended fam- ily during his early childhood and formative years in Waukegan, Illinois. This period provided foundations for both the author and his stories. In Bradbury’s works of fiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes “Green Town,” Illi- nois. In his stories, Green Town is a symbol of safety and home, which is often juxtaposed as a contrasting back- drop to tales of fantasy or menace. It serves as the set- ting of his modern classics Dandelion Wine, Something Wicked This Way Comes, and Farewell Summer. In Green Town, Bradbury’s favorite uncle sprouts wings, traveling carnivals conceal supernatural powers, and his grandpar- ents provide room and board to Charles Dickens. [8] Per- haps the most definitive usage of the pseudonym for his hometown, in Summer Morning, Summer Night, a col- lection of short stories and vignettes exclusively about Green Town, Bradbury returns to the signature locale as a look back at the rapidly disappearing small-town world of the American heartland, which was the foundation of his roots. Between 1926 and 1933, the Bradbury family moved back and forth between Waukegan and Tucson, Arizona. In 1931, at the age of eleven, young Ray began writing his own stories. The country was going through the Great Depression, and sometimes Bradbury wrote on butcher paper. The Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, California, in 1934. In Beverly Hills, he often visited the science fiction writer Bob Olsen for mentorship as well as friend- ship while Bradbury was a teenager. They shared ideas and would keep in contact. Bradbury was related to the American Shakespeare scholar Douglas Spaulding. [9] He was also descended from Mary Bradbury, who was tried at one of the Salem witch trials in 1692. [10] 2 Influences, process and back- ground 1


Biography of Ray Bradbury

Transcript of Ray Bradbury

  • Ray Bradbury

    For the authors 1975 story collection, see Ray Bradbury(collection).

    Ray Douglas Bradbury (August 22, 1920 June 5,2012) was an American fantasy, science fiction, horrorand mystery fiction author. Best known for his dystopiannovel Fahrenheit 451 (1953) and for the science fic-tion and horror stories gathered together as The MartianChronicles (1950) and The Illustrated Man (1951), Brad-bury was one of the most celebrated 20th-century Amer-ican writers. He wrote and consulted on many screen-plays and television scripts, including Moby Dick[2] andmost notably, It Came from Outer Space, and many ofhis works have been adapted into comic books, televisionshows, and films.

    1 Early life

    Bradbury as a senior in high school, 1938

    Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920[3][4] inWaukegan, Illinois,[5] to Esther (ne Moberg) Brad-bury, a Swedish immigrant, and Leonard SpauldingBradbury,[6] a power and telephone lineman of Englishdescent.[7] He was given the middle name Douglas, af-

    ter the actor Douglas Fairbanks.

    1.1 Hometown

    Ray Bradbury was surrounded by a loving extended fam-ily during his early childhood and formative years inWaukegan, Illinois. This period provided foundations forboth the author and his stories. In Bradburys works offiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes Green Town, Illi-nois. In his stories, Green Town is a symbol of safety andhome, which is often juxtaposed as a contrasting back-drop to tales of fantasy or menace. It serves as the set-ting of his modern classics Dandelion Wine, SomethingWicked This Way Comes, and Farewell Summer. In GreenTown, Bradburys favorite uncle sprouts wings, travelingcarnivals conceal supernatural powers, and his grandpar-ents provide room and board to Charles Dickens.[8] Per-haps the most definitive usage of the pseudonym for hishometown, in Summer Morning, Summer Night, a col-lection of short stories and vignettes exclusively aboutGreen Town, Bradbury returns to the signature locale asa look back at the rapidly disappearing small-town worldof the American heartland, which was the foundation ofhis roots.Between 1926 and 1933, the Bradbury family movedback and forth between Waukegan and Tucson, Arizona.In 1931, at the age of eleven, young Ray began writinghis own stories. The country was going through the GreatDepression, and sometimes Bradbury wrote on butcherpaper.The Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, California,in 1934. In Beverly Hills, he often visited the sciencefiction writer Bob Olsen for mentorship as well as friend-ship while Bradbury was a teenager. They shared ideasand would keep in contact.Bradbury was related to the American Shakespearescholar Douglas Spaulding.[9] He was also descendedfrom Mary Bradbury, who was tried at one of the Salemwitch trials in 1692.[10]

    2 Influences, process and back-ground




    2.1 Hollywood

    The Bradbury family lived in Tucson, Arizona, in 19261927 and 19321933 as the father pursued employment,each time returning to Waukegan, but eventually settled inLos Angeles in 1934, when Bradbury was 14. The familyarrived with only 40 dollars, which paid for rent and fooduntil his father finally found a job making wire at a cablecompany for $14 a week. This meant they could stay andBradbury, who was in love with Hollywood, was ecstatic.The family lived about four blocks from the Uptown The-ater on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, the flagship the-ater for MGM and Fox. There, Bradbury learned how tosneak in and watched previews almost every week. Heroller-skated there as well as all over town, as he put ithell-bent on getting autographs from glamorous stars.It was glorious. Among stars the young Bradbury wasthrilled to encounter were Norma Shearer, Laurel andHardy, and Ronald Colman. Sometimes he would spendall day in front of Paramount Pictures or Columbia Pic-tures and then skate to the Brown Derby to watch thestars who came and went for meals. He recounted see-ing Cary Grant, Marlene Dietrich and Mae West, whohe would learn made a regular appearance every Fridaynight, bodyguard in tow.[11]

    2.2 Literature

    Bradbury was a reader and an ironic writer throughout hisyouth.[12] He knew as a young boy that he was going intoone of the arts.In 1932, one of Bradburys earliest influences was EdgarAllan Poe. At age twelve, Bradbury began writing tradi-tional horror stories and said he tried to imitate Poe untilhe was about eighteen. At the time, his favorites werealso Edgar Rice Burroughs and Burroughs John Carterof Mars series, as well as comic books. He listened tothe radio show Chandu the Magician, and when the showwent off the air every night he would sit and write theentire script from memory.In his youth, he spent much time in the Carnegie libraryin Waukegan, reading such authors as H. G. Wells, JulesVerne, and Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan ofthe Apes.[13] He loved Burroughs The Warlord of Marsso much that at the age of 12 he wrote his own sequel.[14]The young Bradbury was also a cartoonist and loved to il-lustrate. He wrote about Tarzan and drew his own Sundaypanels.When he was seventeen, Bradbury read stories publishedin Astounding Science Fiction, and said he read everythingby Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, and the earlywritings of Theodore Sturgeon and A. E. van Vogt, butcited H. G. Wells and Jules Verne as his big science fictioninfluences. Bradbury identified with Verne, saying, Hebelieves the human being is in a strange situation in a verystrange world, and he believes that we can triumph by

    behaving morally. [15]

    Bradbury admitted he stopped reading genre books in histwenties and embraced a broad field of literature that in-cluded Alexander Pope and poet John Donne.[11]

    An aunt read him short stories when he was a child.[16]He used this library as a setting for much of hisnovel Something Wicked This Way Comes, and depictedWaukegan as Green Town in some of his other semi-autobiographical novels Dandelion Wine and FarewellSummer as well as in many of his short stories.[17]

