Proximate composition, nutraceutical constituents Proximate composition, nutraceutical constituents

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Transcript of Proximate composition, nutraceutical constituents Proximate composition, nutraceutical constituents

  • INT J CURR SCI 2014, 12: E 57-71


    Proximate composition, nutraceutical constituents and fatty acid profile on GCMS

    of seaweeds collected from Balk Bay (Thondi), India

    Arunkumar K*, A. Palanivelu and A. Darsis

    Post Graduate and Research Department of Botany, Alagappa Government Arts College

    Karaikuadi-630 003, India

    *Corresponding author:; Mobile: +91-9865051016


    The proximate compositions such as dry weight, ash content, total chlorophyll, accessory pigments (phycocyanin,

    allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) and total lipids from fresh seaweeds; total carbohydrate, total protein, total amino acids,

    total phenol, WRC and sulphate content in crude carbohydrate of 16 red and 7 green seaweeds and GC-MS profile of fatty

    acids of red Gracilaria corticata var. corticata, G. verrucosa, Acanthophora spicifera and green Chaetomorpha linum were

    recorded, in the present study. Seaweeds such as red Gracilaria verrucosa, G. edulis, Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae,

    Grateloupia filicina; and green seaweeds Ulva lactuca and Chaetomorpha linum are promising not only for traditional cell

    wall polysaccharides extraction but also as a source of specific nutraceutical values like dietary fiber, pigments,

    carbohydrates, protein and amino acids supplements in the food and fodder. Specifically seaweeds such as Gracilaria

    verrucosa, G. corticata var. corticata, Acanthophora spicifera and green seaweed Chaetomorpha linum can be utilized not

    only as source of nutraceutical supplements but also for fatty acids as well as bioactive compounds.

    Keywords: Thondi, seaweeds, nutraceuticals, proximate compositions, crude carbohydrate

    Received: 17thMay; Revised: 04thJune; Accepted: 28thJuly; © IJCS New Liberty Group 2014


    The per capita availability of land declined from 0.89

    hectare in 1951 to 0.37 hectare in 1991 and is projected to

    slide down to 0.20 hectare in 2035

    ( This decline is mostly on

    account of rising population. To meet this demand,

    utilization of ocean and its resources is a suitable alternate.

    As a developing country, Indian stretches about 7500 km

    of coastal lines supported with 844 species of seaweeds

    (Oza and Zaidi, 2001) found growing along the intertidal

    and sub-tidal coastal waters (Kaliaperumal et al., 1998).

    The principal uses of seaweeds are sources for

    phycocolloids, fodder, fertilizer and direct use in human

    diet (Abbott, 1996). Europeans and Americans are using

    processed seaweeds as additives in their food preparation

    (Sophie, 1998). About 600 species of seaweeds are used as

    food in various parts of the world especially in Japan,

    China, Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand

    etc. Seaweeds considered as low cost but rich of

    carbohydrate, protein and lipid with appreciable amount of

    certain important essential amino acids, fatty acids,

    minerals and all vitamins required for human and animals

    consumption (Qasim, 1991; Fleming et al.,1996; Norziah

    and Ching, 2000). According to Chapman (1980), 100 g

    seaweed provides more than the daily requirement of

    Vitamin A, B1 and B12 and two thirds of Vitamin C. They

    are also containing carotene, tocopherols and long-chain

    polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (Khotimchenko et al.,

  • Arunkumar et al., 2014

    2002). Lipids are the major source of metabolic energy and

    essential for the formation of cell and tissue membranes

    (Pazos et al.,1997) that exhibit bioactivities against

    pathogens causing diseases in animals and plants

    (Arunkumar et al., 2005; Agoramoorthy et al., 2007).

    Seaweed lipids may be utilized for specific nutritional

    supplements (Heiba, 2005) especially as a source of

    physiologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)

    since they are not synthesized by animals, have to be taken

    up from diets (Usmanghani and Shameel, 1996). Analysis

    of individual fatty acids in Indian seaweeds is limited

    (Venkatesalu et al., 2003a, b; Venkatesalu et al., 2004;

    Ananatharaj et al., 2004). Even though studies on

    proximate compositions of seaweeds found around the

    world (Fujiwara-Arasaki et al., 1984; Watanabe and

    Nisizawa, 1984; Ito and Hori, 1989; Chan, 1997; Norziah

    and Ching, 2000) as well as India (Parekh et al., 1977;

    Devi et al., 2008; Manivannan et al., 2009) were made,

    nutritional values of water extractable crude carbohydrates

    of seaweeds are not made since sulphated polysaccharides

    of seaweeds are water soluble proved displaying various

    biological activities. Besides, to ensure the nutritional

    potential, the seaweeds should contain adequate amount of

    biochemical constituents in their water soluble extracts. To

    keep this view in mind, in the present investigation,

    proximate composition of fresh specimens as well as water

    soluble crude extracts of seaweeds occurring along the

    coast of Thondi (Palk Pay) India were recorded in order to

    realize them for nutraceuticals.

