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Pushing the boundaries of C–H bond functionalization chemistryusing flow technology
Sebastian Govaerts1,2 & Alexander Nyuchev1 & Timothy Noel1
Received: 22 November 2019 /Accepted: 2 January 2020# The Author(s) 2020
AbstractC–H functionalization chemistry is one of the most vibrant research areas within synthetic organic chemistry. While most re-searchers focus on the development of small-scale batch-type transformations, more recently such transformations have been carriedout in flow reactors to explore new chemical space, to boost reactivity or to enable scalability of this important reaction class. Herein,an up-to-date overview of C–H bond functionalization reactions carried out in continuous-flow microreactors is presented. Acomprehensive overview of reactions which establish the formal conversion of a C–H bond into carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds is provided; this includes metal-assisted C–H bond cleavages, hydrogen atom transfer reactions and C–H bondfunctionalizations which involve an SE-type process to aromatic or olefinic systems. Particular focus is devoted to showcase theadvantages of flow processing to enhance C–H bond functionalization chemistry. Consequently, it is our hope that this review willserve as a guide to inspire researchers to push the boundaries of C–H functionalization chemistry using flow technology.
Keywords Cross coupling . C . H activation . Catalysis . Microreactor . Flow chemistry
The construction of carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatombonds is a key objective for synthetic chemists to build upcomplex organic molecules. Such bonds are prevalent inmany materials, medicinally and biologically active com-pounds. In the most recent decades, these linkages have beenforged through transition metal catalyzed cross coupling be-tween aryl/alkyl halides or pseudo halides and nucleophiles(Fig. 1a) [1, 2]. However, such an approach requiresprefunctionalized substrates and coupling partners, often pre-pared in a multistep reaction sequence, which is time-consuming and inefficient.
Inspired by selective biosynthetic pathways [3–5], C–Hactivation has emerged as a new and promising area for theconstruction of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds
(Fig. 1a) [6–19]. C–H bonds are the fundamental linkage inorganic molecules and, consequently, C–H activation strate-gies would allow for very versatile transformations, even ap-plicable in late-stage functionalizations enabling rapid diver-sification of hit molecules. This provides an atom-efficientand cost-effective alternative for the traditional cross-coupling strategies. In 2005, the ACS GCI PharmaceuticalRoundtable have ranked C–H activation as the top priorityof the aspirational reactions, i.e. reactions which companieswould like to use on the proviso that they are available [20,21].While C–H activation has indeed been hailed for its use ofunfunctionalized starting materials, the applicability of C–Hactivation chemistry has been limited mainly by the inert na-ture of the carbon-hydrogen bond (bond dissociation energiesof aromatic C–H are around 110 kcal mol−1 and of aliphaticC–H around 105 kcal mol−1). Consequently, in order to cleavethe C–H bond, harsh reaction conditions, long reaction timesand high catalyst loadings are typically required. Also, stoi-chiometric amounts of toxic oxidants are often needed to closethe catalytic cycle.
In the past two decades, continuous-flowmicroreactors havebeen increasingly used as an interesting new tool to boostchemical reactions. Advantages, such as excellent heat- andmass-transfer, safety of operation and ease of scale-up, haveattracted the interest of both synthetic and process chemists
* Timothy [email protected]; https://www.noelresearchgroup.com
1 Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Micro FlowChemistry and Synthetic Methodology, Eindhoven University ofTechnology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2 School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road,Manchester M13 9PL, UK
https://doi.org/10.1007/s41981-020-00077-7Journal of Flow Chemistry (2020) 10:13–71
/Published online: 14 February 2020
and allow to perform reactions under conditions that cannot beeasily achieved in conventional batch reactors (Fig. 1) [22–24].
Since the emergence of flow chemistry, a lot of researchefforts have been devoted to the development of continuous-flow alternatives for cross-coupling chemistry, which evenserved as a benchmark reaction for early reactor concepts[25, 26]. Notably, despite the fact that C–H activation requiresin general harsher reaction conditions than their cross-coupling counterparts, flow approaches for C–H activationhave been comparatively rare. However, as shown inFig. 1b, many of the advantages that popularized flow pro-cessing are also of great use to boost C–H functionalizationand might deliver a solution to the known shortcomings of thefield (Fig. 1a). Herein, we provide an overview of those C–Hfunctionalization processes that have been carried out in flow[20, 27]. The review is structured by highlighting the differentbonds that are formed, including carbon–carbon, carbon–ni-trogen, carbon–oxygen, carbon–sulfur, carbon–halogen andcarbon–hydrogen bonds. We have chosen to include a diverseset of C–H bond functionalizations, including metal-assistedC–H bond cleavages, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactionsand radical C–H bond functionalizations, which involve theaddition of radicals to unsaturated systems. Especially the
inclusion of the latter reaction class is debatable as the cleav-age of the C–H bond occurs in the final deprotonation step andthus this class cannot be regarded as a formal C–H activationreaction. However, for reasons of completeness and due to thedifficulty in determining the operating C–H scission mecha-nism , we have chosen to incorporate radical-based C–Hfunctionalization reactions in this review. The advantages offlow chemistry have been highlighted when- and whereverappropriate. Hence, we hope this review will serve as a usefulguide for those researchers working in C–H functionalizationchemistry who aspire to implement flow processing in theirexperiments.
C −H functionalization in flow
C − C bond formation
C − H alkylation
The insertion chemistry of carbenes represents an interestingand mechanistically distinct case of C −H functionalizationreaction . While carbenes can be formed in a number of
Fig. 1 a Comparison betweenclassical cross-coupling and C–Hfunctionalization chemistry. bAdvantages provided by flowprocessing in microreactors andits potential impact on C–Hfunctionalization chemistry
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ways, one of the most well-known approaches is through thethermal, photochemical or metal-catalyzed decomposition ofdiazo compounds . One of the main advantages of flowchemistry, in particular when looking at industrial applica-tions, is the ability to perform reactions which would ordinar-ily be considered hazardous in a safe manner, as the reactingvolumes at any given time are typically very small [30, 31].Many reports have appeared on the synthesis and chemistry ofthe synthetically useful but unstable diazo compounds incontinuous-flow microreactors [32–43].
Many routes to access diazo compounds exist, e.g. the di-azo transfer reaction. While a reliable approach, it suffers frompoor atom economy as stoichiometric amounts of sulfonamidewaste products are formed. A straightforward approach toaccess diazo compounds is via oxidation of the correspondinghydrazones. The oxidation can be carried out with insolubleMnO2, or a solid-supported oxidant can be used, such as N-iodo-p-toluenesulfonamide potassium salt (PS-SO2NIK).Using an excess of the supported oxidant PS-NIK (5 equiva-lents), Davies et al. converted hydrazones to donor-acceptordiazo compounds in flow for subsequent application in C −Hfunctionalization reactions using enantioselective Rh(II)catalysis.
Critical to the success of the transformation is the elimina-tion of water (which would result in the formation of O −Hinsertion products) and the removal of trace iodine leachingfrom the oxidant column. By constructing a modular flow set-up consisting first of an oxidant column, followed by a col-umn packed with 4 Å molecular sieves and sodium thiosul-fate, both water and iodine were removed from the reagentstream giving access to a series of push-pull diazo
compounds. This allowed for the C −H functionalization ofp-cymene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, with Rh2(S-p-B rTCP ) 4 ) a n d n - p e n t a n e (w i t h a Rh 2 (R - 3 , 5 -di)p-tBuPh)TPCP)4 catalyst) via C − H insertion of thecarbene generated from the parent diazo compound (Scheme1) in batch . However, both the price of the noble metalrhodium and the catalyst ligands are a non-negligible cost.Provided leaching can be kept to a minimum and highenantioselectivities maintained, catalyst immobilization is anattractive strategy, both from an economical and environmen-tal point of view. The Rh2(S-p-BrTCP)4 catalyst in particularshows enantioselectivity for the challenging functionalizationof primary C −H bonds. As demonstrated by Jones, Daviesand co-workers, the catalyst can be grafted on silica particlesby exchanging one of the ligands of the rhodium catalyst witha ligand bearing an alkyne functionality. The silica particle canbe connected with an azide-bearing silane, allowing covalentlinking through the azide-alkyne click reaction with no appar-ent loss of selectivity (Scheme 2) .
The inside of the PTFE tube is coated with the fibercontaining the silica particles. As such, the liquid isforced to flow through the fiber in an axial direction.Application of the poly(amide-imide) material Torlon rep-resents a notable improvement over the previous reportedreactor design, also reported by the groups of Jones andDavies and applied to a C −H functionalization reaction, making use of a radial flow through cellulose fibers,which were incompatible with chlorinated solvents. Thiswas an important drawback, as this necessitated the use ofhydrocarbon solvents, e.g. hexane, which can undergo C− H insertion with carbenes, thereby functioning as an
Scheme 1 Enantioselective C −H functionalization in flowthrough rhodium catalysis
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alkylating agent. Aditionally, the axial hollow-fiber designallows to drastically reduce the amount of chlorinatedsolvent necessary, reducing the environmental footprintof the reaction, while the turnover number (TON) wasincreased (Scheme 3 and 4).
After 10 consecutive runs with the same immobilizedcatalyst to couple 4-methoxytoluene and hydrazone, theyield was only slightly lower, dropping from 74% to65%, while the enantioselectivity remained unchanged(89 to 86% ee). These results are comparable with theresults obtained for the homogeneous catalyst underbatch conditions .