    He attributed to two incidents his lifelong habit of writ-ing every day. The first of these, occurring when hewas three years old, was his mothers taking him to seeLon Chaney's performance in The Hunchback of NotreDame.[18] The second incident occurred in 1932, whena carnival entertainer, one Mr. Electrico,[19] touched theyoung man on the nose with an electrified sword, made hishair stand on end, and shouted, Live forever!" Bradburyremarked, I felt that something strange and wonderfulhad happened to me because of my encounter with Mr.Electrico...[he] gave me a future...I began to write, full-time. I have written every single day of my life since thatday 69 years ago.[20] It was at that age that Bradburyfirst started to do magic, which was his first great love. Ifhe had not discovered writing, he would have become amagician.[21]

    Bradbury claimed a wide variety of influences, and de-scribed discussions he might have with his favorite po-ets and writers Robert Frost, William Shakespeare, JohnSteinbeck, Aldous Huxley, and Thomas Wolfe. FromSteinbeck, he said he learned how to write objectivelyand yet insert all of the insights without too much extracomment. He studied Eudora Welty for her remark-able ability to give you atmosphere, character, and mo-tion in a single line. Bradburys favorite writers growingup included Katherine Anne Porter, who wrote about theAmerican South, Edith Wharton, and Jessamyn West.[22]He often said he was a fantasy writer, not a science fictionwriter, and numerous times is quoted stating The onlyscience fiction I've written is Fahrenheit 451", elucidat-ing science fiction is the art of the possible. Bradburyrecounted when he came into his own as a writer, the af-ternoon he wrote a short story about his first encounterwith death. When he was a boy, he met a young girl atthe beach and she went out into the water and never cameback. Years later, as he wrote about it, tears flowed fromhim. He recognized he had taken the leap from emulatingthe many writers he admired to connecting with his voiceas a writer.[23][24]

    When later asked about the lyrical power of his prose,Bradbury replied, From reading so much poetry everyday of my life. My favorite writers have been thosewhove said things well. He is quoted, If you're reluc-tant to weep, you won't live a full and complete life.[25]

    In high school, Ray Bradbury was active in both the Po-etry Club and the Drama club, continuing plans to be-


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    come an actor but becoming serious about his writing ashis high school years progressed. Bradbury graduatedfrom Los Angeles High School, where he took poetryclasses with Snow Longley Housh, and short story writingcourses taught by Jeannet Johnson.[26] The teachers rec-ognized his talent and furthered his interest in writing,[27]but he did not attend college. Instead, he sold newspa-pers at the corner of South Norton Avenue and OlympicBoulevard. In regard to his education, Bradbury said:

    Libraries raised me. I don't believe in col-leges and universities. I believe in librariesbecause most students don't have any money.When I graduated from high school, it was dur-ing the Depression and we had no money. Icouldn't go to college, so I went to the librarythree days a week for 10 years.[28][29]

    He told The Paris Review, You can't learn to write in col-lege. Its a very bad place for writers because the teach-ers always think they know more than you do and theydont.[30]

    It was in UCLA's Powell Library, in a study room withtypewriters for rent, that Bradbury wrote his classic storyof a book-burning future, The Fireman, which was about25,000 words long. It was later published at about 50,000words under the name Fahrenheit 451, for a total cost of$9.80, due to the librarys typewriter-rental fees of tencents per half-hour.[31]

    3 Career

    When the Bradbury family moved to Los Angeles, Cal-ifornia in 1934, Bradbury attended Los Angeles HighSchool and was active in the drama club. Bradbury of-ten roller-skated through Hollywood in hopes of meetingcelebrities. Among the creative and talented people Brad-bury met this way were special effects pioneer Ray Har-ryhausen and radio star George Burns. Bradburys firstpay as a writer was at the age of fourteen, when Burnshired him to write for the Burns and Allen show.[32][33]

    In 1936, at a secondhand bookstore in Hollywood, RayBradbury discovered a handbill promoting meetings ofthe Los Angeles Science Fiction Society.[34] Thrilledto find there were others with his interests, at the ageof sixteen Bradbury joined a weekly Thursday-nightconclave.[35]

    Bradbury began submitting his short stories for publi-cation. After a rejection notice from the pulp mag-azine Weird Tales, Bradbury submitted to magazines.At Mademoiselle magazine, a young editorial assistantnamed Truman Capote spotted one of Bradburys shortstories, Homecoming'". Capote picked the Bradburymanuscript from a slush pile, which led to it getting pub-lished in the magazine. Homecoming won a place in TheO. Henry Prize Stories of 1947.[36]

    Bradbury had just graduated from high school when hemet Robert Heinlein, then 31 years old. Bradbury re-called, He was well known, and he wrote humanisticscience fiction, which influenced me to dare to be humaninstead of mechanical.[11]

    His first published story was Hollerbochens Dilemma,which appeared in the January 1938 number of Forrest J.Ackermans fanzine Imagination!.[1] In July 1939, Ack-erman gave nineteen-year-old Ray Bradbury the moneyto head to New York for the First World Science Fic-tion Convention in New York City, and funded Ray Brad-burys fanzine, titled Futuria Fantasia.[37] Bradbury wrotemost of its four issues, each limited to under 100 copies.Between 1940 and 1947, he was a contributor to RobWagner's film magazine, Script.[38]

    Ray Bradbury was free to start a career in writing when,owing to his bad eyesight, he was rejected admissioninto the military during World War II. Having been in-spired by science fiction heroes like Flash Gordon andBuck Rogers, Bradbury began to publish science fictionstories in fanzines in 1938.[39] Bradbury was invited byForrest J. Ackerman to attend the Los Angeles ScienceFiction Society, which at the time met at Cliftons Cafete-ria in downtown Los Angeles. This was where he met thewriters Robert A. Heinlein, Emil Petaja, Fredric Brown,Henry Kuttner, Leigh Brackett, and Jack Williamson.In 1939, Bradbury joined Laraine Day's Wilshire Play-ers Guild where for two years he wrote and acted inseveral plays. They were, as Bradbury later described,so incredibly bad that he gave up playwriting for twodecades.[40] Bradburys first paid piece, Pendulum,written with Henry Hasse, was published in the pulp mag-azine Super Science Stories in November 1941, for whichhe earned $15.[41]

    Bradbury sold his first story, The Lake, for $13.75 atthe age of twenty-two.[11] He became a full-time writerby the end of 1942. His first collection of short stories,Dark Carnival, was published in 1947 by Arkham House,a small press in Sauk City, Wisconsin, owned by writerAugust Derleth. Reviewing Dark Carnival for the NewYork Herald Tribune, Will Cuppy proclaimed Bradburysuitable for general consumption and predicted that hewould become a writer of the caliber of British fantasyauthor John Collier.[42]

    A chance encounter in a Los Angeles bookstore withthe British expatriate writer Christopher Isherwood gaveBradbury the opportunity to put The Martian Chroniclesinto the hands of a respected critic. Isherwoods glowingreview[43] followed.Bradbury relates the following meeting with Sergei Bon-darchuk, director of Soviet epic film series War andPeace, at a Hollywood award ceremony in Bondarchukshonor: They formed a long queue and as Bondarchukwas walking along it he recognized several people:

