Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden...

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Postharvest Handling of Mango

Transcript of Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden...

Page 1: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Postharvest Handling of

Mango

Page 2: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Cultivar Differences

Tommy Atkins Mango Kent Mango Keitt Mango

Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango

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• Maturity at harvest determines eating quality potential• Skin color

– Dark green to light green in some cultivars– Red color is not related to maturity or ripeness

• Fruit shape– Fullness of cheeks– Shape of shoulders

• Internal flesh color– Greenish-white to yellowish-orange

Assessing Maturity & Eating Quality Potential

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Skin Color

Skin color is not always related to internal color and ripeness!

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Ataulfo Color Stages

1 2 3 4 5

Fernando Maul

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Tommy Atkins Color Stages

1 2 3 4 5

Fernando Maul

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Fruit Shape

Immature Mature

•Fullness of cheeks•Elevation of shoulders above the stem attachment

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Mango Maturity and Ripening Charts

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Underdevelopedimmature

Not sufficientlymature tocontinue ripeningprocess

MatureFruit

OverripeFruit

European (OECD) Standards. Mango Maturity

Not allowed Not allowed Not allowedALLOWED

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• Skin color changes from green to yellow (in some cultivars)

• Flesh color changes from greenish-yellow to yellow to orange (in all cultivars)

• Decrease in flesh firmness and increased juiciness

• Starch is converted into sugars Starch is converted into sugars

• Increase in soluble solids contentIncrease in soluble solids content

• Increase in carotenoids and decrease in chlorophyll Increase in carotenoids and decrease in chlorophyll contentcontent

• Increase in characteristic aroma volatilesIncrease in characteristic aroma volatiles

Changes Associated with Mango Ripening

Page 11: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Changes with Ripening

Changes in total soluble solids content and firmnessduring ripening of 'Keitt' mangoes

Days after harvest at 68F (20C)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Tot

al s

olub

le s

olid

s (%

)

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

TSS

Firm

ness

(lb

s-fo

rce)

0

4

8

12

16Firmness (lbs-force)

Very Hard (1)

Sprung (2)

Near Ripe (3)

Ripe (4)

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Harvest• Mangos are harvested when the fruit have

reached their full size and have begun to ripen, which starts inside the fruit

• The fruit are carefully detached so that they don’t fall to the ground, and are collected in plastic field crates

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Harvest tools that allow retention of stem prevent latex stainingAngle of the hook is important to ensure snapping the fruit with stem

Mango Manila Harvest Veracruz, MexicoMarita Cantwell

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Washing and Pre-sizing

• First the mangos are washed, then they are pre-sized according to guidelines for quarantine treatment, when required

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Hot Water Quarantine Treatment

• Mangos exported to the U.S. must be immersed in 46°C/115°F water for 60 to 110 minutes depending on variety and fruit size in USDA APHIS-certified hot water treatment systems.

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Hydro-cooling & Staging for Packing• After their hot bath, the mangos are cooled in water

that is no cooler than 21°C/70°F as prescribed by APHIS

– cool enough to guard against hot water injury

– not too cool to counteract the hot water treatment’s effectiveness against fruit flies

• Fruit should be packed immediately or placed temporarily in cold room at 12C

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Forced Hot Air TreatmentHeat fruit to 117F (47C), hold 20-30 min

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Irradiation for Control of Fruit Flies

Common Name Scientific NameMin. Dose

(Gy)

Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis 250

Med. fruit fly Ceratitis capitata 225

Melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae 210

Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa 150

Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens 150

West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha oblique 150

Sapote fruit fly Anastrepha serpentine 150

Queensland fruit fly Bacterocera tryoni 150

No common name Bacterocera jarvisi 150

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Packing• The mangos may be coated with carnauba wax for

appearance and for protection from water loss

• The mangos are sorted and graded to remove the fruit that are not good enough to satisfy the market

• Most mangos are hand sized as the cartons are filled

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Forced-air cooling & Refrigerated Storage

• Mangos are cooled to their optimum storage and transport temperature of 12°C/54°F

• Mangos may be stored at 12°C/54°F, but only long enough to accommodate shipping schedules

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Common Defects

• Latex staining (only affects appearance, not eating quality

• Hot water injury

• Decay– Anthracnose– Stem-end rot

• Chilling injury

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Latex Staining

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Hot Water Injury

Beth Mitcham

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Anthracnose DecayAnthracnose Decay