The polyoxometalate decatungstate (W10O324−) is a useful
photocatalyst for the direct activation of hydridic C −H bondsthrough hydrogen atom transfer (simultaneous abstraction of aproton and an electron). Upon irradiation with near-UV light(λmax TBADT = 323 nm) it undergoes ligand-to-metal chargetransfer (LMCT), giving rise to a first excited state [W10O32
−]* with a lifetime of 30 ps. It decays into the second excitedstate known aswO, in which the bridging oxygen atoms of thecluster have partial radical character, with a lifetime of 55 ±20 ns. The second excited state can be quenched throughparticipation in both single-electron transfer (SET) or hydro-gen atom transfer (HAT) events . Acting as electrophilicradicals, the bridging oxygen atoms of the cluster are able toengage in selective hydrogen atom transfer (HAT).Decatungstate is usually prepared as the sodium ortetrabutylammonium salt, the latter showing enhanced solu-bility in organic media (acetonitrile or DCM). Upon abstrac-tion of the hydrogen atom, the one electron-reduced form ofthe catalyst is formed, H+[W10O32]
5−, which has a deep bluecolour, as well as a carbon  or silicon-centered  radi-cal. The nucleophilic alkyl radicals thus formed can be trappedwith suitable electrophilic acceptors, e.g. electron-poor olefins(Giese type reaction) or electron-poor (hetero)arenes (Miniscitype reaction). After formation of the adduct, the resultingradical reoxidizes and deprotonates the catalyst to close thecatalytic cycle. Several transformations involving thedecatungstate catalyst in continuous-flow will be discussedin this review, encompassing the C −H activation of alkanesubstrates, ethers and aldehydes for the direct alkylation, ac-ylation, fluorination and oxygenation, depending on the radi-cals and the coupling partners involved.
Scheme 3 Merger of the flowsynthesis of diazo compoundsand Rh catalyst immobilization toachieve enantioselective carbeneC − H insertion
Scheme 2 Silica-immobilized Rh2(S-p-BrTCP)3(S-p-TPCP)
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Building on previous work on C −H alkylation throughdecatungstate photcatalysis [51–57], Fagnoni et al. reportedthe alkylation of a series of electron-poor olefins under flowconditions by construction of a 50 ml mesoscale (i.d. 2.1 mm)photoflow reactor consisting of a 500 Wmedium pressure Hgvapor lamp and FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) tubing,decreasing the required reaction time for the transformationfrom 6 to 2 h. Alkylating agents include simple cycloalkanes,cyclic ethers, e.g. oxetane, and 1,3-benzodioxole, which formnucleophilic alkyl radicals upon quenching of the wO excited
state of decatungstate. They can undergo coupling withelectron-poor olefinic partners (e.g. maleates, phenyl vinylsulfone and diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, the latter allowingthe formation of C −N bonds, Scheme 5) .
Zuo and co-workers were able to activate light (C1-C4)gaseous alkanes using cerium photocatalysis in flow. Theirstrategy relies on the formation of Ce(IV) alkoxy com-plexes which undergo ligand-to-metal charge transfer(LMCT) under 400 nm irradiation, generating highly elec-trophilic alkoxy radicals (through homolytic fragmentation
Scheme 4 Catalytic cycle fordecatungstate-catalyzed C −Halkylation
Scheme 5 Decatungstate catalyzed C −H alkylation of electron-poor olefins
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 17
of the cerium-oxygen bond) and Ce(III). The electrophilicalkoxy radicals can then operate as HAT catalysts byabstracting hydridic hydrogens, such as those found inmethane and ethane, to form the corresponding nucleophil-ic alkyl radical (polarity matching-strategy). The alkyl rad-ical can be trapped for the alkylation of electron-poor ole-fins, heteroarenes and DBAD (N-di-Boc azadicarboxylate).After addition, the radical adduct reoxidizes Ce(III) toCe(IV), though an external oxidant, (NH4)2S2O8, is re-quired for the rearomatisation of azine substrates(Scheme 6). A plausible explanation for this is that theyare functionalized through oxidation of the radical adductformed during the C–C bond forming-step (resulting in a
cationic intermediate which rearomatises upon loss of aproton, i.e. a Minisci reaction) rather than through reduc-tion of the radical adduct to an anionic species (as in thecase of addition of nucleophilic alkyl radicals to DBAD andelectron-poor olefins, the Giese reaction) which undergoesprotonation to form the alkylated product.
All of the linear gaseous alkanes were successfullyemployed in radical alkylation reactions of DBAD, electron-poor olefins and azines. The alkylation of the Boc-protectedDBAD was performed in less than 15 min residence time,using both gaseous and liquid alkanes (cyclohexane), in aglass microreactor with a volume of 4.5 ml and various alkanepressures in the range of 400–1800 kPa (Scheme 7) .
Scheme 6 Catalytic cycle for theMinisci alkylation of azinesthrough cerium photocatalysis
Scheme 7 C −Hfunctionalization of gaseousalkanes via cerium photocatalysis
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Eosin Y is a common organic photocatalyst in photoredoxcatalysis because the excited T1 state formed under visiblelight irradiation (green light) acts as a one-electron transferagent under basic conditions . Recently, two new reactiv-ity modes of excited state Eosin Y were reported . Wangand co-workers discovered that Eosin Y can act as apho toac id , wh i ch a l l owed the syn the s i s o f 2 -deoxyglucosides from glycals , while Wu and co-workers discovered Eosin Y can act as a direct hydrogen atomtransfer (HAT) catalyst under neutral conditions. Under irra-diation with white light, the T1 state of Eosin Y is generated.Analogous to decatungstate (vide supra), as an oxygen-centered radical it acts as an electrophilic HAT catalyst suc-cessfully activating hydridic C −Hbonds to create nucleophil-ic alkyl radicals. The scope of the transformation was exploredin regard to the substrate undergoing HAT. Ethers, thioethers,amides and alcohols were successfully activated at the α-po-sition. Acyl radicals could be generated from aldehydes (no-tably, 2-pyrrole carboxaldehyde was successfully activated)while alcohols undergo functionalization at the hydroxylgroup-bearing carbon. As carbon-centered radicals are
nucleophilic species, the substrate scope was explored withelectron-poor coupling partners. Malononitriles are electro-philic olefins and good coupling partners for nucleophilic rad-icals (Scheme 8). A series of α,β-unsaturated compoundswere tested, the reaction proving to be compatible with amide,imide, nitro and sulfone functionalities. An interesting cou-pling partner for nucleophilic radicals is 2-vinylpyridine, pro-viding the hydroalkylated Giese product with THF as the rad-ical coupling partner in 60% yield. 2-vinylthiophene was alsosupported in the transformation when the double bond bearsthe electron-withdrawing phenyl ketone moiety.
The reaction was adapted to flow to enable scale-up, al-though elevated temperatures (50–70 °C) were required withthe alkyl coupling partner (THF, i-PrOH) serving as the sol-vent. Further, a polar solvent which does not contain ahydridic hydrogen atom is required (t-BuOH was found tobe suitable in the Giese reaction of 2-ethyl-propen-3-one withbenzaldehyde). The mechanism of the reaction is particularlyintriguing (Scheme 9), since earlier reports have demonstratedEosin Y to be photoactive as an anion (either the anion ordianion) under basic conditions.
Scheme 8 C −H alkylationthrough Eosin Y HATphotocatalysis
Scheme 9 Catalytic cycle for theEosin Y catalysed C − Halkylation via HAT
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Several experiments were performed to elucidate the mech-anism. Under irradiation with different wavelengths of light, thehighest conversions (99%) were achieved with blue and whitelight, which corresponds to the absorption maximum of neutralEosin Y. The maximum of absorption of the anionic forms iscentred on longer wavelengths, i.e. green light, which in thiscase resulted in lower conversion (75%). The luminescence ofneutral excited state Eosin Y was not quenched by THF orphenyl vinyl sulfone, ruling out the operation of sensitizationor SET as the quenching mechanism. Additionally, cyclic volt-ammetry (CV) studies performed in acetone have shown EosinY is neither able to oxidise THF nor reduce phenyl vinyl sul-fone. The transient intermediates involved in photochemicalprocesses can be studied with laser flash photolysis, where thesample is excited with a very short laser pulse (in this particularcase on the microsecond time scale) after which the absorptionproperties and lifetimes of the excited states generated duringthe flash can be measured. Moreover, it allows elucidation ofphotochemical reaction pathways as the absorption of the ex-cited states of transient species such as radicals will bequenched due to the shortening of their lifetimes if a suitablereactant is present. After excitation of a THF solution of EosinY with a 470 nm laser, two intermediates were detected withlifetimes of 20.6 (absorbing at 329 nm) and 21 (absorbing at543 nm) μs, which the authors assigned to the T1 excited stateof *Eosin Y. After decay of these intermediates, a new interme-diate with a lifetime of several milliseconds was detected, indi-cating it could be the product formed after HAT to triplet EosinY, i.e. H–Eosin Y. Most importantly, the lifetime of this inter-mediate was shortened to 1 ms in the presence of phenyl vinylsulfone which is required for the completion of the catalyticcycle. Finally, DFT calculations show that two mechanismscould operate in the final step of the catalytic cycle. One isthe reduction and protonation of the radical adduct by H–Eosin Y (Ea = 32.3 kcal mol
−1), or an additional THF moleculecould be oxidised by the radical adduct, the anion of which thendeprotonates Eosin Y (Ea = 19.9 kcal mol
−1). Although thisindicates the latter pathway to be more likely, on the basis ofdeuterium labelling studies direct proton – and electron transferbetween the adduct and H–Eosin Y could not be ruled out .
An increasing amount of reports on dual catalytic strategieshave appeared in the scientific literature during the last fewyears [64–66]. Most of these newly developed methodologiesseek to combine the strengths of transition metal catalysis forcross-coupling reactions with the advantages offered byphotoredox catalysis for the generation of reactive radical inter-mediates, allowing an unprecedented amount of novel reactionsto be developed to forge carbon-carbon bonds. Seminal contri-butions to the field were made, in particular, by the group ofMacMillan. The excited state of the Fukuzumi catalyst, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium (Mes-Acr+) perchlorate, is a pow-erful oxidant (excited state reduction potential of +2.06 eV),with the ability to oxidise the chloride ion to a chlorine radical
(Eox (Cl−/Cl·) = +2.03 V vs. SCE). Based on these principles,Wu and co-workers developed a photocatalytic strategyemploying chlorine radical as the HAT catalyst in conjuctionwith Mes-Acr+ as the oxidant. After excitation with 450 nmlight (blue LEDs), the excited state of Mes-Acr+ is quenchedby chloride delivered to the solution as molecular HCl, formingthe chlorine radical. As an electrophilic radical species, it is ableto activate hydridic C −H bonds in a variety of substrates, e.g.3 °C-H and aldehydic C −Hbonds, as well as theαC −Hbondof alcohols, ethers and amides, while preferring a distalfunctionalization in ketones.