    Oh Mr. Ford, I like your film. He rec-



    ognized the director, Greta Garbo, and some-one else. I was standing at the very end of thequeue and silently watched this. Bondarchukshouted to me; Ray Bradbury, is that you?"He rushed up to me, embraced me, draggedme inside, grabbed a bottle of Stolichnaya, satdown at his table where his closest friends weresitting. All the famous Hollywood directors inthe queue were bewildered. They stared at meand asked each other who is this Bradbury?"And, swearing, they left, leaving me alone withBondarchuk[44]

    Bradbury was once described as a "Midwest surrealist"and is often labeled a science fiction writer. Bradburyresisted that categorization, however:

    First of all, I don't write science fiction. I'veonly done one science fiction book and thatsFahrenheit 451, based on reality. It was namedso to represent the temperature at which pa-per ignites. Science fiction is a depiction of thereal. Fantasy is a depiction of the unreal. SoMartian Chronicles is not science fiction, itsfantasy. It couldn't happen, you see? Thatsthe reason its going to be around a long time because its a Greek myth, and myths havestaying power.[45]

    On another occasion, Bradbury observed that the noveltouches on the alienation of people by media:

    In writing the short novel Fahrenheit 451I thought I was describing a world that mightevolve in four or five decades. But only afew weeks ago, in Beverly Hills one night, ahusband and wife passed me, walking theirdog. I stood staring after them, absolutelystunned. The woman held in one hand a smallcigarette-package-sized radio, its antenna quiv-ering. From this sprang tiny copper wireswhich ended in a dainty cone plugged into herright ear. There she was, oblivious to manand dog, listening to far winds and whispersand soap opera cries, sleep walking, helpedup and down curbs by a husband who mightjust as well not have been there. This was notfiction.[46]

    Besides his fiction work, Bradbury wrote many short es-says on the arts and culture, attracting the attention ofcritics in this field. Bradbury also hosted "The Ray Brad-bury Theater" which was based on his short stories. Brad-bury was a consultant for the American Pavilion at the1964 New York Worlds Fair[47] and the original exhibithoused in Epcot's Spaceship Earth geosphere at Walt Dis-ney World.[48][49][50] In the 1980s, Bradbury concentratedon detective fiction.[51]

    In a 1982 essay he wrote, People ask me to predict theFuture, when all I want to do is prevent it. This intent hadbeen expressed earlier by other authors,[52] who some-times attributed it to him.Several comic book writers have adapted Bradburys sto-ries. Particularly noted among these were EC Comics'line of horror and science-fiction comics. Initially, thewriters plagiarized his stories, but a diplomatic letter fromBradbury about it led to the company paying him and ne-gotiating properly licensed adaptations of his work. Thecomics featuring Bradburys stories included Tales fromthe Crypt, Weird Science, Weird Fantasy, Crime Suspen-stories, Haunt of Fear and others.Bradbury remained an enthusiastic playwright all his life,leaving a rich theatrical legacy as well as literary. Brad-bury headed the Pandemonium Theatre Company in LosAngeles for many years and had a five-year relationshipwith the Fremont Centre Theatre in South Pasadena.[53]

    Bradbury is featured prominently in two documentariesrelated to his classic 1950s-'60s era: Jason V Brock'sCharles Beaumont: The Life of Twilight Zones MagicMan,[54] which details his troubles with Rod Serling, andhis friendships with writers Charles Beaumont, GeorgeClayton Johnson, and most especially his dear friendWilliam F. Nolan, as well as Brocks The AckerMonsterChronicles!, which delves into the life of former Brad-bury agent, close friend, mega-fan, and Famous Monstersof Filmland editor Forrest J Ackerman.On May 24, 1956, Ray Bradbury appeared on the popularquiz show, You Bet Your Life hosted by Groucho Marx(Season 6 Episode 35).[55]

    4 Personal life

    Ray Bradbury was married to Marguerite McClure (Jan-uary 16, 1922 November 24, 2003) from 1947 until herdeath; they had four daughters:[56] Susan, Ramona, Bet-tina and Alexandra.[57] Though he lived in Los Angeles,Bradbury never obtained a drivers license but relied onpublic transportation or his bicycle.[58] He lived at homeuntil he was twenty-seven and married. His wife of fifty-six years, Maggie, as she was affectionately called, wasthe only woman Bradbury ever dated.[11]

    Bradbury was a close friend of Charles Addams, andAddams illustrated the first of Bradburys stories aboutthe Elliotts, a family that would resemble Addams ownAddams Family placed in rural Illinois. Bradburys firststory about them was Homecoming, published in the1946 Halloween issue of Mademoiselle, with Addams il-lustrations. He and Addams planned a larger collabora-tive work that would tell the familys complete history,but it never materialized, and according to a 2001 inter-view, they went their separate ways.[59] In October 2001,Bradbury published all the Family stories he had writtenin one book with a connecting narrative, From the Dust


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    Bradbury in December 2009.

    Returned, featuring a wraparound Addams cover of theoriginal Homecoming illustration.[60]

    Another close friend was animator Ray Harryhausen,who was best man at Bradburys wedding.[61] During aBAFTA 2010 awards tribute in honor of Ray Harry-hausen's 90th birthday, Bradbury spoke of his first meet-ing Harryhausen at Forrest J Ackerman's house whenthey were both 18 years old. Their shared love for sci-ence fiction, King Kong, and the King Vidor-directed filmThe Fountainhead, written by Ayn Rand, was the begin-ning of a lifelong friendship. These early influences in-spired the pair to believe in themselves and affirm theircareer choices. Since their first meeting, they kept intouch at least once a month, spanning over 70 years offriendship.[62]

    In later years, Bradbury retained his dedication and pas-sion despite what he described as the devastation of ill-nesses and deaths of many good friends. Among thelosses that deeply grieved Bradbury was the death ofStar Trek creator Gene Roddenberry, who was an inti-mate friend for many years. They remained close friendsfor nearly three decades after Roddenberry asked him towrite for Star Trek, which Bradbury never did, stating henever had the ability to adapt other peoples ideas intoany sensible form.[11]

    Bradbury suffered a stroke in 1999[63] that left him par-tially dependent on a wheelchair for mobility.[64] Despite

    this he continued to write, and had even written an essayon his inspiration for writing for The New Yorker pub-lished only a week prior to his death.[65] Bradbury maderegular appearances at science fiction conventions until2009, when he retired from the circuit.