    Materials and Methods

    Thondi is located (Lat: 90 44’ 10” N and Long: 790

    00’ 45” E Palk Bay) in the heart of Palk Strait (Palk Bay)

    in Ramanathapuram District of Tamil Nadu, India known

    for historical minor port right of early Pandiya’s kings.

    This coastal shore naturally of shallow waters contain

    loose mud and sand which habour quite number of diverse

    seaweeds belonging to Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and

    Chlorophyceae (Darsis and Arunkumar, 2008).

    Methods of analyses of Proximate compositions

    Fresh, matured and healthy sample weighing 1 kg of

    each seaweed (16 red and 7 green) found along the coast of

    Thondi was collected during monsoon season (November)

    in the year 2008 in spring tide. They were washed

    thoroughly in seawater followed by tap water to remove

    the epiphytes and other extraneous materials and brought

    to laboratory and stored at 00C for studies biochemical

    studies. Dry weight, ash content (Lamare and Wing, 2001),

    total chlorophyll( Jeffrey and Hymphrey, 1975), accessory

    pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and

    phycoerythrin) (Bennett and Bogorad,1973) and total lipids

    (Roughan and Bratt, 1968) were estimated from the frozen

    samples whereas total carbohydrate (Dubois et al., 1956),

    total protein (Lowry et al., 1951), total amino acids (Dave

    and Chauhan, 1993), total phenol (Kuda et al., 2005), water

    retention capacity (WRC) and sulphate (Verma et al.,

    1977) were recorded from the crude carbohydrate of the

    frozen samples.

    Extraction of crude carbohydrate

    Each seaweed weighing 500 g of the frozen samples

    were soaked in 1500 ml of distilled water and heated up to

    80°C for 30 mins under agitated condition. Then, the

    mixture was filtered through the muslin cloth under warm

    condition. The same procedure was repeated for three

    times. The extracts were combined and kept at –10°C

    under freeze drying by high vacuum dehydration. For

    biochemical studies, analyses made from 4 samples in each

    experiment and data were statistically analysed using the

    SPSS 14.

  • Arunkumar et al., 2014

    Analysis of fatty acids through GC/MS

    Lipid extraction (Roughan and Bratt, 1968)

    Considering abundance and total lipids, each 10 g of

    freeze dried specimens of seaweed such as Gracilaria

    corticata var. corticata, G. verrucosa, Acanthophora

    spicifera and Chaetomorpha linum were homogenized

    using a mortar and pestle and soaked overnight in

    methanol: chloroform: water (2:1:0.8 v/v/v).

    Chloroform/water was added until separation of two

    phases. The lower chloroform phase contain crude lipids

    was collected and concentrated in rotary evaporation at 400

    C and reconstituted in 10 ml chloroform.


    For saponification, Five 5 ml of crude total lipids of

    each sample was treated with 5% KOH in methanol for 3 h

    at 800C. The unsaponified lipid was washed in

    hexane:chloroform (4:1 v/v, 3×2 ml). Then the aqueous

    layer in the samples was acidified with 1.0 N HCl pH 2 and

    methylated to produce their corresponding fatty acid

    methyl esters using methanol :chloroform: HCl (10:1:1,

    800C, 2 h). Products were then extracted into hexane:

    chloroform (4:1, 3×2 ml) and reconstituted in hexane

    stored at 00C.

    GC-MS Programme

    Column: Elite-1 (100% Dimethyl poly siloxane), 30

    m x0.25 mm ID X 1µm df; Equipment: GC Clarus 500

    Perkin Elmer; Carrier gas : Helium 1 ml/min Detector :

    Mass detector-Turbo mass 5.1; Sample injected : 2 µl; Split

    : 10:1; Oven Temperature programme: 110-2 min hold Up

    to 200C at the rate of 10/min-No hold Up to 2800C at the

    rate of 50/min-9 min hold Injector tem