Programming Paradigm & Languages
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Lecture 8Programming Paradigm & LanguagesLecturer: Sumaira HussainS.M.I UNiversity
Programming LanguagesThe process of telling the computer what to do Also known as coding
Batch ProgramsThese are typically started from a shell (or automatically via a scheduler) and tend to follow a pattern of: Initialize internal data Read input data Process that data Print or store results
Key feature: No user interaction with the computer while the program is runningExamples?PC are a printing request or an analysis of a Web site log.
Examples? GUIs, microwave, camera
The system sends events to the program and the program responds to these as they arrive.
Event-Driven ProgramsEvents can include things a user does -like clicking the mouse -or things that the system itself does -like updating the clock.These programs generally work as follows: Initialize the internal data Wait for events to arriveIdentify an incoming event and react accordingly
Programming LanguagesMachine Language Assembly Language (1956-63)LISP (1956)Fortran (1957)COBOL (1959)PL/1(1964)BASIC (1964)Pascal (1970)Smalltalk (1972)C (1972)
A language used to write instructions for the computer. That is the way of representation any program in to that form which is understandable by CPU.
Programming LanguagePrograms are written by using any language and these languages set the procedures & rules to write computer programs. Programmers have to follow that rules which is set by programming languages. Types of Languages1)Low Level Language2)High Level Language
LOW LEVEL LANGUAGELow level language is also called machine language. That types of languages are close to machine and easily understand by machine as, it is majorly in binary form (0 & 1). low level language types are Machine language Assembly language
HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGEHigh level programming languages is languages program than use languages or syntax which closes to human languages so; it is easy to understanding the languages. This type of language is machine-independent, and uses similar language as English, which is easily understandable by human.
TYPES OF HIGH LEVEL LANGUGESTypes of high level languages are:Procedural LanguagesFunctional & Non procedural LanguagesObject Oriented Languages
Procedural programming languages FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation)BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) These types of languages are Third-Generation Language.
NON PROCEDURAL LANGUGESIn non-procedural languages the computer is not limited to a set of precise instructions. Instead, the programmer defines only the problemnot the instructions--to solve the problem. Non Procedural Programming Languages areSQL (Structured Query Language)LISP (List Processing)PROLOG (PROgramming with LOGic)
Programming languages specifically designed to make it easy to implement object-oriented designs
In object-oriented languages, the code used to write the program and the data processed by the program are grouped together into units called objects. Objects are further grouped into classes, which define the attributes objects must have.
Examples: Smalltalk, C++, Java
Language TranslatorAtranslatoris a computer program that translates a program written in a givenprogramming languageinto afunctionally equivalent program in a different computer language, without losing the functional or logical structure of the original code
Types of Language TranslatorCompilerInterpreterAssembler
COMPILERA compiler is a computer program that transforms human readable complete code of another computer program into the machine readable code that a CPU can execute.
INTERPRETERAn interpreter is a computer program that reads the source code of another computer program and executes that program. Because it is interpreted line by line, it is a much slower way of running a program than one that has been compiled but is easier for learners because the program can be stopped, modified and rerun without time-consuming compiles.
ASSEMBLERAssembler converts code written in assembly language into machine language. It works same like interpreter and compiler. The assembler program takes each program statement in the code and generates a corresponding bit stream or pattern (a series of 0's and 1's of a given length).
Both interpreters and compilers are available for most high-level languages. However, BASIC and LISP were especially designed to be executed by an interpreter
FORTRANFortran is a particularly good language for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to large business programs
Pascal Pascal is very good for writing well-structured and readable programs, but it is not as flexible as the C programming language
C++ C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn
Testing & Debugging
Testing: The tasks performed to determine the existence of defects
Debugging: The tasks performed to detect the exact location of defects
Defects are also called bugs or errorsLet us now look at one of their classifications
Types of Errors
Syntax errorsSemantic errorsRun-time errors
They are caused by the code that somehow violates the rules of the languageEasy to detect and fix errorsThe browser stops code interpretation on detecting one of theseExamples:a = b + * c ;receiver = receiver + 2Syntax error?
Occur when a statement executes and has an effect not intended by the programmerHard to detect during normal testingOften times occur only in unusual & infrequent circumstancesThe + operator often results in unintended consequences. Remedy: Convert, before use
Occur when the program is running and tries to do something that is against the rulesExample: Accessing a non-existent variable, property, method, object, etc (e.g. a method name is misspelled)Sources of these can be determined by a careful reading of the code, but unfortunately, not always!