    Ray Bradburys headstone in May 2012 prior to his death

    Bradbury was a strong supporter of public library sys-tems, and helped to raise money to prevent the closureof several in California due to budgetary cuts. He iter-ated from his past that libraries raised me, and shunnedcolleges and universities, comparing his own lack offunds during the Depression with poor contemporarystudents.[66] His opinion varied on modern technology.In 1985 Bradbury wrote, I see nothing but good com-ing from computers. When they first appeared on thescene, people were saying, 'Oh my God, I'm so afraid.'I hate people like that I call them the neo-Luddites",and In a sense [computers] are simply books. Books areall over the place, and computers will be too.[67] He re-sisted the conversion of his work into e-books, stating in2010 We have too many cellphones. We've got too manyinternets. We have got to get rid of those machines. Wehave too many machines now.[68] When the publishingrights for Fahrenheit 451 came up for renewal in Decem-ber 2011, Bradbury permitted its publication in electronicform provided that the publisher, Simon & Schuster, al-lowed the e-book to be digitally downloaded by any li-brary patron. The title remains the only book in the Si-mon & Schuster catalog where this is possible.[69] Brad-bury chose a burial place at Westwood Village Memo-rial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles with a headstone thatreads Author of Fahrenheit 451.[70][71][72] On February6, 2015, the New York Times reported that the house,at 10265 Cheviot Drive in Los Angeles, CA, that Brad-bury lived in, and wrote for fifty years of his life, wasdemolished.[73]

    5 Death

    Bradbury died in Los Angeles, California, on June 5,2012, at the age of 91, after a lengthy illness.[74]



    The New York Times ' obituary stated that Bradbury wasthe writer most responsible for bringing modern sciencefiction into the literary mainstream.[75] The Los Ange-les Times credited Bradbury with the ability to writelyrically and evocatively of lands an imagination away,worlds he anchored in the here and now with a senseof visual clarity and small-town familiarity.[76] Brad-burys grandson, Danny Karapetian, stated that Brad-burys works had influenced so many artists, writers,teachers, scientists, and its always really touching andcomforting to hear their stories.[57] The Washington Posthallmarked several modern day technologies that Brad-bury had envisioned much earlier in his writing, suchas the idea of banking ATMs and earbuds and Blue-tooth headsets from Fahrenheit 451, and the concepts ofartificial intelligence within I Sing the Body Electric.[77]

    On June 6, 2012, in an official public statement from theWhite House Press Office, President Barack Obama said:

    For many Americans, the news of Ray Brad-burys death immediately brought to mind im-ages from his work, imprinted in our minds, of-ten from a young age. His gift for storytellingreshaped our culture and expanded our world.But Ray also understood that our imaginationscould be used as a tool for better understand-ing, a vehicle for change, and an expression ofour most cherished values. There is no doubtthat Ray will continue to inspire many moregenerations with his writing, and our thoughtsand prayers are with his family and friends.[78]

    Bradburys personal library was willed to the WaukeganPublic Library, where he had many of his formative read-ing experiences.[79]

    Several celebrity fans of Bradbury paid tribute to the au-thor by stating the influence of his works on their owncareers and creations.[80][81] Filmmaker Steven Spielbergstated that Bradbury was "[his] muse for the better partof [his] sci-fi career.... On the world of science fictionand fantasy and imagination he is immortal.[82] WriterNeil Gaiman felt that the landscape of the world we livein would have been diminished if we had not had him inour world.[81] Author Stephen King released a statementon his website saying, Ray Bradbury wrote three greatnovels and three hundred great stories. One of the latterwas called 'A Sound of Thunder.' The sound I hear to-day is the thunder of a giants footsteps fading away. Butthe novels and stories remain, in all their resonance andstrange beauty.[83] Bradburys influence well exceededthe field of literature. Progressive house music producerand performer, Joel Thomas Zimmerman, who is mostcommonly known by his stage name Deadmau5, com-posed a song named after one of Bradburys short sto-ries The Veldt which was originally published in theSaturday Evening Post.[84] The EP of The Veldt was re-leased days after Bradburys death and is dedicated to thememory of the author.[85]

    6 Bibliography

    Main articles: Ray Bradbury bibliography and RayBradbury short fiction bibliography

    Bradbury is credited with writing 27 novels and over 600short stories.[76] More than eight million copies of hisworks, published in over 36 languages, have been soldaround the world.[75]

    6.1 First novel

    In 1949, Bradbury and his wife were expecting theirfirst child. He took a Greyhound bus to New York andchecked into a room at the YMCA for fifty cents a night.He took his short stories to a dozen publishers and noone wanted them. Just before getting ready to go home,Bradbury had dinner with an editor at Doubleday. WhenBradbury recounted that everyone wanted a novel and hedidn't have one, the editor, coincidentally named Wal-ter Bradbury, asked if the short stories might be tied to-gether into a book length collection. The title was the ed-itors idea; he suggested, You could call it The MartianChronicles. Bradbury liked the idea and recalled makingnotes in 1944 to do a book set on Mars. That evening, hestayed up all night at the YMCA and typed out an outline.He took it to the Doubleday editor the next morning, whoread it and wrote Bradbury a check for seven hundred andfifty dollars. When Bradbury returned to Los Angeles, heconnected all the short stories and that became The Mar-tian Chronicles.[22]

    6.2 Intended first novel

    What was later issued as a collection of stories and vi-gnettes, Summer Morning, Summer Night, started out tobe Ray Bradburys first true novel. The core of the workwas Bradburys witnessing of the American small-townand life in the American heartland.In the winter of 195556, after a consultation with hisDoubleday editor, Bradbury deferred publication of anovel based on Green Town, the pseudonym for hishometown. Instead, he extracted seventeen stories and,with three other Green Town tales, bridged them into his1957 book Dandelion Wine. Later, in 2006, Bradburypublished the original novel remaining after the extrac-tion, and retitled it Farewell Summer. These two titlesshow what stories and episodes Bradbury decided to re-tain as he created the two books out of one.The most significant of the remaining unpublished stories,scenes and fragments were published under the originallyintended name for the novel, Summer Morning, SummerNight, in 2007.[86]


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    7 Adaptations to other media

    Bradbury in 1959, when some of his short stories were adaptedfor television shows like Alfred Hitchcock Presents

    From 1951 to 1954, 27 of Bradburys stories wereadapted by Al Feldstein for EC Comics, and 16 of thesewere collected in the paperbacks, The Autumn People(1965) and Tomorrow Midnight (1966), both publishedby Ballantine Books with cover illustrations by FrankFrazetta.Also in the early 1950s, adaptations of Bradburys storieswere televised in several anthology shows, including Talesof Tomorrow, Lights Out, Out There, Suspense, CBS Tele-vision Workshop, Jane Wymans Fireside Theatre, StarTonight, Windows and Alfred Hitchcock Presents. TheMerry-Go-Round, a half-hour film adaptation of Brad-burys The Black Ferris, praised by Variety, was shownon Starlight Summer Theater in 1954 and NBCs SneakPreview in 1956. During that same period, several sto-ries were adapted for radio drama, notably on the sciencefiction anthologies Dimension X and its successor X Mi-nus One.Producer William Alland first brought Bradbury to movietheaters in 1953 with It Came from Outer Space, a HarryEssex screenplay developed from Bradburys screen treat-ment Atomic Monster. Three weeks later came the re-lease of Eugne Louri's The Beast from 20,000 Fath-oms (1953), which featured one scene based on Brad-burys "The Fog Horn", about a sea monster mistaking thesound of a fog horn for the mating cry of a female. Brad-burys close friend Ray Harryhausen produced the stop-motion animation of the creature. Bradbury would laterreturn the favor by writing a short story, Tyrannosaurus