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Decay Control

• Hot water immersion– 50 to 55ºC for 1 to 5 minutes

• Fungicides, may be included in hot water

• Bagging before harvest

• Irradiation not very effective at doses allowed

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Heat Treatment Reduces Anthracnose Incidence and Severity on Mangoes

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Stem-End RotStem-End Rot

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Chilling Injury Symptoms on

Mangoes

•Uneven ripening

•Poor color and flavor development

•Surface pitting

•Grayish scald-like skin discoloration

•Flesh browning in severe cases

Chilling InjuryChilling Injury

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“Safe” chilling threshold temperatures* for different varieties/maturities of

mangos (research is ongoing)

Variety

Maturity/Ripeness Stage**

1 2 3 4 5

Ataulfo** >55°F >55°F >55°F >55°F >55°F

Keitt 55°F 50°F 45-50°F 45°F 45°F

Kent 55°F 55°F 55°F 50°F 50°F

Tommy Atkins 55°F 55°F 55°F 45-50°F 45°F

*Based on continuous exposure for 3 weeks **Ataulfo fruit developed chilling injury at all temperatures tested; a chilling threshold temperature was not established. 1 2 3 4 5

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Mango Storage Temperatures

• Mature green mangos– Store/ship at 54ºF (12.2ºC)

• Ripe mangos– Store/ship at 46ºF (7.8ºC) to

50ºF (10ºC)

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Ripening Conditions for MangoesEthylene treatment accelerates ripening

Fruit temperature:Fruit temperature: 20 to 2220 to 22°°C (68-72°F)C (68-72°F)

Relative humidity:Relative humidity: 90-95%90-95%

Ethylene concentration:Ethylene concentration: 100-150ppm100-150ppm

Duration of Duration of

exposure to ethylene:exposure to ethylene: 12-48 hours12-48 hours

Carbon dioxide:Carbon dioxide: <1%<1%

After ethylene treatment for 24 hours, mangos are ripe in 5-9 days at 18-22°C. Once ripe, can be held at 10-13°C for up to 1 week.

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Papaya

Carica papaya

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Papaya

• Latex– In every part of plant– Contains two proteases

• Papain and chymopapain• Sold as meat tenderizer

• Tree trained to single trunk

• Fruit buds form progressively higher– Oldest fruit is lowest

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Maturity – minimum 11.5% SS = 6% color

MG ¼ COLOR ½ COLOR FULLCB

Page 37: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Maturity – minimum 11.5% SS = 6% color

EXPORT DOMESTIC

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Green Islands from Skin Abrasions

Chlorophyll retainedChlorophyll retainedAccelerated water lossAccelerated water lossChlorophyll retainedChlorophyll retainedAccelerated water lossAccelerated water loss

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Chilling Injury

• Mature green– 10 days at 2C– 20 days at 7.5C

• ½ yellow– 17 days at 2C

• Preconditioning (partial ripening) reduces chilling sensitivity

Page 40: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Recommended Temperatures

• 13C for mature green to ¼ yellow

• 10C for partially ripe (1/4 to ½ yellow)

• 7C for ripe (> ½ yellow)

Page 41: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Controlled Atmosphere Storage

• Limited research

• Optimum 3 to 5% O2 + 5 to 8% CO2

• Postharvest life at 13ºC– 2 to 4 weeks in air– 3 to 5 weeks in CA

• Damaging atmospheres– < 2% O2; > 8% CO2

Page 42: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Quarantine Treatments

• Forced hot air– Multi-staged treatment– 48.5C for 3 hours

• Irradiation– Slowed softening– Effect depends on fruit stage at treatment

• MG – no effect on softening• 30% color – slower softening after 250 Gy

Page 43: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

External Scalding of Papaya External Scalding of Papaya after Heat Treatmentafter Heat Treatment

External Scalding of Papaya External Scalding of Papaya after Heat Treatmentafter Heat Treatment

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Methods to Reduce Heat Sensitivity

• Continuous– Hold at temperature below 40C for 2 to 4

hours

• Heat Pulse– 1 hour at 38C, wait 3 hours, then treat– 30 min at 42C, cool to 20C, then treat

Page 47: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.
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Initial washing and sorting by maturity

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Hot Water Treatment for Anthracnose Control

Page 52: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.

Marking largest fruit before hot air treatment

Page 53: Postharvest Handling of Mango. Cultivar Differences Tommy Atkins Mango Kent MangoKeitt Mango Haden Mango Ataulfo Mango.
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Questions?