Psych personality

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  • 1. PsychologyPsychology Cynthia K. Shinabarger ReedCynthia K. Shinabarger Reed Tarrant County CollegeTarrant County College With butchering by Instructor CarneyWith butchering by Instructor Carney 1
  • 2. PersonalityPersonality 2
  • 3. PersonalityPersonality What is it?What is it? How do you know if you have one?How do you know if you have one? What do we mean when we say someone:What do we mean when we say someone: Has a great personality.Has a great personality. Has a horrible personality.Has a horrible personality. Is there a different meaning based on gender?Is there a different meaning based on gender? Can we change our personality?Can we change our personality? If so how?If so how? 3
  • 4. PersonalityPersonality Relatively stable pattern of thinking,Relatively stable pattern of thinking, feeling, & behaving that distinguishesfeeling, & behaving that distinguishes one person from another.one person from another. Same familySame family Similar experiencesSimilar experiences Very different personalitiesVery different personalities 4
  • 5. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality Case studiesCase studies InterviewsInterviews Naturalistic observationsNaturalistic observations Laboratory investigationsLaboratory investigations Psychological testsPsychological tests 5
  • 6. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality To be useful, a psychological test must haveTo be useful, a psychological test must have 3 characteristics:3 characteristics: ReliabilityReliability Dependable, accurate, reliable information.Dependable, accurate, reliable information. ValidityValidity Capable of being justified, defended, or supportedCapable of being justified, defended, or supported StandardizationStandardization No variationsNo variations 6
  • 7. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality Self-report inventoriesSelf-report inventories Minnesota Multiphasic Personality InventoryMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) & California Psychological Inventory(MMPI) & California Psychological Inventory (CPI).(CPI). Best-known & widely used personality measuresBest-known & widely used personality measures MMPI: Statements about self in form of yes-no/true-MMPI: Statements about self in form of yes-no/true- false answers.false answers. 1. I like mechanics magazines1. I like mechanics magazines 2. I have a good appetite2. I have a good appetite 3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings3. I wake up fresh & rested most mornings 4. I think I would like the work of a librarian4. I think I would like the work of a librarian 7
  • 8. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality MMPIMMPI Diagnose psychological disorders.Diagnose psychological disorders. CPICPI Assess personality in the normalAssess personality in the normal population.population. In class Projective testIn class Projective test 8
  • 9. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality Projective testsProjective tests AssumptionAssumption People project their personality characteristics ontoPeople project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli.ambiguous stimuli. 9
  • 10. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality Rorschach TestRorschach Test Inkblot testInkblot test Swiss psychiatristSwiss psychiatrist Hermann RorschachHermann Rorschach Determine personalityDetermine personality traitstraits Interpret subject'sInterpret subject's responses to inkblotresponses to inkblot images.images. 10
  • 11. Its just a simple Rorschach test Mr.Its just a simple Rorschach test Mr. Bromwell so just calm down & tell meBromwell so just calm down & tell me what each one suggests to you.what each one suggests to you. 11
  • 12. 12 Inkblot 1 Inkblot 2 Inkblot 3 Inkblot 4 Inkblot 5 What do the inkblots look likeWhat do the inkblots look like to you?to you?
  • 13. BBlack & white card, often described as looking like a mask orlack & white card, often described as looking like a mask or the face of a fox or wolf.the face of a fox or wolf. Possible Sexual Imagery: Breasts, primarily the rounded areasPossible Sexual Imagery: Breasts, primarily the rounded areas at the top of the image.at the top of the image. 13
  • 14. Black & red ink, often described as people dancing orBlack & red ink, often described as people dancing or touching hands with each other.touching hands with each other. Possible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organ at top center or, inPossible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organ at top center or, in some cases, a vagina (at the center near the bottom).some cases, a vagina (at the center near the bottom). 14
  • 15. Black & red inkBlack & red ink Frequently visualized as 2 people facing each other orFrequently visualized as 2 people facing each other or sometimes a butterfly or moth.sometimes a butterfly or moth. Possible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organs and female breasts,Possible Sexual Imagery: Male sex organs and female breasts, right about where you would expect to find them.right about where you would expect to find them. 15
  • 16. Barnum EffectBarnum Effect P. T. BarnumP. T. Barnum Reputation as aReputation as a mastermaster psychologicalpsychological manipulatormanipulator MuseumMuseum promoterpromoter Circus ownerCircus owner 16
  • 17. Barnum EffectBarnum Effect Tendency to accept generalized personalityTendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions ofdescriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself.oneself. SmartSmart CreativeCreative FunnyFunny PseudosciencesPseudosciences Influence people because:Influence people because: We want to accept positive descriptions of ourselves.We want to accept positive descriptions of ourselves. 17
  • 18. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality Walter MischelWalter Mischel Advised psychologistsAdvised psychologists Shift attention from search for traits toShift attention from search for traits to Study of how situations influenceStudy of how situations influence behaviors.behaviors. Some characteristics consistent over time:Some characteristics consistent over time: IntelligenceIntelligence Emotional reactionsEmotional reactions Physical appearancePhysical appearance 18
  • 19. Analyzing PersonalityAnalyzing Personality EpsteinEpstein Behavior depends on the situationBehavior depends on the situation Consistent behavioral tendencies acrossConsistent behavioral tendencies across situations.situations. The situationThe situation Influences the likelihood that a person willInfluences the likelihood that a person will exhibit a specific behavior.exhibit a specific behavior. 19
  • 20. Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches TraitsTraits Terms that describe tendencies to respond inTerms that describe tendencies to respond in particular ways that account for differencesparticular ways that account for differences among people.among people. Psychologist Gordon AllportPsychologist Gordon Allport Composed a list of traitsComposed a list of traits Building blocks of personality.Building blocks of personality. 20
  • 21. Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches Raymond CattellRaymond Cattell Proposed 16 sourceProposed 16 source traits to describetraits to describe personalitypersonality Make predictionsMake predictions of future behaviors.of future behaviors. 21
  • 22. Trait ApproachesTrait Approaches EysenckEysenck Personality as consists of 3 basic traits:Personality as consists of 3 basic traits: ExtraversionExtraversion NeuroticismNeuroticism PsychoticismPsychoticism Extraversion has been associated with a number ofExtraversion has been associated with a number of differences in everyday behavior.differences in everyday behavior. 22
  • 23. Big FiveBig Five I see myself (or other person) as someone who...I see myself (or other person) as someone who... 1. ...Is talkative1. ...Is talkative Myself:Myself: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree Other:Other: Disagree12345AgreeDisagree12345Agree 2. ...Tends to find fault with others2. ...Tends t