    Rex, about a stop-motion animator who strongly resem-bled Harryhausen. Over the next 50 years, more than 35features, shorts, and TV movies were based on Bradburysstories or screenplays.Bradbury was hired in 1953 by director John Huston towork on the screenplay for his film version of Melville'sMoby Dick (1956), which stars Gregory Peck as CaptainAhab, Richard Basehart as Ishmael, and Orson Wellesas Father Mapple. A significant result of the film wasBradburys book Green Shadows, White Whale, a semi-fictionalized account of the making of the film, includingBradburys dealings with Huston and his time in Ireland,where exterior scenes that were set in New Bedford, Mas-sachusetts, were filmed.Bradburys short story I Sing the Body Electric (fromthe book of the same name) was adapted for the 100thepisode of The Twilight Zone. The episode was first airedon May 18, 1962.In 1965, three of Ray Bradburys stories were adaptedfor the stage. These included The Wonderful Ice CreamSuit, The Day It Rained Forever and Device OutOf Time. The latter was adapted from his 1957 novelDandelion Wine. The plays debuted at the Coronet The-ater in Hollywood and featured Booth Coleman, JobyBaker, Fredric Villani, Arnold Lessing, Eddie Sallia,Keith Taylor, Richard Bull, Gene Otis Shane, HenryT. Delgado, F. Murray Abraham, Anne Loos and LenLesser. The director was Charles Rome Smith and theproduction company was Pandemonium Productions.Oskar Werner and Julie Christie starred in Fahrenheit451 (1966), an adaptation of Bradburys novel directedby Franois Truffaut.In 1966, Bradbury helped Lynn Garrison create AVIAN,a specialist aviation magazine. For the first issue Brad-bury wrote a poem Planes that land on grass.In 1969, The Illustrated Man was brought to the bigscreen, starring Rod Steiger, Claire Bloom and RobertDrivas. Containing the prologue and three short storiesfrom the book, the film received mediocre reviews. Thesame year, Bradbury approached composer Jerry Gold-smith, whom had worked with Bradbury in dramatic ra-dio of the 1950s and later scored the film version ofThe Illustrated Man, to compose a cantata Christus Apollobased on Bradburys text.[87] The work premiered in late1969, with the California Chamber Symphony perform-ing with narrator Charlton Heston at UCLA.In 1972 The Screaming Woman was adapted as an ABCMovie-of-the-Week starring Olivia de Havilland.The Martian Chronicles became a three-part TVminiseries starring Rock Hudson which was first broad-cast by NBC in 1980. Bradbury found the miniseriesjust boring.[90]

    The 1982 television movie, The Electric Grandmother,was based on Bradburys short story "I Sing the Body



    Ray Bradbury takes part in a symposium at Caltech with ArthurC. Clarke, journalist Walter Sullivan, and scientists Carl Saganand Bruce Murray. In this excerpt, Bradbury reads his poem 'IfOnly We Had Taller Been' (poem begins at 2:20, full text[88]).Video released by NASA in honor of the naming of BradburyLanding in 2012.[89]

    Electric.The 1983 horror film SomethingWicked This Way Comes,starring Jason Robards and Jonathan Pryce, is based onthe Bradbury novel of the same name.In 1984, Michael McDonough of Brigham Young Uni-versity produced "Bradbury 13, a series of 13 audioadaptations of famous Ray Bradbury stories, in con-junction with National Public Radio. The full-castdramatizations featured adaptations of The Ravine,Night Call, Collect, "The Veldt", There Was anOld Woman, Kaleidoscope, "Dark They Were, andGolden-Eyed", The Screaming Woman, "A Sound ofThunder, The Man, The Wind, The Fox and theForest, "Here There Be Tygers" and The HappinessMachine. Voiceover actor Paul Frees provided nar-ration, while Bradbury himself was responsible for theopening voiceover; Greg Hansen and Roger Hoffmanscored the episodes. The series won a Peabody Awardas well as two Gold Cindy awards and was released onCD on May 1, 2010. The series began airing on BBCRadio 4 Extra on June 12, 2011.From 1985 to 1992 Bradbury hosted a syndicated an-thology television series, The Ray Bradbury Theater, forwhich he adapted 65 of his stories. Each episode wouldbegin with a shot of Bradbury in his office, gazing overmementoes of his life, which he states (in narrative) areused to spark ideas for stories. During the first two sea-sons, Bradbury also provided additional voiceover narra-tion specific to the featured story and appeared on screen.Deeply respected in the USSR, Bradburys fictions hasbeen adapted into five episodes of the Soviet science fic-tion TV series This Fantastic World adapted Ray Brad-burys stories I Sing The Body Electric, Fahrenheit 451, APiece of Wood, To the Chicago Abyss, and Forever andthe Earth.[91] In 1984 a cartoon adaptation of There WillCome Soft Rains ( ) came outby Uzbek director Nazim Tyuhladziev.[92] He made a filmadaptation of The Veldt ("") in 1987.[93] In 1989

    came out a cartoon adaptation of Here There Be Tygers( ) by director VladimirSamsonov.[94]

    Bradbury wrote and narrated the 1993 animated televi-sion version of The Halloween Tree, based on his 1972novel.The 1998 film The Wonderful Ice Cream Suit, releasedby Touchstone Pictures, was written by Ray Bradbury.It was based on his story The Magic White Suit orig-inally published in The Saturday Evening Post in 1957.The story had also previously been adapted as a play, amusical, and a 1958 television version.In 2002, Bradburys own Pandemonium Theatre Com-pany production of Fahrenheit 451 at Burbanks FalconTheatre combined live acting with projected digital an-imation by the Pixel Pups. In 1984, Telarium releaseda game for Commodore 64 based on Fahrenheit 451.[95]Bradbury and director Charles Rome Smith co-foundedPandemonium in 1964, staging the New York produc-tion of The World of Ray Bradbury (1964), adaptationsof "The Pedestrian", The Veldt, and To the ChicagoAbyss.In 2005, the film A Sound of Thunder was released,loosely based upon the short story of the same name. Thefilm The Butterfly Effect revolves around the same theoryas A Sound of Thunder and contains many references toits inspiration. Short film adaptations of A Piece of Woodand The Small Assassin were released in 2005 and 2007respectively.In 2005, it was reported that Bradbury was upset withfilmmaker Michael Moore for using the title Fahrenheit9/11, which is an allusion to Bradburys Fahrenheit 451,for his documentary about the George W. Bush adminis-tration. Bradbury expressed displeasure with Moores useof the title but stated that his resentment was not politi-cally motivated, even though Bradbury was conservative-leaning politically.[96] Bradbury asserted that he did notwant any of the money made by the movie, nor did he be-lieve that he deserved it. He pressured Moore to changethe name, but to no avail. Moore called Bradbury twoweeks before the films release to apologize, saying thatthe films marketing had been set in motion a long timeago and it was too late to change the title.[97]

    In 2008, the film Ray Bradburys Chrysalis was producedby Roger Lay Jr. for Urban Archipelago Films, basedupon the short story of the same name. The film won thebest feature award at the International Horror and Sci-Fi Film Festival in Phoenix. The film has internationaldistribution by Arsenal Pictures and domestic distributionby Lightning Entertainment.In 2010, The Martian Chronicles was adapted for radioby Colonial Radio Theatre on the Air.In 2012, EDM artist deadmau5, along with guest vocalistChris James, crafted a song called The Veldt inspiredby Bradburys short story of the same title. The lyrics


  • 9

    featured various references to the short story.Bradburys works and approach to writing are docu-mented in Terry Sanders' film Ray Bradbury: Story ofa Writer (1963).Bradburys poem Groon was voiced as a tribute in2012.[98]

    8 Awards and honors

    Bradbury receiving the National Medal of Arts in 2004 withPresident George W. Bush and his wife Laura Bush.