Similar reactivities are observed with other electrophilic radi-cal species discussed in this article, i.e. the second excited state ofthe decatungstate photocatalyst, wO, and oxygen radicals gener-ated through fragmentation of a labile oxygen-metal bond (likecerium, Zuo and co-workers, vide supra), although the selectivityof HAT depends on the species (polar and steric effects). Thenucleophilic alkyl radicals thus formed were trapped with theelectron-poor olefin benzylidenemalononitrile (Scheme 10).Notable is the successful activation of the primary C−H bondin ethane, which was then applied in a series of alkylation reac-tions. Aside from benzylidenemalononitrile, unsaturated phenylsulfones also proved to be suitable radical traps, setting the stagefor C −H allylation reactions as the phenyl sulfone moiety easilyundergoes elimination.
The radical adduct formed after trapping of the nucleophil-ic alkyl radicals with an unsaturated species reoxidises thereduced form of Mes-Acr+, closing the catalytic cycle,forming a carbanion which is protonated by HCl to releasechloride (Scheme 11). The cycle involving phenyl sulfones isslightly different, as addition of the radical to the unsaturatedmoiety of the sulfone yields an olefin product and a sulfonylradical, the latter being the species re-oxidising the catalystand deprotonating hydrochloric acid .
Due to the ease with which amines are oxidised, aminesare common substrates in oxidative methodologies. Afterinitial oxidation of an amine to form an aminium radical,deprotonation by another equivalent of amine then leads tothe formation of an α-amino radical, which is itself easilyoxidised to an iminium ion. The oxidation of amines underbasic or neutral conditions generally yields α-amino radi-cals, unless the reaction is kinetically favourable enough tocompete with this process, which was demonstrated ele-gant ly in a ser ies of chal lenging photocataly t ichydroamination methodologies developed by Knowlesand co-workers [68–70]. Additionally, amines are com-monly used as sacrificial oxidants in reductive quenchingcycles of transition metal photocatalysts. The reactivity ofα-amino radicals in particular has been thoroughly ex-plored, especially in the case of tetrahydroisoquinolines,in which the resulting α-amino radical is benzylic and rel-a t i v e l y l o ng - l i v e d . A s a c on s e qu en c e , manyfunctionalizations of this position have been reported
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[71–75]. The properties of these radicals were exploited bythe group of Rueping for the development of a series ofphotoredox catalytic cross-dehydrogenative coupling(CDC) reactions under flow conditions in which tertiaryaryl amines can be coupled with a variety of nucleophiles.The organic dye Rose Bengal was identified as the mostsuitable catalyst for the transformation, rendering the pro-cess highly sustainable as H2 is formally the only wasteproduct in a cross-dehydrogenative coupling reaction. Aseries of substituted N-aryl tetrahydroisoquinolines under-go C −H alkylation with nitroalkane and malonate cou-pling partners. Coupling with TMSCN produces α-aminonitriles (yielding α-amino acids upon hydrolysis).Phosphonylated products can be accessed through reactionwith diethyl phosphonate in 3–5 h residence time,representing an improvement over batch procedures previ-ously reported (Scheme 12) . Following these insights,
an oxidative Ugi multicomponent reaction was developedcombining N,N-dimethylanilines, isocyanides and water asreaction partners giving access to α-amino amides.Although recirculation of the mixture proved necessary toobtain the α-amino amides in high yield, it represents adrastic improvement over batch conditions, e.g. N-butyl-2-(methyl(phenyl)amino)acetamide was formed in 29%yield after 3 days of reaction time in batch, whereas anisolated yield of 60% was obtained in flow with recircula-tion after 20 h .
The introduction of fluorine-containing substituents in or-ganic compounds is of great importance in the development ofpharmaceuticals, as the high electronegativity of fluorine canbe applied in the modulation of basicity, lipophilicity and bio-availability, as well as increasing metabolic stability .Methods for fluorination and fluoroalkylation are thus contin-uously being developed.
Scheme 10 C −Hfunctionalization of sp3 C −Hbonds via Mes-Acr+/HCl dualcatalysis
Scheme 11 Catalytic cycle of theMes-Acr+/HCl C −Hfunctionalization
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A traditional approach to aromatic trifluoromethylation isthe Swarts reaction, which is the substitution of atrichloromethyl group (formed after perchlorination of an ar-omatic methyl group) to trifluoromethyl with SbF5. Modernapproaches make use of electrophilic or nucleophilictrifluoromethylating agents, such as Togni’s reagent orUmemoto’s reagent . Radical trifluoromethylation strate-gies are particularly attractive as C −H functionalization reac-tions do not require prefunctionalized substrates [80, 81]. Anumber of trifluoromethylation methodologies have been de-veloped under continuous-flow conditions, making use of dif-ferent kinds of trifluoromethylating agents, and will bediscussed below.
Building on the work completed by the group ofMacMillan on the α-trifluoromethylation of carbonyl com-pounds with CF3I and Ru photocatalysis , Kappe andco-workers applied the liquid reagent triflyl chloride(CF3SO2Cl) to the α-trifluoromethylation of ketones via atwo-step continuous-flow strategy (Scheme 13). A mixtureof the organic photocatalyst Eosin Y, trimethyl silyl triflate(TMSOTf) and ketone is mixed with the base, N,N-diisopropyl ethylamine (DIPEA) in a T-mixer allowing boththe formation of a silyl enol ether and deprotonation of EosinY (2 min residence time), which is a pH sensitivephotocatalyst (basic conditions being required in its use as asingle-electron reductant). Using a second T-mixer, triflylchloride (1.5 eq. in THF) is added to the reagent stream enroute to the photoreactor consisting of FEP tubing coiledaround a glass beaker irradiated by a compact fluorescent lightbulb (CFL) placed inside the beaker. The unsaturated moietyof the silyl enol ether functions as a radical trap towards the
trifluoromethyl radical. The resulting radical adduct is thenoxidised. Following deprotonation, the trifluoromethylatedsilyl enol ether then equilibrates to the ketone. Both the for-mation of the silyl enol ether and the trifluoromethylation stepoccur in less than 20 min overall residence time. In theseconditions, both the use of more expensive silylating agents,gaseous CF3I and transition metal photocatalysts are avoidedby employing Eosin Y as an environmentally benign and in-expensive photoorganocatalyst .
From the viewpoint of atom economy, CF3I is an at-tractive trifluoromethyl source, forming only iodide aswaste product. Although perfluoroalkylation starting fromC-5 chains can be performed under homogeneous reactionconditions as the perfluoroiodoalkanes become liquids atambient temperatures, CF3I is a gaseous reagent, which iscumbersome to handle under batch conditions, while gas-es can be conveniently handled under flow conditions.
Noël et al. developed a photocatalytic protocol for thetrifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation of heteroareneswithCF3I under continuous-flow with a [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 photocatalystand TMEDA (N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethane-1,2-diamine) as thebase. The trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation can beperformed in
SETwith TMEDAwhich serves as a sacrificial electron donor,forming a Ru(I) species which can then reduce thetrifluoromethyl iodide, generating the iodide ion and thetrifluoromethyl radical. After addition of the trifluoromethylradical to the arene, the resulting adduct is thought to beoxidised by the radical cation of TMEDA and then undergoesrearomatisation through the loss of a proton.
Leaving the realm of Minisci-type reactions (i.e. the radicalC − H functionalization of arenes), the conditions wereadapted to the functionalization of styrenes, which are
challenging substrates in radical reactions due to their tenden-cy towards polymerisation and oxidation. In fact, the low ox-idation potentials of styrenes allow their anti-Markovnikovfunctionalization with nucleophiles, an approach pioneeredb y t h e g r o u p o f N i c ew i c z [ 8 9 – 9 6 ] . R a d i c a ltrifluoromethylations of styrenes were reported requiringelectron-donating groups in the ortho position or β-substitu-tion on the olefin tail [94, 97]. When the trifluoromethylationis performed in the presence of the powerfully reducingphotocatalyst fac-Ir(ppy)3, Stern-Volmer kinetics proved the
Scheme 13 α-trifluoromethylation of ketones by Eosin Y photocatalysis
Scheme 14 Photocatalytictrifluoromethylation in flow usingCF3I
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reaction occurs through an oxidative quenching cycle viaquenching of the excited state with CF3I. The benzylic radicalformed after anti-Markovnikov addition of the trifluoromethylradical to the styrene substrate can be reoxidized by the Ir(IV)species formed after oxidative quenching. Following depro-tonation of the benzylic cation by CsOAc, the olefin function-ality is restored (Scheme 16).
Alternatively, if the reaction is performed in the presence of ahydrogen donor, the hydrotrifluoromethylated product is obtain-ed. Thiophenols in particular are frequently applied as hydrogendonors in radical hydrofunctionalization reactions. In this case, 4-hydroxythiophenol proved optimal. A distinct advantage ofperforming the transformation under continuous-flow is the factthat the Ir(ppy)3 photocatalyst, which has a high triplet energy,promotes olefin isomerisation via sensitization of the olefin(triplet-triplet energy transfer, TTET) . As a diradical, theT1 state of the olefin can undergo rotation leading to the forma-tion of the (Z)-isomer . Due to its higher thermodynamicstability, the (E)-isomer is thought to be kinetically favoured,
and accelerating the reaction under flow conditions (24–72 h inbatch to 0.5 – 1 h in flow) allows the reaction to occur with highlevels of stereocontrol. Indeed, longer reaction times were shownto lead to reduced levels of stereoselectivity (Scheme 17) .
A non-photocatalytic approach to trifluoromethylation un-der flow conditions using CF3I as the trifluoromethylatingagent was developed in the group of Kappe by employingFenton-type conditions  (developed in the group of thelate Francesco Minisci) for the generation of alkyl radicalsfrom alkyl iodides .
