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  • 2016

  • Privacy & Cyber-Physical Security in European Cities

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    References ............................................................................................................. 37

  • Privacy & Cyber-Physical Security in European Cities

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    1 European Commission (2010) Comparative Study on Different Approaches to new privacy challenges, in particular in the light of Technological Developments.

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    2 European Commission (2012) Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation). 3 http://www.allenovery.com/publications/en-gb/data-protection/Pages/Timetable.aspx

    4 Commission of the European Communities (2009) COMMUNICATION on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) Protecting Europe from large scale cyber-attacks and disruptions: enhancing preparedness, security and resilience.

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    5 European Commission (2011) COMMUNICATIONon Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Achievements and next steps: towards global cyber-security. 6 European Commission (2012) COMMUNICATIONon Tackling Crime in our Digital age: Establishing a European Cybercrime Centre 7 European Commission (2013) Proposal for a Directive of European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to ensure a high common level of network and information security across the Union. 8 European Commission (2013) Commission Staff Working Document Impact Assessment

    https://www.enisa.europa.eu/

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    9 http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/business/2015/07/22/hacks-on-the-highway/

    http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/business/2015/07/22/hacks-on-the-highway/

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    10 Securing Smart Cities is a non-profit global initiative that aims to solve the existing and future cybersecurity problems of smart cities through collaboration between companies, governments and other actors. See securingsmartcities.org for more information. 11 https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/Resilience-and-CIIP/smart-infrastructures/intelligent-public-transport/smart-cities-architecture-model

    https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/Resilience-and-CIIP/smart-infrastructures/intelligent-public-transport/smart-cities-architecture-modelhttps://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/Resilience-and-CIIP/smart-infrastructures/intelligent-public-transport/smart-cities-architecture-model

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    12 http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/17/technology/ucla-health-hack/ 13 http://www.wsj.com/articles/anthem-hacked-database-included-78-8-million-people-1424807364 14 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/f3cbda3e-a027-11e5-8613-08e211ea5317.html#axzz3vA6qRxP8

    http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/17/technology/ucla-health-hack/http://www.wsj.com/articles/anthem-hacked-database-included-78-8-million-people-1424807364http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/f3cbda3e-a027-11e5-8613-08e211ea5317.html#axzz3vA6qRxP8

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    15 http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35297464 16 http://www.wired.com/2016/01/everything-we-know-about-ukraines-power-plant-hack/

    http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35297464http://www.wired.com/2016/01/everything-we-know-about-ukraines-power-plant-hack/

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    17 https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint-washington/post/foreign-hackers-broke-into-illinois-water-plant-control-system-industry-expert-says/2011/11/18/gIQAgmTZYN_blog.html

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint-washington/post/foreign-hackers-broke-into-illinois-water-plant-control-system-industry-expert-says/2011/11/18/gIQAgmTZYN_blog.htmlhttps://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint-washington/post/foreign-hackers-broke-into-illinois-water-plant-control-system-industry-expert-says/2011/11/18/gIQAgmTZYN_blog.html

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    18 http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/10/31/hacker_jailed_for_revenge_sewage/

    http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/10/31/hacker_jailed_for_revenge_sewage/

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    Yes50%

    Unsure17%

    In the process of creating a strategy

    25%

    No8%

    DOES YOUR CITY HAVE A STRATEGY FOR THE PRIVACY OF CITIZENS?

    Yes67%

    No33%

    IS THE PRIVACY STRATEGY BEING IMPLEMENTED?

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    Yes41%

    Unsure42%

    No17%

    IS THE STRATEGY ON HOW TO HANDLE PERSONAL AND SENSITIVE DATA

    AVALIABLE PUBLICLY?

    Yes45%

    Unsure44%

    No11%

    IS YOUR CITYS PRIVACY STRATEGY COMPLIANT WITH THE GDPR?

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    Yes67%

    In the process of creating a strategy

    25%

    No8%

    DOES YOUR CITY HAVE A STRATEGY FOR CYBER-PHYSICAL SECURITY?

    Yes87%

    No13%

    IS THE CYBER-PHYSICAL SECURITY STRATEGY BEING IMPLEMENTED?

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    Yes75%

    Unsure17%

    No8%

    DOES YOUR ORGANIZATION CONDUCT REGULAR REVIEWS OF KNOWN AND POTENTIAL CYBER-

    PHYSICAL VULNERABILITIES IN YOUR DATA SYSTEMS?

    Yes17%

    No83%

    DOES YOUR ORGANIZATION OUTSOURCE CYBER-SECURITY?

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    Yes67%

    Unsure16%

    No17%

    DOES YOUR ORGANIZATION CONDUCT REGULAR SECURITY TRAINING FOR IT

    USERS?

    Yes75%

    Unsure8%

    No17%

    DOES YOUR ORGANIZATION HAVE A RISK MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR CYBER-

    SECURITY?

    Yes50%

    Unsure50%

    IS YOUR CITYS CYBER-PHYSICAL SECURITY STRATEGY COMPLIANT WITH THE GDPR?

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    Yes33%

    Unsure50%

    No17%

    IS YOUR MUNICIPALITY COMPLIANT WITH THE GDPR?

