Psychological Disorders Rev2

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Transcript of Psychological Disorders Rev2

  • 1. Psychological Disorders What does it mean to be normal??
  • 2. What is ABNORMAL?
    • As defined by the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
    • - bible of mental disorders
    • - classifies disorders by categories
    • Abnormal is:
    • Deviation from Normality- doing something that is not what most people do.
    • (Ex: showering once a week, wearing shorts in the winter.)
    • Adjustment- not being able to function on a day to day basis without assistance from others. (Ex: Raymond in Rainman )
    • 3) Psychological Health- people who do not think in the proper manner .
  • 3. NORMAL?
    • There is a fine line between Abnormal and Normal.
    What is normal for one person might be considered abnormal to someone else. Ex: Close talkers, Shaking hands longer than normal, singing in the car . *It is much harder to classify mental disorders than physical ones, b/c the symptoms are not as clear cut.
  • 4. Anxiety Disorders
    • 20% of adults have endured symptoms of anxiety disorders.
    • Characteristics of :
      • Feelings of nervousness
      • Constant worrying
      • Physical symptoms (headaches, sweating, muscle tightness, fatigue)
      • Mood swings
  • 5. Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Phobic Disorders Panic Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • 6. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • What is it?
    • always feeling anxiety
    • What is anxiety ?
      • Generalized apprehension towards something
      • Vague feeling of danger/nervousness
    How common? 5% of the population
  • 7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder What does a person with this disorder do? They create vague and imagined dangers. They fear unknown circumstances, became unable to enjoy life. They create a cycle of worrying- the more they worry, the more difficult things become, then they worry more. Does it create physical problems? It is accompanied by muscular tension, an inability to relax, poor appetite, difficulty sleeping, indigestion.
  • 8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Examples :
      • 3) Playing out situations in your head and making them turn out poorly, causing you to avoid the situation altogether.
      • 2) Fearing a class because you dont know the material would cause you to try to avoid the class or participating in the class.
      • Being anxious on a date, causes a person to have a fear of dates in general, which causes them to avoid dates.
  • 9. Phobic Disorder Phobia - Severe anxiety focused on a particular object, anxiety, or event that seems out of proportion to the danger involved.
  • 10. Phobic Disorder
  • 11. Phobic Disorder
    • SIMPLE PHOBIA-
    • can focus on anything, mainly one object
    EX: Acrophobia- fear of high places Claustrophobia- fear of enclosed spaces Coulrophobia- fear of clowns Prevalence? About 10% of the population
  • 12. Phobic Disorder Social Phobia- Fear that a person will embarrass themselves in front of others.
    • have trouble with public speaking
    • do not like eating in public, using public facilities
    • have trouble meeting new people, first dates
    • feel like everyone is judging or watching them
    • causes them to go into withdrawal and avoid going out
    Ricky Williams Prevalence? ~12% of population
  • 13. Phobic Disorder Agoraphobia- fear of crowds, crowded places
    • They avoid places where a lot of people are present. (i.e. shopping malls, movies, restaurants, etc.)
    - They do not leave their houses, in extreme cases.
  • 14. Phobic Disorder HOW DO PEOPLE DEAL WITH THEIR FEARS? --- AVOID THEM!!! WHAT DOES THIS BEHAVIOR CAUSE? --- REINFORCES BEHAVIOR, BECOMES LEARNED AND MAINTAINED WHAT IS THE BEST TREATMENT OF PHOBIAS? --- PROVIDING THE PERSON WITH OPPORTUNITIES TO EXPERIENCE THEIR FEAR IN SAFE/ CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
  • 15. Phobic Disorder What do you fear? Rank the top 5 things that you fear from this list: Bridges Fire Death Heights Enclosed Spaces Spiders Snakes Open Spaces Darkness Ghosts Clowns Germs Being Alone Insects Blood Strangers Airplanes Needles
  • 16. PANIC Disorder What is a panic attack? A sudden an unexplainable attack of intense fear.
    • Leads a person to feel a sense of doom, or that they are about to die.
    • Not just worrying about a test, it is very extreme.
    What are the symptoms of a panic attack?
    • Sense of smothering
    • Choking
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Dizziness
    • Chest pains
    How long does an attack last?
    • Usually a few minutes, some can last for 45-60 minutes.
  • 17. OCD What does OCD mean? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder What is an OBSESSION? Thinking the same thoughts over and over, uncontrollable pattern of thoughts. Examples: thoughts about death, thoughts about a person, or hobby, etc.
  • 18. OCD What is a compulsion? Repeatedly performing irrational actions over and over. Repeatedly performing irrational actions over and over. Repeatedly performing irrational actions over and over . Examples: Washing hands 20-30xs a day. Avoiding cracks on the sidewalk. Constantly adding up numbers you see.
  • 19. OCD When does OCD become a problem? Most people can function day to day with minor obsessions and compulsions. Only when they interfere daily routines is it a problem. Example: Checking and re-checking information at work that causes a person to not be able to finish their work. Why do people develop obsessions and compulsions? To avoid other fears, to feel like they are in control of things.
  • 20. What obsessions and compulsions do you have?
  • 21. PTSD Post-traumatic Stress Disorder- Severe and long-lasting aftereffects associated with a traumatic event. The event overwhelms their ability to cope with reality and can affect their day to day life. What are the symptoms and effects of PTSD? Symptoms- flashbacks, nightmares Effects- experience ordeal, insomnia, feelings of guilt
  • 22. PTSD - military veterans (i.e. Vietnam vets) - survivors of natural disasters (Tsunami victims) - victims of human aggressions, crimes (Rape victims) - unnatural catastrophes (plane crashes, car accidents) Who suffers from it?
  • 23. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS -- Anxiety creates physical symptoms for which there is no apparent cause. (Hysteria) -- Medical tests would not reveal anything wrong with patients with these disorders. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS Conversion Reaction Hypochondriasis
  • 24. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS 1) Conversion Reaction- Emotional difficulties turn into the loss of a specific physical function. People with conversion disorder express emotional conflict or severe anxiety due to stress through physical symptoms that affect voluntary or sensory function. These may include problems with walking or moving an arm, or even blindness. This disorder generally occurs in people whose usual coping methods are overwhelmed.
  • 25. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS Conversion Reaction (cont) Major Point to Remember: This results in a real and prolonged handicap!!! Example: A person wakes up in the morning and can not move their legs, instead of freaking out about it, they accept it without worrying. Example: A person who has a fear of blurting things out in public, loses their speech. (solves the problem) *Can last for months, then effects can just disappear.