By combining catalytic amount of iron(II)sulfate heptahydrateand hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant (generally known asFenton’s reagent), the trifluoromethylation of heteroarenes canbe performed in a residence time of just a few seconds(Scheme 18). The use of DMSO as solvent is key to the successof the transformation, as this allows the reaction to be performedin a more reliable and reproducible way. Fe(II) reduces hydrogenperoxide, forming Fe(III), a hydroxyl anion and a very reactivehydroxyl radical, the latter which forms an adduct with DMSO.
Scheme 15 Catalytic cycle forthe radical trifluoromethylation ofheteroarenes with CF3I by[Ru(bpy)3]
Scheme 16 Catalytic cycle forthe trifluoromethylation ofstyrenes through oxidativequenching of fac-Ir(ppy)3 withCF3I
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–7124
After expelling methylsulfinic acid, a highly reactive meth-yl radical is formed which then undergoes a thermodynami-cally favourable halogen atom transfer reaction with theperfluoroalkyl iodide present. This leads to the formation ofmethyl iodide and the comparatively stable perfluoroalkyl rad-ical. After addition to the arene, the resulting adduct isreoxidized by Fe(III) to form Fe(II) and a cation, which formsthe desired product after loss of a proton (Scheme 19).
The reaction shows excellent scalability, as shown by thetrifluoromethylation of the pharmaceutically relevant anti-migraine agent, dihydroergotamine. It is a semi-synthetic de-rivative of ergotamine, a natural product found in the ergot ryefungus, Claviceps purpurea [103, 104]. Due to nausea being acommon side effect, dihydroergotamine treatment is beingsuperseded by applicat ion of the more select ivesulfonamide-bearing tryptamines, known as the triptan drugs,of which sumatriptan is a prominent example, which also havea higher cost associated with their use [105, 106]. However,
the trifluoromethylated analog of dihydroergotamine showspromise as a cheap anti-migraine agent with reduced side ef-fects, and is thus an interesting target for the scope of radicaltrifluoromethylation methodologies . Due to the shortresidence time of less than 10 s, an impressive amount of600 g of dihydroergotamine mesylate could be processed in5 h with 98% conversion and a selectivity of 85–86%(Scheme 20) . As a readily available and low-cost chem-ical reagent, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) would be an attractivesource of the trifluoromethyl radical. Although the oxidationof TFA has been reported to generate trifluoromethyl radicalsby electrochemical means, harsh conditions are required dueto the high oxidation potential of TFA, which drastically limitsthe scope of these methodologies. Hence, trifluoromethylationvia an oxidative decarboxylation approach commonly follow-ed in photoredox catalysis  to generate alkyl radicals isimpractical in the case of TFA. By installing a redox auxiliarygroup, Stephenson and co-workers managed to bring the
Scheme 17 Radical trifluoromethylation of styrenes with CF3I through Ir photocatalysis
Scheme 18 Fe-catalyzedtrifluoromethylation – andperfluoroalkylation of arenes withCF3I
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 25
oxidation potential of TFA within the electrochemical poten-tial range of [Ru(bpy)3]
2+. The redox auxiliary approach reliesin this case on the reaction between pyridine N-oxide andtrifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), forming an adduct in whichthe weak N-O bond can be cleaved reductively. Stern-Volmerkinetics point to an oxidative quenching cycle in which the
excited state of the Ru photocatalyst is quenched by thetrifluoroacetoxy pyridinium adduct, delivering thetrifluoroacetate radical, forming the trifluoromethyl radicalupon decarboxylation (Scheme 21).
As is common for photochemical transformations, the re-action showed limited scalability in batch. When scaling up
Scheme 19 Catalytic cycle forthe Fe-catalyzedtrilfluoromethylation with CF3I
Scheme 20 Scale-up of the Fe(II)/CF3I/H2O2 radical trifluoromethylation for the production of a trifluoromethylated ergotamine derivative on 600 gscale
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–7126
the trifluoromethylation of N-Boc pyrrole to 100 g scale, theproduct was obtained in a modest yield of 35% after a reactiontime of 62 h.
As discussed previously, one of the main advantages of flowphotochemistry is its inherent scalability [110–115].Performing the reaction under flow conditions yielded 71% ofthe trifluoromethylated N-Boc pyrrole (20 g scale, 10 minresidence time, Scheme 22), compared to 57% yield on 20 gscale in batch (15 h reaction time) . A later report elabo-rating on the mechanistic aspects of the reaction includes scale-up of the trifluoromethylation of an N-Boc protected pyrrolebearing a methyl ester functionality to 1 kg scale (Vr = 150mL),in which a productivity of 20 g h−1 was achieved. Additionally,evidence for the formation of EDA (electron donor-acceptor)complexes between the pyridine-N-oxide and arenes is
presented, opening up another possibility for the fragmentationof the trifluoroacetylated pyridines, although this is limited to afew specific cases, e.g. mesitylene .
Sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate (CF3SO2Na), common-ly known as the Langlois reagent, has found wide applicationin radical trifluoromethylation reactions, including in theMinisci-type functionalization of heteroarenes [118–122].Multiple equivalents of an external oxidant, such as t-BuOOH, are usually required to oxidise the sulfinate and ef-fect SO2 extrusion to form the trifluoromethyl radical[123–125]. As a bench-stable solid, it is one of the most con-venient to handle trifluoromethylation agents . Long re-action times and multiple additions of the sulfinate salt areusually required. The conditions originally reported byLanglois and co-workers make use of a Cu(I) additive to
Scheme 21 Radicaltrifluoromethylation withTFAA/pyridine N-oxide via Ruphotocatalysis
Scheme 22 Radical trifluoromethylation with TFAA/pyridine N-oxide via Ru photocatalysis
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 27
promote cleavage of the peroxide bond, which initiates thereaction. Duan et al. adapted the conditions of the originalLanglois trifluoromethylation reaction to continuous-flow(60 °C, 40 min residence time) to generate a library oftrifluoromethyl-substituted coumarins (Scheme 23) .
Rueping and co-workers applied the Langlois reagent tothe hydrotrifluoromethylation of maleimides (representingelectron-poor olefins) and heteroarenes with 4,4 ′-dimethoxybenzophenone as an organic HAT catalyst undernear-UV irradiation (350 nm) (Scheme 24).
The reaction requires the presence of hexafluoroisopropanol(HFIP) as an additive, a reaction medium with high polarityknown to stabilize polar intermediates such as radicals[127–129]. The authors propose a mechanism based on the
oxidation of the sulfinate by the T1 state of 4,4 ′-dimethoxybenzophenone forming the trifluoromethyl radical(vide supra) and a ketyl radical which deprotonates the acidicHFIP. The radical adduct formed after addition of thetrifluoromethyl radical to the double bond of the maleimide isthen proposed to abstract a hydrogen atom from the alcohol,resulting in the hydrotrifluoromethylation of the olefin andregenerating the ketone functionality of the catalyst closingthe catalytic cycle (Scheme 25). The strongly oxidising iridiumphotocatalyst [Ir(dF(CF3)ppy)2](dtbpy)]PF6 was also found tobe a suitable visible light photocatalyst for this transformation,improving the yields under similar reaction conditions .
Through application of the luminescence screening ap-proach developed in the group of Glorius , Noël,
Scheme 23 Trifluoromethylation of coumarins by Duan et al
Scheme 24 Photoorganocatalytic trifluoromethylation of maleimides and arenes
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A l c a z a r a n d c o - w o r k e r s c o n f i r m e d t h e[Ir(dF(CF3)ppy)2](dtbpy)]PF6 photocatalyst is quenched effi-ciently by the Langlois reagent. On the basis of these findings,a continuous-flow trifluoromethylation of highly functional-ized heteroarenes was developed. Although the reaction pro-ceeds in 30 min of residence time, 1 equivalent of an externaloxidant, (NH4)2S2O8, is required for the reaction to occur insynthetically useful yields, since two consecutive oxidationsare required (Scheme 26) .
Stephenson and co-workers reported the alkylation ofheteroarenes by quenching of excited state [Ru(bpy)3]
2+ bybromomalonate through an oxidative Ru(III)/Ru(II) quenching
cycle, forming bromide ion and the malonyl radical [133, 134].The transformation was also reported using organic photoredoxcatalysts (e.g., Th-BT-Th) . By calculating the spectro-scopic properties and reduction potentials with DFT at theM06-2X / 6-31G+(d) level of theory using the continuum sol-vation model PCM, a series of alkynylated bithiophenes weresynthesized for their evaluation as potential photocatalysts byAlcazar, Noël and co-workers, the alkynes functionalized withphenyl substituents bearing both electron-releasing andelectron-withdrawing groups. To benchmark their performance,the thiophene photocatalysts were applied in the C −H alkyl-ation of heteroarenes with bromomalonate and Ph3N as the
Scheme 25 Catalytic cycle forradical trifluoromethylation withCF3SO2Na under benzophenonecatalysis
Scheme 26 Trifluoromethylationof heteroarenes with CF3SO2Navia Ir photocatalysis
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 29
base, proving viable alternatives to [Ru(bpy)3]2+. Five-
membered heterocycles such as pyrrole, thiophene and furanderivatives can be alkylated with 1 mol% of the photocatalyst(PC) through irradiation with purple LEDs (400 nm), as well asbenzofurans and indole derivatives, including N-Boc-Trp-OMe(55% isolated yield, Scheme 27). The alkylation of 3-methylindole was performed in continuous flow and affordedthe alkylated product in 70% yield in 7 min residence time. Thecatalysts were also applied to other C −H alkylations ofheteroarenes, ie. trifluoromethylation (with CF3I andTMEDA, 20 min residence time, 450 nm LEDs) anddifluoromethylation (using BrCF2CO2Et as the reagent) .
C − H acylation
Aldehydes are excellent hydrogen atom donors in decatungstateHATphotocatalysis [137, 138]. By irradiationwith nearUV light(λmax TBADT= 323 nm), acyl radicals are formed via HATwiththe decatungstate catalyst (we refer to Scheme 4 for the catalyticcycle, R· = acyl radical) (Scheme 28).