    The Ray Bradbury Award for excellency in screenwrit-ing was occasionally presented by the Science Fictionand Fantasy Writers of America presented to six peo-ple on four occasions from 1992 to 2009.[99] Beginning2010, the Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding DramaticPresentation is presented annually according to NebulaAwards rules and procedures, although it is not a NebulaAward.[100] The revamped Bradbury Award replaced theNebula Award for Best Script.

    In 1971, an impact crater on Earths moon wasnamed "Dandelion Crater" by the Apollo 15 astro-nauts, in honor of Bradburys novelDandelionWine.

    In 1984, he received the Prometheus Award forFahrenheit 451.

    Ray Bradbury Park was dedicated in Waukegan,Illinois in 1990. He was present for the ribbon-cutting ceremony. The park contains locations de-scribed in Dandelion Wine, most notably the 113steps. In 2009, an interpretive panel designed byartist Michael Pavelich was added to the park detail-ing the history of Ray Bradbury and Ray BradburyPark.[101]

    An asteroid discovered in 1992 was named "9766Bradbury" in his honor.

    In 1994, he received the Peggy V. Helmerich Dis-tinguished Author Award, presented annually by theTulsa Library Trust.

    In 1994, he won an Emmy Award for the screenplay,The Halloween Tree.

    In 2000, he was awarded the Medal for Distin-guished Contribution to American Letters from theNational Book Foundation.[102]

    For his contribution to the motion picture industry,Bradbury was given a star on the Hollywood Walkof Fame on April 1, 2002.[103]

    In 2003, he received an honorary doctorate fromWoodbury University where he presented the RayBradbury Creativity Award each year at WoodburyUniversity until his death.[104]

    On November 17, 2004, Bradbury received of theNational Medal of Arts, presented by PresidentGeorge W. Bush and Laura Bush.[105]

    Bradbury received a World Fantasy Award for LifeAchievement at the 1977 World Fantasy Conventionand was named Gandalf Grand Master of Fantasyat the 1980 World Science Fiction Convention.[106]In 1989 the Horror Writers Association gave himthe fourth or fifth Bram Stoker Award for LifetimeAchievement in horror fiction[107] and the ScienceFiction Writers of America made him its 10thSFWA Grand Master.[108] He won a First FandomHall of Fame Award in 1996[109] and the ScienceFiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame inducted him in1999, its fourth class of two deceased and two liv-ing writers.[110]

    In 2005 he was awarded the degree of Doctor ofLaws (honoris causa) by the National University ofIreland, Galway at a conferring ceremony in LosAngeles.

    On April 14, 2007, Bradbury received the SirArthur Clarke Award's Special Award, given byClarke to a recipient of his choice.

    On April 16, 2007, Bradbury received a special cita-tion by the Pulitzer Prize jury for his distinguished,prolific, and deeply influential career as an un-matched author of science fiction and fantasy.[111]

    In 2007, Bradbury received the French Comman-deur Ordre des Arts et des Lettres medal.[112]

    In 2008, he was named SFPA Grandmaster.[113]

    On May 17, 2008, Bradbury received the inauguralJ. Lloyd Eaton Lifetime Achievement Award in Sci-ence Fiction, presented by the UCR Libraries at the


  • 10 10 REFERENCES

    2008 Eaton Science Fiction Conference, Chroni-cling Mars.[114]

    In 2009, Ray Bradbury was awarded an HonoraryDoctorate by Columbia College Chicago.[115]

    In 2010, Spike TV Scream Awards Comic-Con IconAward went to Ray Bradbury

    In 2012, the NASA Curiosity rover land-ing site (43522S 1372630E / 4.5895S137.4417E)[116][117] on the planet Mars wasnamed "Bradbury Landing".[118][119]

    On December 6, 2012, the Los Angeles street cor-ner at 5th and Flower Streets was named in hishonor.[120]

    On February 24, 2013, Bradbury was honored dur-ing the 85th Academy Awards in the 'In Memoriam'segment.[121]

    9 See also

    10 References[1] Ray Bradbury at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

    (ISFDB). Retrieved April 22, 2013. Select a title to see itslinked publication history and general information. Selecta particular edition (title) for more data at that level, suchas a front cover image or linked contents.

    [2] Internet Movie Database: Ray Bradbury

    [3] Society for the Study of Midwestern Literature (2001).Greasley, Philip A., ed. Dictionary of Midwestern Liter-ature. 1, The Authors. Indiana University Press. p. 77.ISBN 9780253336095. Retrieved 5 March 2014.

    [4] Ray Bradbury Information, Facts, and Links died.Enotes.com. Retrieved September 30, 2011.

    [5] p.141 Bloom, Harold Ray Bradbury 2010 Infobase Pub-lishing

    [6] Touponce, William F. Ray (Douglas) Bradbury. Ameri-can Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supple-ment 4. Ed. A Walton Litz and Molly Weigel. New York:Charles Scribners Sons, 1996. Literature Resources fromGale. November 16, 2010.

    [7] Certificate of Birth, Ray Douglas Bradbury, August 22,1920, Lake County Clerks Record #4750. Although hewas named after Rae Williams, a cousin on his fathersside, Ray Bradburys birth certificate spells his first nameas Ray.

    [8] Summer Morning, Summer Night, by Ray Bradbury; Syn-opsis, Subterranean Press

    [9] The Spaulding Family Memorial, 1899

    [10] Eller, Jonathan (2011). Becoming Ray Bradbury. Univer-sity of Illinois Press. p. 202. ISBN 0252036298.

    [11] Ken Kelley (1996). About Ray Bradbury Interview.Playboy.

    [12] Litz, A. Walton. American Writers Supplement IV. NewYork: Charles Scribners Sons, 1996. Print.

    [13] Contemporary Authors Online. Ray Bradbury. Detroit:Gale, 2009. Web.

    [14] Heller, Terry. Magills Survey of American Literature.Revised Edition. Pasadena: Salem Press, 2006. Print.

    [15] Ray Bradbury interview The art of Fiction No. 203 TheParis Review; Spring, 2009

    [16] Paradowski, Robert J. Ray Bradbury. Critical Survey ofShort Fiction, Second Revised Edition 2001:15. EB-SCO. November 8, 2010.

    [17] Sites from these works which still exist in Waukegan in-clude his boyhood home, his grandparents home nextdoor (and their connecting lawns where he and his grand-father gathered dandelions to make wine) and, less than ablock away, the famous ravine which Bradbury used as ametaphor throughout his career.

    [18] Paradowski, Robert J. Ray Bradbury. Critical Surveyof Short Fiction, Second Revised Edition (2001): UFO.November 10, 2010.

    [19] In His Words. RayBradbury.com. Retrieved December9, 2009.

    [20] In His Words. RayBradbury.com. Retrieved June 6,2012.