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    A C C

    C

    B B

    B

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    19 http://securingsmartcities.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Guidlines_for_Safe_Smart_Cities.pdf

    http://securingsmartcities.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Guidlines_for_Safe_Smart_Cities.pdf

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    20 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/ 21 http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm 22 http://surveyacademy.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Increasing-Survey-Response-Rates.pdf

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htmhttp://surveyacademy.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Increasing-Survey-Response-Rates.pdf

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    Copyright2016 Smart City Catalyst

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    Please contact Smart City Catalyst on

    www.scc-eu.dk

    Valdemarsgade 73, ST.TV

    DK-1665 Copenhagen V

    Vat.no 34488258

    [email protected]

    file:///C:/Users/test/AppData/Roaming/Microsoft/Word/www.scc-eu.dkmailto:[email protected]

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    References

    Allen & Overy (2015) The EU General Data Protection Regulation Timetable. (Available at

    http://www.allenovery.com/publications/en-gb/data-protection/Pages/Timetable.aspx)

    BBC News (2016) Hackers caused power cut in western Ukraine US. (Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-

    35297464)

    CNN Money (2015) UCLA Health hacked, 4.5 million victims. (Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/17/technology/ucla-

    health-hack/)

    European Commission (2009) COMMUNICATION on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) Protecting Europe from

    large scale cyber-attacks and disruptions: enhancing preparedness, security and resilience.

    European Commission (2010) Comparative Study on Different Approaches to new privacy challenges, in particular in the light of

    Technological Developments.

    European Commission (2011) COMMUNICATIONon Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Achievements and next steps:

    towards global cyber-security.

    European Commission (2012) COMMUNICATIONon Tackling Crime in our Digital age: Establishing a European Cybercrime Centre

    European Commission (2012) Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard

    to the processing of personal data and on the movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation).

    European Commission (2013) Proposal for a Directive of European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to ensure a

    high common level of network and information security across the Union.

    European Commission (2013) Commission Staff Working Document Impact Assessment

    European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (2015) Cyber security for Smart Cities - An architecture model for

    public transport.

    Financial Times The Big Read (2015) Cyber security: Attack of the health hackers. (Retrieved from

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/f3cbda3e-a027-11e5-8613-08e211ea5317.html#axzz3vA6qRxP8).

    FireEye (2015) Cyber Threats to The Nordic Region. (Retrieved from https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-

    www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-nordic-threat-landscape.pdf)

    International Telecommunication Union (2014) ITU-T Focus Group on Smart Sustainable Cities - Smart water management in cities.

    Focus Group Technical Report. FG-SSC.

    Securing Smart Cities (2015) An Emerging US (and World) Threat: Cities Wide Open to Cyber Attacks. (Avaliable at

    http://securingsmartcities.org/)

    Securing Smart Cities (2015) Cyber Security Guidelines for Smart City Technology Adoption. (Avaliable at

    http://securingsmartcities.org/)

    The Register (2001) Hacker jailed for revenge sewage attacks. (Retrieved from

    http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/10/31/hacker_jailed_for_revenge_sewage/)

    The Washington Post (2011) Foreign hackers targeted U.S. Water plant in apparent malicious cyber attack, expert says. (Retrieved

    from https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint-washington/post/foreign-hackers-broke-into-illinois-

    water-plant-control-system-industry-expert-says/2011/11/18/gIQAgmTZYN_blog.html)

    The Washington Post (2015) Hacks on the highway - Automakers rush to add wireless features, leaving our cars open to hackers.

    (Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/business/2015/07/22/hacks-on-the-highway/)

    The Wall Street Journal (2015) Anthem: Hacked Database Included 78.8 Million People. (Retrieved from

    http://www.wsj.com/articles/anthem-hacked-database-included-78-8-million-people-1424807364)

    Wired (2016) Everything We Know About Ukraines Power Plant Hack. (Retrieved from

    http://www.wired.com/2016/01/everything-we-know-about-ukraines-power-plant-hack/)

    http://www.allenovery.com/publications/en-gb/data-protection/Pages/Timetable.aspxhttp://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35297464http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-35297464http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/17/technology/ucla-health-hack/http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/17/technology/ucla-health-hack/http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/f3cbda3e-a027-11e5-8613-08e211ea5317.html#axzz3vA6qRxP8https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-nordic-threat-landscape.pdfhttps://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/global/en/current-threats/pdfs/rpt-nordic-threat-landscape.pdfhttp://securingsmartcities.org/http://securingsmartcities.org/http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/10/31/hacker_jailed_for_revenge_sewage/https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint-washington/post/foreign-hackers-broke-into-illinois-water-plant-control-system-industry-expert-says/2011/11/18/gIQAgmTZYN_blog.htmlhttps://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/checkpoint-washington/post/foreign-hackers-broke-into-illinois-water-plant-control-system-industry-expert-says/2011/11/18/gIQAgmTZYN_blog.htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/business/2015/07/22/hacks-on-the-highway/http://www.wsj.com/articles/anthem-hacked-database-included-78-8-million-people-1424807364http://www.wired.com/2016/01/everything-we-know-about-ukraines-power-plant-hack/