Fagnoni and co-workers used α,β-unsaturated esters asradical traps to form γ-ketoesters. The reaction was performedin 2 h of residence time in a photoflow reactor constructedfrom PTFE tubing (12 ml reactor volume), a medium pressureHg lamp and a HPLC pump. By introducing a second reagentstream containing 0.4 M of NaBH4 in EtOH as a reductant tothe product stream exiting the photoflow reactor, the ketonefunctionality is reduced to an alcohol and undergoes intramo-lecular cyclisation to form a γ-lactone product, e.g. the lactonecondensation product obtained from heptan-2-one and diethylmaleiate is formed in a 65% overall yield .
Ravelli and co-workers trapped the acyl radicals with phe-nyl vinyl sulfone under flow conditions to form thehydroacylated product. Using a modular set-up, the sulfonylmoiety can be removed in a second flow module with base(tetramethylguanidine, TMG or triazabicyclododecenesupported on polystyrene, TBD-PS) to form an α,β-unsatu-rated ketone, which can then undergo conjugate addition. Thiswas applied to the synthesis of γ-nitroketones and β-(3-indolyl)ketones with nitroalkanes and indole as nucleophiles,respectively. Starting from O-Boc protected salicylaldehydefollowed by acylation of phenyl vinyl sulfone, both the sulfo-nyl and the carbonate protecting group are cleaved under basicconditions, after which the product undergoes an intramolec-ular cyclization to afford chromanone (35% overall yield,Scheme 29) .
In contrast to the C-3 formation of β-(3-indolyl)ketones ac-complished through decatungstate photocatalysis, the C-2 acyla-tion of indoles to yield α-(2-indolyl)ketones in flow via a dualcatalytic cycle with Pd and Ir involving acyl radicals at roomtemperature was reported by Noël, Van der Eycken, and co-workers. The acyl radicals are formed from aldehydes throughHAT with the tert-butoxyl radical. The tert-butoxyl radical isformed by engaging t-BuOOH in an oxidative Ir(III)/Ir(IV)quenching cycle with the iridium photocatalyst (i.e. photocata-lytic Fenton initiation). Pd(OAc)2 activates the C-2 position ofthe indole assisted by a pyrimidine directing group and is hy-pothesized to react with the acyl radical to form an acylatedPd(III) species, which is oxidised by Ir(IV) to a Pd(IV) species,closing the photocatalytic cycle. Upon reductive elimination, theC-2 acylated product is formed and the Pd(II) center is regener-ated, closing the “dark” catalytic cycle (Scheme 30).
Scheme 27 C − H alkylation of heteroarenes with bithiophene photocatalysts
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A range of aromatic, heteroaromatic (including furfural, abiomass-derived feedstock) and aliphatic aldehydes undergo ac-ylation with several substituents being tolerated on the indolering, although the absence of a directing group (e.g. pym, py)was not tolerated (Scheme 31). By performing the reaction incontinuous flow, both the catalytic loadings and the reaction timecould be decreased (20 min residence time in flow from 20 hunder batch conditions) improving the sustainability of the pro-cess .
C − H carboxylation and C − H cyanation
The selective activation of carbon dioxide has long stood as oneof the holy grails of chemistry [142–145]. The reduction of CO2using the organic photoredox catalyst p-terphenylene under UVirradiation was achieved by Jamison and co-workers and ap-plied to the synthesis of amino acids in flow (Scheme 32). Thesynthesis occurs through radical-radical coupling of the carbondioxide radical anion with a benzylic α-amino radical, which is
Scheme 28 Flow synthesis of γ-lactones via decatungstate photocatalyzed C-H acylation followed by reductive intramolecular cyclization
Scheme 29 Decatungstate-catalyzed hydroacylation of phenyl vinyl sulfone followed by derivatization through elimination and conjugate addition
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 31
formed from the single-electron oxidation and deprotonation ofa benzylic amine in a segmented flow regime, compellinglycombining the advantages of flow chemistry in gas-liquid andphotochemical transformations. To increase the selectivity ofthe reaction, a UV filter was applied with a cut-off at 280 nm(λmax p-terphenylene = 283 nm) (Scheme 33).
Stern-Volmer kinetics show the S1 excited state of p-terphenylene is quenched by the amine, forming the radicalanion of p-terphenylene and an aminium radical, which forms
an α-amino radical upon deprotonation by the base potassiumtrifluoroacetate (CF3CO2K). The radical anion of thephotocatalyst is then able to reduce CO2, closing the catalyticcycle, while the resulting carboxylate is formed by radical-radical coupling with the stabilized (and hence, somewhatpersistent) α-amino benzylic radical .
Using magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as a heterogeneouscatalyst, Varna et al. were able to activate the methyl group of aseries ofN,N-dimethylanilines in an oxidative cyanation reaction
Scheme 30 C-2 acylation ofindoles via Ir/Pd dual catalysis
Scheme 31 Room temperature C-2 acylation of indoles through Pd/Ir dual catalysis
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with H2O2 and NaCN in aqueous methanol (1:1) as the solvent.The reaction is performed in a stainless steel microreactor with areactor volume of 5 ml and i.d. of 0.8 mm.
The coil was submerged in an oil bath to keep the reactor at atemperature of 50 °C allowing a series of N-methylanilines tobe monocyanated in less than 10 min residence time (Scheme35). After exiting the reactor, the nanoferrites can be separatedconveniently from the product stream with a magnet. Themechanism suggested by the authors occurs through the forma-tion of an Fe(IV) oxo-species from Fe(II) through oxidationwith hydrogen peroxide. The Fe(IV) species oxidises the amine
to an iminium ion, which reacts with HCN to form the α-aminonitrile product (Scheme 34) .
C − H alkenylation
The Fujiwara-Moritani reaction or oxidative Heck reaction rep-resents one of the earliest examples of Pd-catalysed C −H ac-tivation [148, 149]. In contrast to the Mizoroki-Heck reaction,in which prefunctionalization of the vinyl or arene couplingpartner is required to allow oxidative addition to Pd(0) to occur,the Fujiwara-Moritani reaction starts from Pd(II). While the
Scheme 32 Coupling of CO2 with benzylic α-amino radicals by UV photooorganocatalysis
Scheme 33 Catalytic cycle for the carboxylation of α-amino radicals by terphenylene photocatalysis
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 33
production of stoichiometric amounts of halide waste can beavoided by employing diazonium salts as the coupling partnersin the Heck-Matsuda reaction, the Fujiwara-Moritani reactionas a cross-dehydrogenative coupling reaction represents a moreatom-economical approach .
Because of its higher reactivity, Pd(II) is frequently used asthe catalyst in combination with an external oxidant to closethe catalytic cycle and prevent the formation of Pd(0) parti-cles. The reactions are performed in the presence of acid, asthey are able to coordinate to the Pd(II) center, rendering itmore electron-poor, which favours the C-H activation step andallows for the deprotonation of the targeted C-H bond(Scheme 36) .
From an environmental point of view, one of the attractiveaspects of the Fujiwara-Moritani reaction is the possibility touse oxygen as an external oxidant. The use of oxygen in batchprocesses can be hazardous and is limited in its efficiency dueto the poor solubility of oxygen in organic media. The use of
gases in continuous flow offers a number of distinct advan-tages including precise control of pressure and flow rate (i.e.,the stoichiometry of the gaseous reagents) [152, 153].Moreover, the establishment of a segmented flow regime pro-vides a high gas-liquid interfacial area and assists inpreventing precipitation of Pd0. Due to better heat dissipation,the reaction can be run at higher temperatures without catalystdegradation. Using Pd(OAc)2 in combination with TFA andO2 as the oxidant, these principles were applied for the devel-opment of a C-3 vinylation of indoles, yielding alkenylatedindoles in a residence time of 10–20 min (Scheme 37) .
A variant of the Fujiwara-Moritani reaction allowing theortho-functionalization of acetanilides with Pd/C as a reusableheterogeneous catalyst and benzoquinone as an external oxi-dant in the presence of TsOH as the acid was reported by thegroup of Vaccaro making use of the acetamide directing group.
The use of a green solvent derived from lignocellulosic bio-mass, γ-valerolactone (GVL), is notable, as it is both a less toxic
Scheme 34 Oxidative α-cyanation of N-methylanilinescatalyzed by Fe3O4
Scheme 35 Oxidative cyanation of N-methylanilines
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and more sustainable alternative to traditional polar aprotic sol-vents, e.g. DMF. Although leaching is a requirement for thereaction to occur with Pd(II) as the active catalytic species,Pd(0) formed at the end of the catalytic cycle is hypothesizedto be redeposited on the support, overall resulting in minimalamounts of palladium leaching (4 ppm). Apart from this,leaching is also decreased when using GVL compared to DMFor NMP. Under batch conditions, the catalyst can be reused forfive runs with little decrease of performance. Performing thereaction in a continuous-flow packed bed reactor allows scalingup the reaction to a productivity of 4 g h−1 (Scheme 38) .
Combining Brønsted acid catalysis and C −H activationwith Mn(I), Ackermann and co-workers performed a C −Halkenylation of indoles, thiophenes, pyrroles, tryptophans andpyridones through the use of a pyridine directing group. Thealkene functionality is furnished by the hydroarylation of analkyne bearing a carbonate leaving group.
The carbonate is left untouched, in contrast to previous re-ports where hydroarylation occurred with β-elimination. Usinga cheap and air-stable manganese carbonyl catalyst,MnBr(CO)5, allylic carbonates and ethers can be synthesizedfrom alkynes bearing these functionalities through C −H
Scheme 36 Catalytic cycle forthe Fujiwara-Moritani reaction
Scheme 37 Fujiwara-Moritani C-3 vinylation of indoles with O2 as oxidant
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 35
activation of the heterocyclic ring directed by pyridine. Thereaction is accelerated under flow conditions, from 16 h in batchto 1–20 min residence time in flow, which can be coupled withan in-line catalyst separation. The scalability of the method wasdemonstrated by the production of 2.24 g of the alkenylatedproduct using indole as the coupling partner in 1 h(Scheme 39) .