    [21] Terry Sanders film Ray Bradbury: Story of a Writer(1963)

    [22] The Art of Fiction No. 203: Ray Bradbury, Interviewedby Sam Weller; The Paris Review, Spring 2010

    [23] A Conversation with Ray Bradbury Point Loma NazareneUniversity, Writers Symposium By The Sea; The onlyscience fiction I have written is Fahrenheit 451. Its theart of the possible. Science fiction is the art of the pos-sible. It could happen. It has happened. Discussion ofgenres, finding ones voice. April 2001; Cosmos Learn-ing, English Literature

    [24] Ray Bradbury interview I am not a science fiction writer.I am a fantasy writer. But the label got put on me andstuck. March 23, 2005

    [25] Personal lessons from futurist Ray Bradbury on crying,escaping, laughing, by Mick Mortlock; Oregon Live, June6, 2012

    [26] Ray Bradbury Biography Ray Bradbury Online

    [27] Litz, A. Walton, and Molly Weigel, eds. American Writ-ers (Supp. 4, Pt. 1). New York: Macmillian LibraryReference. 1996. Print.

    [28] Steinhauer, Jennifer (June 19, 2009). A Literary LegendFights for a Local Library. The New York Times. Re-trieved December 9, 2009.


  • 11

    [29] Mayor, Author Launch Library Funding Drive. Los An-geles Times, October 1, 1988

    [30] Ray Bradbury Interview The Paris Review

    [31] A Bruin Birthday Tribute To Ray Bradbury Tweet (Au-gust 22, 2010). First Spark: Ray Bradbury Turns 90;The Universe and UCLA Academy Celebrate. Spot-light.ucla.edu. Retrieved September 30, 2011.

    [32] Ray Bradburys close encounters with W.C. Fields,George Burns... by Susan King; Los Angeles Times, Au-gust 18, 2010

    [33] Old Radio Shows

    [34] The article linked appears in the source, but this nameconflicts with the groups web site.

    [35] The Big Read. Neabigread.org. Retrieved July 6, 2012.

    [36] Ray Bradbury, From Truman Capote to A.T.M.s, byDean Robinson 6th floor; The New York Times, June6, 2012]

    [37] Marguerite bradbury Ray Bradbury Discussion RayBradbury Official website

    [38] Sam Weller (Spring 2010). Ray Bradbury, The Art ofFiction No. 203. The Paris Review.

    [39] Ray Bradbury at the Internet Movie Database

    [40] Bradbury, Ray (1972). The Veldt. Woodstock, Illinois:Dramatic Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 1-58342-028-2.

    [41] Biographies: Bradbury, Raymond Douglas. s9.com.Retrieved December 9, 2009.

    [42] Cuppy, Will, Review of Dark Carnival, New York Her-ald Tribune Books, May 25, 1947.

    [43] Isherwood, Christopher (October 1950), A Review ofThe Martian Chronicles", Tomorrow 10: 5658

    [44] Ray Bradbury: Russians have an unparalleled capacityfor love"". http://rbth.ru. Retrieved September 15, 2012.

    [45] Wil Gerken, Nathan Hendler, Doug Floyd, John Banks.Books: Grandfather Time (Weekly Alibi . 09-27-99)".Weeklywire.com. Retrieved February 14, 2010.

    [46] Quoted by Kingsley Amis in New Maps of Hell: A Surveyof Science Fiction (1960).

    [47] The American Journey by: Ray Bradbury http://nywf64.com/unista09.shtml

    [48] Ray Bradbury. In 1982 he created the interior metaphorsfor the Spaceship Earth display at Epcot Center, DisneyWorld. http://www.raybradbury.com/bio.html

    [49] Ray Bradbury. The images at Spaceship Earth in Dis-neyWorlds EPCOT Center in Orlando? Well, theyare all Bradburys ideas. http://www.raybradbury.com/articles_town_talk.html

    [50] Ray Bradbury. He also serves as a consultant, hav-ing collaborated, for example, in the design of a pavil-ion in the Epcot Center at Walt Disney World. Refer-ring to Spaceship Earth ... http://www.raybradbury.com/articles_book_mag.html

    [51] Litz, A. Walton., and Molly V. Weigel. American Writers:a Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Scrib-ner, 1996. Print

    [52] I Do Not Want to Predict the Future. I Want to PreventIt. Quote Investigator. Retrieved 21 February 2015.

    [53] Ray Bradbury, 91, leaves a rich theatrical legacy too byDavid Ng; Los Angeles Time, June 6, 2012

    [54] French, Lawrence Richard Matheson remembers hisgood friend Charles Beaumont, March 24, 2010. Re-trieved October 31, 2012.

    [55] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBTrUx46b8I&list=PLHaioNpr_GDbvsTj_taM-jO6C1658N1PC&index=36

    [56] Telegraph obituary. The Daily Telegraph. June 6, 2012.Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [57] Author Ray Bradbury dies, aged 91. BBC News. June6, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [58] Riddle, Warren (June 25, 2009). Sci-Fi Author RayBradbury Trashes the Web. Switched. Retrieved De-cember 9, 2009.

    [59] Interview with Ray Bradbury in IndieBound, fall 2001.

    [60] Bradbury, Ray, From The Dust Returned: A Novel.William Morrow, 2001.

    [61] Whitaker, Sheila (May 7, 2013). Ray Harryhausen obit-uary. The Guardian. Retrieved June 4, 2013.

    [62] BAFTA Online. Ray Bradbury pays Tribute to Ray Har-ryhausen. YouTube. Retrieved July 12, 2010.

    [63] Ryan, Joal (November 12, 1999). Sci-Fi Great RayBradbury Suffers Stroke. E!. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [64] Rogers, Jim (January 18, 2002). Ray Bradbury StillWriting At 81. CBS News. Associated Press. RetrievedJune 6, 2012.

    [65] Bradbury, Ray (June 4, 2012). Take Me Home. TheNew Yorker. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [66] Steinhauer, Jennifer (June 19, 2009). A Literary LegendFights for a Local Library. The New York Times. Re-trieved June 7, 2012.

    [67] Lemley, Brad (1985-01-08). Other Voices, Other Fu-tures. PCMagazine. p. 133. Retrieved 28 October 2013.

    [68] Fahrenheit 451 becomes e-book despite authors feel-ings. BBC News. November 30, 2011. Retrieved De-cember 1, 2011.

    [69] Jablon, Robert (June 6, 2012). "'Fahrenheit 451' AuthorRay Bradbury Dies at 91. Time. Retrieved June 6, 2012.


  • 12 10 REFERENCES

    [70] Visiting Marilyn Monroes grave: Resting places of therich and famous. Test Pattern. MSNBC. August 15,2007. Retrieved April 7, 2012.

    [71] Guthrie, Bruce. CA Westwood Pierce Bros. West-wood Village Memorial Park: Ray Bradbury. BruceGuthrie Photos. Retrieved April 7, 2012.

    [72] Ray Bradbury at Find a Grave

    [73] Nagourney, Adam (February 6, 2015). Classic orRamshackle, Old Homes in Los Angeles Are Being Bull-dozed Into History. NewYork Times. Retrieved February6, 2015.

    [74] Duke, Alan (June 6, 2012). Sci-fi legend Ray Bradburydies. CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [75] Jonas, Gerald (June 6, 2012). Ray Bradbury, Master ofScience Fiction, Dies at 91. The New York Times. Re-trieved June 5, 2012.