C − H arylation
Li and co-workers reported a direct intramolecular C −Harylation of aryl bromides using Pd(OAc)2 under ultrasonicationwithout requiring the presence of any additional ligands. Byimmersing the coil in an ultrasonic cleaning bath, as in this case,ultrasound irradiation can be applied to prevent microreactor
clogging and accelerate the reaction . Starting from func-tionalized phenyl ethers and N-functionalized indoles, the meth-od allows the construction of polycyclic ether systems and fusedindolines (Scheme 40) .
Mihovilovic and co-workers reported the first intermolec-ular C −H activation process under continuous-flow condi-tions. Starting from aryl bromides and aryl boronic acids, theyperformed the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in flow usingPd(PPh3)4 catalyst and K2CO3 as the base allowing for thesynthesis of 2-phenylpyridines in 20 min residence time.Notably, they found the reaction was sensitive to the materialof the flow reactor coil used, with PFA performing better thanstainless steel. With pyridine acting as the directing group, theortho-position to the pyridyl substituent in 2-phenylpyridinecan be selectively targeted for C −H activation in a second
Scheme 38 Fujiwara-Moritani alkenylation of acetanilides
Scheme 39 Alkenylation of heterocycles through pyridine-directed Mn-catalysed C − H activation
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step using dichloro(p-cymene)ruthenium(II) as theprecatalyst, PPh3 and DBU as the base under an atmosphereof air allowing the synthesis of bis – or trisarylated products in1 h residence time (Scheme 41) .
Another class of cross-dehydrogenative coupling(CDC) reaction in which two unfunctionalized aryl ringsare coupled via C −H activation under aerobic oxidationwas extensively investigated by Stahl and co-workers[160–162]. The coupling of o-xylene, specifically, holdspromise in the preparation of monomers used in the pro-duction of the polyimide resin Upilex  and metal-organic frameworks .
Mechanistically, two separate Pd(II) metal centers allowthe C −H activation of two xylene molecules, followed by atransmetalation step leading to a single Pd(II) center with twoarene ligands. Upon reductive elimination, the biphenyl moi-ety and Pd(0) are formed, which is then reoxidized with O2(Scheme 42). Although the reaction shows remarkable selec-tivity for the desired product, it is limited by low yields (8%)and the requirement for long reaction times.
Noël and co-workers increased the yield of thehomocoupled product to 41% (60% selectivity) by applying40 bar of O2 pressure in a stainless steel capillary microreactorrequiring a reaction time of 40 min, compared to 17 h underbatch conditions (Scheme 43) .
The meta-selective arylation of anilines under copper ca-talysis was reported by Phipps and Gaunt, offering an orthog-onal approach to functionalizations of arenes targeting mainlythe ortho positions (as in many palladium-catalyzed C −Hactivation methodologies making use of a directing group) –
and para positions (i.e. the more traditional electrophilic aro-matic substitution reactions) of the arene moiety . Forthis transformation, diaryliodonium salts, a class ofhypervalent iodine compounds, are used concomitantly asarylating agents and for the oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(III).Mechanistic studies indicate the first step is an oxidative ad-dition to copper followed by a C −H activation step in whichdeprotonation of the adduct by triflate occurs. Reductive elim-ination forges the aryl-aryl bond to yield the meta-functional-ized amide and regenerates Cu(I) (Scheme 44).
Although diaryliodonium salts are now commonly usedas arylating reagents , their synthesis requires boththe use of the superacid TfOH and m-CPBA as an oxi-dant, rendering the transformation highly exothermic andpotentially hazardous. For these reasons, Noël and co-workers developed a continuous-flow synthesis ofdiaryliodonium triflates. As mentioned earlier, heat trans-fer to the environment is more efficient and the activevolume of reactants reacting in a microreactor is typicallyvery small greatly decreasing the potential explosive haz-ard of the reaction. By submerging the reactor coil into anultrasonic bath, clogging of the microreactor is prevented.A variety of diaryliodonium triflates were synthesized ona gram-scale in a residence time of a few seconds .Apart from the availability of diaryliodonium salts, thesynthesis of meta-arylated anilines makes use of amidesas protected amines, resulting in the necessity of adeprotection step. For pharmaceutical production, Culevels are required to be below a threshold of 25 ppm,requiring the removal of copper. The different steps were
Scheme 40 Intermolecular ligand-free C −H arylation under ultrasound irradiation in flow
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 37
integrated in a modular flow set-up by Noël and co-workers using a copper tubular flow reactor (CTFR) forthe arylation reaction, where copper leaching from thereactor walls acts as a catalyst for the transformation,based on the initial observation that the reaction was ac-celerated with powdered copper as the catalyst, compared
to the initially reported copper(II)triflate. Copper leachingfrom the coil can be removed from the mixture by amembrane separator in a continuous liquid-liquid extrac-tion with aqueous NH3. Finally, the resulting pivalanilidescan be deprotected in continuous flow with a 1:1 mixtureof HCl:1,4-dioxane. Due to the modularity of the process,
Scheme 42 Catalytic cycle forthe CDC of o-xylene
Scheme 41 Ortho C −H arylation of pyridines with aryl bromides under continuous-fllow conditions
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the meta-arylated anilines can be obtained in
species back to its original zerovalent oxidation state andcloses the catalytic cycle (Scheme 46). A common
termination pathway is the Heck reaction. In this case, com-petition between coupling of the desired olefin and
Scheme 45 meta-Arylation of anilines employed in a modular flow set-up
Scheme 46 Catalytic cycle for the Catellani reaction with termination via a Heck pathway
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norbornene is a known issue which can be addressed bycontrolling the stoichiometry of the olefinic reagents. Inprinciple, the transformation can also be performed usinggaseous olefins.
Due to the difficulties arising from the volatility ofnorbornene and poor control of the stoichiometry of the gas-eous reagents, these transformations can be challenging toperform under batch conditions, in particular when attemptingto perform the reaction using two distinct arene coupling part-ners. In the first report on gas-liquid Catellani reactions, Noël,Della Ca′ and co-workers reported an increase in selectivityfor a heterocoupling from 12% yield in batch to 66% underflow conditions, due to the accurate control over the stoichi-ometry of the gaseous reagents and the high gas-to-liquidmass transfer under flow conditions (Scheme 47) .
C − H activation chemistry employing Earth-abundantmetals such as Ni, Mn and Co is becoming more common-place as alternatives are sought to the precious metals tradi-tionally employed in C − H activation catalysis .Ackermann and co-workers reported the orthoC −H arylationof substituted azines with an amide directing group undercontinuous-flow conditions with MnCl2 salt combined witha neocuproine ligand, a Grignard species as the arylating agent(Kumada-type coupling), TMEDA as the base and DCIB asan oxidant.
After forming the complex and coordination of Mn(II) bythe amide functionality, the Grignard reagent undergoestransmetalation. The amide directing group brings the metalcenter in proximity of the ortho C −H bond for the C −Hactivation step occurring through deprotonation with the
Grignard reagent. After ligand exchange, Mn(II) undergoes asingle-electron oxidation to Mn(III) which is arylated by theGrignard reagent in a transmetalation step. Reductive elimi-nation from Mn(III) forges the C-C bond, generating Mn(I).The external oxidant DCIB (1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane),is required to form the Mn(III) species and close the catalyticcycle, reoxidising Mn(I) to Mn(II).
Using this methodology, both azines and diazines can bearylated with arenes, thiophene and the sterically hinderedmesityl moiety. Avariety of substituents on the amide nitrogenwere also tolerated. The reaction can be performed in flow in100 min compared to 16 h under batch conditions, which canbe scaled-up with a productivity of 1.12 g h−1 (Scheme 48).
The Pd-catalyzed intermolecular C −H activation of theC-5 position in 1,2,3-triazoles to give arylated products witharyl halides as the coupling partners was reported in 2016 byVaccaro and Ackermann, using the green solvent γ-valerolactone (GVL) and palladium on charcoal (Pd/C) as aheterogeneous catalyst . The methodology was alsoadapted to flow conditions, mainly for the intramolecular C−H arylation to yield triazole-fused chromanes and triazole-fused isoindolines. As in their report on a Fujiwara-Moritanireaction in flow (vide supra), Pd/C was immobilized in a flowreactor and combinedwith GVL resulting in minimal amountsof leaching, making the transformation highly sustainable.
Starting from Pd(0), oxidative addition to the aryl halideoccurs, followed by the C − H activation of the triazolethrough deprotonation. Reductive elimination then deliversthe final product (Scheme 49). As well as intramolecular cy-clization products, intermolecular C −H arylation with aryl
Scheme 47 Continuous-flow Catellani reaction employing gaseous olefin partners
J Flow Chem (2020) 10:13–71 41
bromides is also possible under these conditions. The reactionwas scaled to 100 mmol scale under flow conditions, yielding24 g of product after 44 h, corresponding to a productivity of0.55 g h−1 (Scheme 50).
Several reports have been published on the application ofcopper complexes as photoredox catalysts for C − Hfunctionalization reactions .
Collins et al. applied the in situ formed copper photoredoxcatalyst [Cu(Xantphos)(dmp)]BF4 in conjunction with I2 as an
oxidant for the oxidative cyclization of diaryl – andtriarylamines to form carbazoles (Scheme 51).
Surprisingly, the copper catalyst was found to outper-form Ru(bpy)3
2+, however, a reaction time of 14 days wasrequired to obtain the N-phenylcarbazole in 85% yield. Forthis reason, a flow set-up was constructed allowing thereaction to be performed in a residence time of 20 h. Theauthors propose a mechanism based on the oxidativequenching of the Cu(I) catalyst by molecular iodine. The
Scheme 48 Mn-catalyzed C − Harylation of azines with Grignardreagents
Scheme 49 Pd-catalyzed crosscoupling via C −H activation in1,2,3-triazoles
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Cu(II) species then formed oxidises the carbazole whichallows the cyclization to occur through homolytic aromaticsubstitution. After oxidation, the aromaticity of the carba-zole is restored (Scheme 52) .
In the Meerwein-type C −H arylation reaction, aryl diazo-nium salts are used to generate aryl radicals via one-electronreduction . Several photocatalytic variants of this reac-tion have been developed for selective C −H arylation, in-cluding the use of the inorganic photocatalyst TiO2(Scheme 53).
The behaviour of semiconductor nanoparticles asphotocatalysts is well-described, representing one of the ear-liest and most important examples of photocatalysis [189,
190]. Due to the relatively small band gap of semiconductormaterials, electrons can be excited from the valence band tothe conduction band, creating an electron-hole pair, in whichthe electron can effect one-electron reduction, and the hole canact as a one-electron oxidant . For this reason, TiO2 isfrequently used for the oxidative solar decontamination ofwaste water . As an abundant, non-toxic and heteroge-neous photocatalyst, it is a very attractive material for sustain-able chemistry , the downside being the band gap ofunmodified TiO2 is too large for the creation of electronsand holes through visible light irradiation. This problem isgenerally solved through the use of modified TiO2 ,e.g. employing Pt and Pd as co-catalysts, bringing the
Scheme 50 C-H activation with Pd/C of 1,2,3-triazoles functionalized with aryl halides in γ-valerolactone
Scheme 51 Copper-catalyzed synthesis of carbazoles
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absorption of the material from the ultraviolet into the visiblerange through the creation of intra-bandgap states in which thesize of the electronic transitions fall within the energetic rangeof visible light . Rueping et al. have shown that thecombination of TiO2 with aryl diazonium salts results in theformation of a TiO2 azoether with a strong absorption at450 nm (corresponding to the blue part of the visible spec-trum) to create aryl radicals. To allow the use of heterogeneoustitania in flow, a falling film microreactor (FFMR) was con-structed by Rehm, Rueping and co-workers. An open stainlesssteel flow cartridge, equipped with a quartz window, is coatedwith TiO2 nanoparticles and irradiated on one side with bluelight. The performance of the FFMR markedly improved thereaction compared to batch conditions, and was successfullyapplied to the C − H arylation of heteroarenes such as
pyridine, thiophene and furfural with a range of aryl diazoni-um salts (Scheme 54) .
The group of Ackermann used another 3d earth-abundantmetal, manganese, to perform a visible light-photocatalyzedC −H arylation of heteroarenes with diazonium salts underflow conditions. Inexpensive CpMn(CO)3 proved to be themost effective catalyst for the transformation.
On the basis of mechanistic studies, the authors suggest aradical mechanism starting with the exchange of one CO ligandfor the arene substrate, followed by coordination of the aryl dia-zonium salt to the Mn(I) center. After irradiation with blue light(450 nmLEDs),metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) leads toelectron transfer from Mn(I) to the diazonium ligand, formingMn(II) and an aryl radical with extrusion of N2. The aryl radicaladds to the arene substrate to forge the aryl-aryl bond, whereupon
Scheme 52 Proposed cycle for the copper-catalyzed intramolecular arylation to form carbazoles
Scheme 53 Mechanism of the titania-catalyzed Meerwein C − H arylation
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the radical adduct formed is oxidised to form a cation, either byreaction with the oxidised Mn(II) complex or another equivalentof diazonium salt. Deprotonation then restores the aromaticity ofthe system (Scheme 55 and 56).
Flow conditions proved to be highly beneficial for the re-action, accelerating the reaction time to 60 min residence timea n d d r a s t i c a l l y imp r o v i n g t h e y i e l d . F o r p -trifluoromethylbenzenedizonium tetrafluoroborate and ben-zene, by switching to flow, an improvement in yield from25% to 64% was noted with a productivity of 1.42 g h−1.The methodology was also applied to the synthesis of a pre-cursor of the hyperthermia drug Dantrolene, starting from fur-fural derived from biomass .
Apart from the photocatalytic C − H arylations of(hetero)arenes which have been described using Eosin Y, dual catalysis by [Ru(bpy)3]
2+ in conjunction withPd(OAc)2 , TiO2  and Mn photocatalysis (vide su-pra), a catalyst-free arylation would be attractive from theviewpoint of sustainability and atom-economy. Exploitingthe advantages offered by the implementation of microreactortechnology for the generation of highly reactive, explosiveintermediates, Kappe and co-workers developed a catalyst-free radical C −H arylation through photochemical means.The so-called diazo anhydrides (Ar-N=N-O-N=N-Ar), whichare nitrosamine dimers, fragment homolytically under irradi-ation with near-UV light (> 300 nm) to yield aryl radicals
Scheme 54 Titania-catalyzed Meerwein arylation in a falling-film microreactor
Scheme 55 Catalytic cycle forthe Mn photocatalytic C −Harylation of (hetero)arenes
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which can be applied in the C − H arylation reaction of(hetero)arenes. Although these intermediates are highly unsta-ble, they can be safely generated and consumed in situ byperforming the reaction in a microreactor. Nitrosamines areformed through the nitrosation reaction of anilines with tert-butyl nitrite (t-BuONO, Scheme 57).
To decrease the formation of byproducts formed from thespontaneous decomposition of diazo compounds, t-BuONOand the arene coupling partners are fed via two separate reagentstreams to a T-mixer before entering the photoreactor, equippedwith a medium pressure Hg lamp (125 W, although a reductionto 75Wwas found to be suitable for certain substrates) and UV-filter (cut-off at 300 nm). The substrate scope includes thio-phenes, furan and N-protected pyrroles, as well as electron-richphenyl derivatives and azines (including pyridine N-oxide)which were arylated in a residence time of 45 min, producing
only N2, H2O and t-BuOH as waste in a metal-free process(Scheme 58) .
Another application of α-amino radicals was reported byVega, Trabanco and co-workers at Janssen Pharmaceuticalsfor the C − H arylation of the α-position in N ,N-dialkylhydrazones.
The authors propose an oxidative quenching cycle basedon the reductive abilities of the Ir(ppy)3 photocatalyst(Scheme 59). Upon excitation with blue light (455 nm), excit-ed Ir(III) undergoes SETwith an electron-poor arene substrate(e.g., 2,4-dicyanobenzene), forming Ir(IV) and the one-electron reduced form of the arene (radical anion). Ir(IV) isthen reduced to Ir(III) to restart the cycle by oxidising thehydrazone, generating a hydrazinium radical, which readilyundergoes deprotonation by LiOAc to form the stabilized α-amino radical. The α-amino radical forms an anionic adduct
Scheme 56 C −H arylations of heteroarenes with aryl diazonium salts under Mn photocatalysis
Scheme 57 Catalytic cycle forthe C −H arylation of(hetero)arenes employing diazoanhydrides as the aryl radicalprecursors
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through radical-radical coupling with the radical anion of theelectron-poor arene. With cyanide acting as the leaving groupin the adduct, the product is then formed. Through the use ofcontinuous-flow, the arylation could be accelerated in 20–40 min allowing the gram-scale synthesis of arylateddialkylhydrazones. Repeating the reaction after the firstarylation with another flow reactor allowed for a regioselec-tive second arylation step on the same substrate, though moreforcing conditions (increase of catalyst loading, residence timeand reaction temperature) were required. Apart from
cyanobenzenes, azines were also successfully employed aselectron-poor arene coupling partners (Scheme 60) .
C −N bond formation
Activation of the beta C −Hbond in hindered aliphatic aminesto yield aziridines (or beta-lactams in the presence of carbonmonoxide) was reported by Gaunt and co-workers in 2014 and was later adapted to a continuous-flow process byLapkin and co-workers . Starting from palladium(II)
Scheme 58 Metal-free photochemical C −H arylation of (hetero)arenes
Scheme 59 Ir-catalyzed alpha C−H arylation of N,N-dialkylhydrazones
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acetate, the hindered amine coordinates to the metal. This canhappen a second time to form a Pd(II) center coordinated bytwo amines. The steric bulk on the amine is critical to achieveactivation of the C −H bond, since the C −H activation steprequires dissociation of this complex to the less stable
monocoordinated variant. This dissociation is more favouredwhen hindered amines are used. The monocoordinated com-plex can then undergo the C −H activation step (rate-deter-mining), i.e. deprotonation of the beta C −H bond through aconcerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) mechanism to
Scheme 60 Continuous-flowsynthesis of arylated N,N-dialkylhydrazones via Irphotoredox catalysis
Scheme 61 Catalytic cycle for the beta C −H activation in hindered aliphatic amines
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yield a cyclometalated Pd(II) complex. This can undergo ox-idation by the hypervalent iodine oxidant PhI(OAc)2 resultingin a Pd(IV) complex. The nitrogen is then deprotonated toform a four-membered Pd(IV) intermediate which undergoesreductive elimination, liberating the aziridine and Pd(II),thereby closing the catalytic cycle.
The mechanism of the reaction was investigated in detail(Scheme 61). The rate of the reaction was shown to increaseover time, which could have two causes: either the rate wasaffected negatively by increasing the concentration of theamine, or the reaction rate was increased by one of thebyproducts of the reaction (autoinduction). The latter was ruledout by starting the reaction at 20% conversion. Essentially, thereaction is performedwith the same equivalent ratios, but with asmaller amount of the reagents. Because less byproducts areformed, an autocatalyzed reaction should then be slower.When factoring in the different starting concentrations, the rateswere shown to be identical, suggesting instead that the rate wasnegatively affected by the concentration of amine (its consump-tion during the reaction then leads to an increase in the reactionrate). The effect of adding reaction products as additives to thereaction (PhI, aziridine, and HOAc) was investigated as well. Inthis case, increasing the amount of HOAc showed a small in-crease in the rate. The rate at t0 was shown by comparison to t1/2to be inversely proportional to the concentration of amine.Apart from this, the reaction was shown to be zeroth order inPhI(OAc)2 and first order in Pd(OAc)2.