    [76] George, Lynell (June 6, 2012). Ray Bradbury dies at91; author lifted fantasy to literary heights. Los AngelesTimes. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [77] Tsukayama, Hayley (June 6, 2012). Dreams of RayBradbury: 10 predictions that came true. The Washing-ton Post. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [78] Statement by the President on the Passing of Ray Brad-bury. The White House. Retrieved June 8, 2012.

    [79] Russell Lissau (June 17, 2013). Ray Bradbury book col-lection going to Waukegan library. Daily Herald.

    [80] Tributes paid to sci-fi author Ray Bradbury. BBC News.June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [81] Writers, filmmakers react to Ray Bradburys death.Boston Globe. Associated Press. June 6, 2012. RetrievedJune 6, 2012.

    [82] Zeitchik, Steven (June 6, 2012). Ray Bradbury was ahuge influence on the film world too. Los Angeles Times.Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [83] Stephen Comments on the Death of Ray Bradbury.Stephen King. Retrieved June 7, 2012.

    [84] http://bestsciencefictionstories.com/2008/02/21/the-veldt-by-ray-bradbury/

    [85] Video on YouTube

    [86] Summer Morning, Summer Night, by Ray Bradbury; PSPublishing, 2007

    [87] Goldsmith, Jerry (2002). Jerry Goldsmith: ChristusApollo (CD) (Media notes). Telarc. p. 2.

    [88] Jessie Lendennie, ed. (2006). If Only We Had TallerBeen. Daughter and Other Poems. Salmon Publishing.pp. 5758.

    [89] In Memoriam: Ray Bradbury 1920-2012. Jet PropulsionLaboratory. June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2012.

    [90] Weller, Sam (2005). The Bradbury Chronicles: The Lifeof Ray Bradbury. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 301302. ISBN 0-06-054581-X.

    [91] State Fund of Television and Radio Programs (in Rus-sian).

    [92] (in Russian).

    [93] "", "", 1987 (in Rus-sian).

    [94] () (in Rus-sian).

    [95] Fahrenheit 451 (1984 game)".

    [96] Fund, John (June 6, 2012). Ray Bradbury, a Great Con-servative. Nationalreview.com. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

    [97] Weller, Sam (2005). The Bradbury Chronicles: The Lifeof Ray Bradbury. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 330331. ISBN 0-06-054581-X.

    [98] http://vimeo.com/49873749

    [99] Other SFWA Awards. The Locus Index to SF Awards:About the Awards. Locus Publications. Retrieved April 2,2013.

    [100] Frequently Asked Questions. SFWA. Retrieved April 2,2013. Quote: Effective January 2009, here are the newrules for the Nebula Awards.

    [101] Keilman, John (June 7, 2012). Waukegans landscape,values never left Bradbury. Chicago Tribune. RetrievedJuly 15, 2012.

    [102] Distinguished Contribution to American Letters Awardwith his acceptance speech.

    [103] Ray Bradbury Receives Star on Hollywood Walk ofFame. Press release, office of Mayor Hahn, April 1,2002. Retrieved April 2, 2013.

    [104] Woodbury mourns the passing of Ray Bradbury. Wood-bury university. June 6, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.

    [105] Lifetime honors: National medal of the arts. NationalEndowment for the arts. Retrieved July 15, 2012.

    [106] Bradbury, Ray. The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index toLiterary Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved March22, 2013.

    [107] Bram Stoker Award for Lifetime Achievement. HorrorWriters Association (HWA). Retrieved April 6, 2013.

    [108] Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master. Science Fic-tion and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA). RetrievedApril 2, 2013.

    [109] First Fandom: First Fandom hall of fame award. FirstFandom. Retrieved July 15, 2012.

    [110] Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame. Mid Amer-ican Science Fiction and Fantasy Conventions, Inc. Re-trieved March 22, 2013. This was the official website ofthe hall of fame to 2004.


  • 13

    [111] The 2007 Pulitzer Prize Winners: Special Awards andCitations. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved November 2,2013.

    [112] The US conference of mayors, 80th annual meeting:Honoring the life of Ray Bradbury. The US conferenceof mayors. June 1316, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.

    [113] Wilson, Stephen M. (2008). 2008 SFPA Grandmaster.The Science Fiction Poetry Association. SFPA. RetrievedAugust 3, 2008.

    [114] The Eaton Awards. Eaton Science Fiction Conference.University of California, Riverside (ucr.edu). RetrievedApril 2, 2013.

    [115] College history: Honorary degree recipients. ColumbiaUniversity. 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2012.

    [116] MSNBC Staff (August 6, 2012). Video from rover looksdown on Mars during landing. MSNBC. Retrieved Oc-tober 7, 2012.

    [117] Young, Monica (August 7, 2012). Watch Curiosity De-scend onto Mars. SkyandTelescope.com. Retrieved Oc-tober 7, 2012.

    [118] Brown, Dwayne; Cole, Steve; Webster, Guy; Agle, D.C.(August 22, 2012). NASA Mars Rover Begins Driving atBradbury Landing. NASA. Retrieved August 22, 2012.

    [119] Mars Curiosity Rover Twitter feed.

    [120] Bob Pool, Intersection near L.A. library named for RayBradbury, Los Angeles Times, December 6, 2012

    [121] Oscars 'In Memoriam' 2013: Full list. MSN.


    Anderson, James Arthur (2013). The IllustratedRay Bradbury. Wildside Press. ISBN 978-1-4794-0007-2.

    Albright, Donn (1990). Bradbury Bits & Pieces:The Ray Bradbury Bibliography, 197488. Star-mont House. ISBN 1-55742-151-X.

    Eller, Jonathan R.; Touponce, William F. (2004).Ray Bradbury: The Life of Fiction. Kent State Uni-versity Press. ISBN 0-87338-779-1.

    Eller, Jonathan R. (2011). Becoming Ray Bradbury.Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-03629-8.

    Nolan, William F. (1975). The Ray BradburyCompanion: A Life and Career History, Photolog,and Comprehensive Checklist of Writings. Gale Re-search. ISBN 0-8103-0930-0.

    Paradowski, Robert J.; Rhynes, Martha E. (2001).Ray Bradbury. Salem Press.

    Reid, Robin Anne (2000). Ray Bradbury: A Crit-ical Companion. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30901-9.

    Tuck, Donald H. (1974). The Encyclopedia of Sci-ence Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. pp.6163. ISBN 0-911682-20-1.

    Weist, Jerry (2002). Bradbury, an Illustrated Life:A Journey to Far Metaphor. William Morrow andCompany. ISBN 0-06-001182-3.

    Weller, Sam (2005). The Bradbury Chronicles: TheLife of Ray Bradbury. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-054581-X.

    11 External links Official website

    Ray Bradbury at the Internet Movie Database

    Ray Bradbury at the Internet Speculative FictionDatabase

    Ray Bradbury at Goodreads

    Center for Ray Bradbury Studies

    Bradburymedia reviews of Bradburys media work

    Ray Bradbury BBC radio dramatizations and read-ings

    Works by Ray Bradbury at Open Library

    Ray Bradbury biography at the Science Fiction andFantasy Hall of Fame

    Ray Bradbury collected news and commentary atThe New York Times

    Ray Bradbury collected news and commentary atThe Guardian

    Works by or about Ray Bradbury in libraries(WorldCat catalog)

    Ray Bradbury at Library of Congress Authorities with 184 catalog records