The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) can be applied to the studyof reaction mechanisms by isotopic labeling. In C −H activa-tion, deuterium labeling of the target C −H bond can changethe rate of the reaction (a primary kinetic isotope effect) whichshows the C −H activation to be the rate-limiting step (k3),which proved to the case for the C − H aziridination,explaining the first order dependence on Pd(OAc)2. The oxi-dative addition of PhI(OAc)2 following this step then does notalter the rate. The negative first order dependence on theamine can be rationalized by the increased reversible forma-tion of the square planar bisaminated Pd(II) complex (k2),which is unproductive, since the C −H activation step requiresa vacant coordination site [205, 206]. As the protonated aminecannot coordinate to Pd(II), increasing the amount of HOAc(k0) decreases the effective concentration of amine available tocoordinate the metal which shifts the k2 equilibrium towardsthe desired monoaminated complex. The optimal amount ofHOAc was determined to be 20 equiv., since higher concen-trations of acid lead to degradation of the aziridine product.
Another piece of evidence in the puzzle is the rate withwhich more sterically congested amines react. Increasing thesteric bulk makes the formation of the bisaminated complexless favorable, increasing the rate, which was shown by a com-petition experiment between two amines of which one wasmore substituted. The selectivity and the mechanism of C −Hactivation were further probed by DFT calculations. Data from
the mechanistic investigations were combined in a kinetic mod-el and applied to the design of a process model for an ideal plugflow reactor, with the limitation that Tmax = 120 °C (stabilitylimit of Pd(OAc)2) and that the space-time yield be largeenough (full conversion within 10 min). Optimization experi-ments were performed and yielded conditions with 0.5 mol%loading of Pd catalyst for which tr = 10 min.
Next, further development of the flow process for gram-scale production of aziridines was carried out by incorporatingmodules to remove the catalyst as well as the desired aziridineproduct. Separation of the homogeneous catalyst was accom-plished through the use of an amine-functionalized QuadraSilAP column (which coordinates and retains the Pd(II) catalyst),leaving the eluent with
the aromatic C −H amination. Using HFIP as a solventalso allowed expanding of the substrate scope to moreelectron-poor arenes, e.g. fluorobenzene, and improvesselectivity towards the para-position. The scope of ther eac t i on i s ve ry b road , i nc lud ing the d i r ec tfunctionalization of the organometallic compound[Ru ( ppy ) ( bpy ) 2 ] PF 6 , p o l y s t y r e n e ( d eg r e e o ffunctionalization: 19%) and a tetrapeptide, the latter un-dergoing selective amination in the para-position of the
phenyl moiety in a Phe residue, which is underexploredin bioconjugation chemistry.
The method was adapted to flow in collaboration withAstraZeneca with piperidine and iodobenzene as reactingpartners to furnish the para-substituted building block1-(4-iodophenyl)piperidine in a productivity of 3.8 g h−1
(Scheme 65) . A different photochemical approachwas followed by Marsden and co-workers, performing anintramolecular C −H amination in a mixture of acetic acid
Scheme 63 Derivatization of aziridine in continuous-flow
Scheme 62 Palladium-catalysed synthesis of aziridines in continuous-flow
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and sulfuric acid and fragmenting the protonated N-chloroamine homolytically using UV light .
The reaction was performed in flow, in which the N-chloroamine could be synthesized from the amine and NCSfollowed by cleaving the nitrogen-chlorine bond homolyticallyunder irradiation of a 125WUV lamp. This was then applied tointramolecular C −H amination reactions in flow to synthesizea range of tetrahydroquinolines (Scheme 66). Although higherisolated yield was obtained in both batch and flow conditionswhen both steps were performed separately, integrating thechlorination of the amine and the intramolecular C − Hamination reaction in a modular fashion gave N-methyltetrahydroquinoline in an overall yield of 34% .
A myriad of reports on reactions involving a 1,5-hydrogenatom transfer step have recently appeared in the literature
[215–217]. The first 1,5-HAT reaction, the classic Hoffmann-Löffler-Freytag reaction, originated in 1883 and involves pho-tolysis of a protonated N-chloroamine after which the resultingaminium radical abstracts a hydrogen from a carbon five atomsaway, resulting in δ-chlorination. The 1,5-radical translocationis thermodynamically favourable because the abstraction of thehydridic hydrogen atom is exergonic and occurs through a six-membered transition state, although 1,6- and 1,7-translocationsinvolving sulfamates and sulfamides have also been reported bythe group of Roizen [218, 219]. Following the translocation ofthe halide, an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution reactionthen furnishes pyrrolidine products. Recently, different electro-chemical variations of the Hoffmann-Löffler-Freytag reactionwere reported. Lei and co-workers reported a halide-free HLFreaction of tosylamides in the presence of acetate and HFIP
Scheme 64 Catalytic cycle forthe direct C −H amination ofarenes through photocatalyticreduction of protonated N-chloroamines
Scheme 65 Functionalization of iodobenzene with piperidine via direct C −H amination under flow conditions
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involving amidyl radical intermediates. Different pathways (in-volving ionic or radical reactivity) were proposed to arrive atthe amidyl radical, which generates a carbon-centered radicalafter the intramolecular remote hydrogen atom transfer. Thecarbon-centered radical is then oxidised to a carbocation, whichcyclizes to form pyrrolidines . A complementary approachinvolving both the use of electrochemistry and light to cleavethe N-haloamides was reported by Stahl and co-workers .Iodide ion is oxidised to iodine at the anode, which reacts with
amides to generate the photolabile N-iodoamides leading toamidyl radicals [222–225]. Using imines, iminyl radicals canbe accessed as well. This was applied to the synthesis ofoxazolines and 1,2-amino alcohols. With bromide as the medi-ator, Rueping and co-workers developed an electrochemicalcross-dehydrogenative approach to the Hoffmann-Löffler-Freytag reaction for the synthesis of pyrrolidines under bothbatch and flow conditions. The mechanistic pathways throughwhich the reaction occurs are again complicated, since several
Scheme 66 Intramolecular C −Hamination with N-chloroaminesand UV light
Scheme 67 Mechanism ofelectrochemical cyclization of Ts-protected amines to pyrrolidines
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species and pathways (both occuring at the anode or cathode inthe undivided cell) can be involved in the generation of the keyamidyl radical intermediate (Scheme 67).
The amidyl radical undergoes intramolecular HAT to yieldthe carbon-centered radical which can form the pyrrolidine ina number of different ways. First, the carbon radical can trapbromine (generated under oxidative conditions from bromide)which can undergo an intramolecular nucleophilic substitu-tion. Alternatively, the carbon-centered radical can undergodirect oxidation to the carbocation followed by cyclization.The presence of base (methoxide, which is also formed fromMeOH through the cathodic reduction of protons to hydrogenin a divided cell) was found necessary for the reaction tooccur, as the amidyl radical can be accessed through thedeprotonated tosylamide. The reaction was scaled under bothbatch (50 g scale) and flow conditions. Flow chemistry is anattractive option for the scale-up of electrochemical reactionsdue to the fast reaction rates and decrease of the necessaryamount of supporting electrolyte (a non-neglible factor duringscale-up). A commercial Asia Flux module manufactured bySyrris was used in conjuction with a graphite anode and 316alloy stainless steel cathode. The desired pyrrolidines wereformed in high yields under both conditions of constant cur-rent (5 mA cm−2) and constant potential (2.8 V). Accuratecontrol of residence time in flow reactions generating gasesis difficult, since the formation of gas bubbles (slugs) de-creases the residence time during the reaction. Hence, aback-pressure regulator was included in the system to solubi-lize the majority of hydrogen formed at the cathode (1 to5 bar), allowing the synthesis of the tosylpyrrolidine com-pound methyl 4-methyl-1-tosylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate in76% yield with a productivity of 0.37 mmol h−1
(Scheme 68) .Another reaction of historical importance involving such a
translocation is the Barton reaction. It can be classified as a
photochemical C −H oximation occuring through the homo-lytic photolysis of a nitrite functional group in which a nitroxy- and alkoxy radical are formed. The electrophilic alkoxy rad-ical then engages in a 1,5-HAT leading to the radical translo-cation of a nitroxide functionality which equilibrates to anoxime (Scheme 69, right part).
The group of Ryu reported a Barton reaction under flowconditions. An alcohol is transformed into a nitrite by reactionwith nitrosyl chloride (NOCl) and the labile N-O bond iscleaved by irradiation with near-UV light (365 nm provingsufficient). The reaction was performed in a stainless steelmicroreactor with a glass cover to allow irradiation of thereaction mixture (Scheme 68, left part). Different parametersof the reaction were investigated, e.g. light source combina-tions with different glasses (cut-offs being at different wave-lengths depending on the material). Out of these combina-tions, the application of a 15 W black light in combinationwith Pyrex glass performed best for small-scale reactions.While the Barton reaction is usually run in acetone as thesolvent, the limited solubility of the steroid in acetone neces-sitated switching to DMF. The reaction was scaled-up to gramscale, combining twomicroreactors and 8 × 20W black lights,yielding 3.1 g of the oxime after 20 h (32 min residence time),an intermediate in the synthesis of myriceric acid A .
C −O bond formation
Pasau and co-workers at UCB developed a benzylic photo-chemical C −H oxidation in continuous flow (Scheme 70).Oxygen gas is used as the oxidant in conjunction with theorganic photocatalyst riboflavin tetraacetate (RFT) underUV light irradiation with an Fe(III) salt, the latter being nec-essary for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide which causesdecomposition of the riboflavin . After irradiation withUV light, the riboflavin can abstract a hydrogen atom from the
Scheme 68 Electrochemical HLF reaction in flow conditions
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benzylic position to generate a benzylic radical. Since ribofla-vin is a known photosensitizer for oxygen, the authors pro-pose the formation of singlet oxygen, 1O2, which would thenreact with the benzylic radical to give a peroxo radical, whichcan engage in HAT forming a hydroperoxide. The hydroper-oxides can form either ketone or alcohol products. The re-duced riboflavin can then be reoxidised by 1O2, returning toits ground state, while the H2O2 formed during the oxidation is
reduced by the catalytic amount of the iron(II)perchlorate ad-ditive (Scheme 71).
To synthesize a series of acetals, Kappe and co-workersused Cu(OAc)2 and t-BuOOH as the oxidant for the