Positive Punishment - University of Idaho Punishment... · Physical punishment is highly correlated...

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10/7/2011 1 Punishment is: o Poorly understood o Frequently misapplied o Controversial Many recommendations for punishment are derived from basic research conducted more than 40 years ago. Azrin and Holz, Campbell and Church, See Van Houten As a principle of behavior, punishment is not about punishing the person. Punishment is a: response consequence contingency suppresses the future frequency of a behavior or response. Is a procedure Occurs when a response is followed by a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of similar responses Is not defined by the actions of the delivery device or person Is not defined by the nature of the consequence. A decrease in the behavior must be observed before a consequence-based intervention qualifies as punishment Positive: Presentation of a stimulus (or an increase in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following a response that results in a decrease in the frequency of the response behavior. Negative: The termination / removal of an stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following a response that results in a decrease in the future frequency of the behavior. Discriminative Effects of Punishment The 3 term contingency for punishment (1) In a particular stimulus situation (S), (2) some kinds of behavior (R), when followed immediately by (3) certain stimulus changes (S P ), show a decreased future frequency of occurrence in the same or in similar situations.
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Transcript of Positive Punishment - University of Idaho Punishment... · Physical punishment is highly correlated...

  • 10/7/2011

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    Punishment is: o Poorly understoodo Frequently misappliedo Controversial

    Many recommendations for punishment are derived from basic research conducted more than 40 years ago.

    Azrin and Holz, Campbell and Church, See Van Houten

    As a principle of behavior, punishment is not about punishing the person.

    Punishment is a: response consequence

    contingency suppresses the future frequency of a behavior or response.

    Is a procedure Occurs when a response is followed by a stimulus

    that decreases the future frequency of similar responses

    Is not defined by the actions of the delivery device or person

    Is not defined by the nature of the consequence. A decrease in the behavior must be observed before

    a consequence-based intervention qualifies as punishment

    Positive: Presentation of a stimulus (or an increase in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following a response that results in a decrease in the frequency of the response behavior.

    Negative: The termination / removal of an stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following a response that results in a decrease in the future frequency of the behavior.

    Discriminative Effects of Punishment

    The 3 term contingency for punishment(1) In a particular stimulus situation (S), (2) some kinds of behavior (R), when followed immediately by (3) certain stimulus changes (SP), show a decreased future frequency of occurrence in the same or in similar situations.

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    Discriminative Effects of Punishment

    If punishment occurs only in some stimulus conditions and not in others, the suppressive effects of punishment will be most prevalent under those conditions.

    Discriminative stimulus for punishment is SDp.

    Two options: Suppression under punishment conditions

    When punishment is discontinued responding returnsResponse rate may briefly exceed the level at which it was occurring prior to punishment

    Total suppressionPermanent of the response.

    Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers

    A punisher is a stimulus change that immediately follows the occurrence of a behavior and reduces the future frequency of that type of behavior.

    Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers

    An unconditioned punisher is a stimulus whose presentation functions as punishment without having been paired with any other punishers.

    Product of the evolutionary history of a species (phylogeny); all biologically intact members of a species are more or less susceptible to punishment by the same unconditioned punishers.

    Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of PunishmentSeverity or Intensity of punishmentManner of IntroductionCertaintySchedule

    Availability of reinforcement for the target behavior

    Availability of reinforcement for an alternative behavior.

    Intensity refers to the physical parameters of the stimulus. Severity refers to the degree of suppression achieved.

    Very intense punisher that produces minimal suppression is a mild punisher.

    Low intensity stimuli that produce complete suppression are severe punishers.

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    Sudden introduction of punishment produces much greater response suppression than if the punishment intensity is gradually increased.o Don’t begin with mild punishers and make more intense.

    If use gradual small punishers and increase the intensity, it takes a more intense punisher to suppress the unwanted behavior than if had given the full amount immediately.

    Is problematic for Human Rights Organizations and Criminal Justice System.

    If you give intense punisher first, often times milder punishers that had no effect before now become effective.

    Gradual low intensity punishers lead to temporary suppression.

    Moderate intensity punishers lead to partial suppression. Intense punishers lead to total suppression.

    E.g., $200 ticket for speedingBill GatesYouIt will impact you more.

    Public Whipping, May affect you both the same.

    In general, the longer the delay between the response and the punisher, the less effective the punisher becomes.

    Immediate punishment is no more effective than stimulus delivery within the first hour.

    After the first hour, effectiveness continues to decrease.

    Can have high intensity. Can have good immediacy. But will be ineffective if there is low certainty.

    The greater the certainty of receiving the punishing stimulus, the greater the response suppression.

    If have high intensity but low certainty of apprehension, you will usually perform the behavior.

    Rob a Bank get 10 million dollars. Get caught you get executed. 1/10 million chance of apprehension. Vs 1/1000 chance of apprehension.

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    What is the probability of being caught if I do a behavior.

    The higher the odds of success, the more likely the probability of engaging in the behavior.

    Occurs even when severity is high.

    General Deterrenceo Prevents you from engaging in the act in the first place.

    Specific Deterrenceo Relates to preventing you from repeating the behavior after being

    caught.

    Even low intensity punishers can be effective when an alternative unpunished behavior is available that produces reinforcement.

    With no alternatives, need higher intensity.

    Punishers are more effective when punished behavior is no longer reinforced.

    The more reinforcement for the behavior, the less effective the punisher becomes.

    Also, depends on the intensity.

    Kid in class shoots a spit wad. Teacher – Stand in the corner Kid gets lots of attention from other kids Behavior increases

    Drug selling behavior by juveniles Get caught – slap on the wrist Also, kid gets lots of attention.

    Punishment is more effective when it is delivered before the behavior is reinforced.

    Early studies found it was more effective.

    Today it is not so clear cut.

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    Relates to immediacy vs. delayed consequences for a behavior.

    Several Types

    Small Immed. Pos Delayed Lg. Nego Smoke Cig Cancer, Death

    Small Immed. Neg Delayed Lg. Nego See Dentist Get Root Canal

    Small Immed. Pos Delayed Lg. Poso Save Money Buy a boat or car

    Small Immed. Neg Delayed Lg. Poso Meet new People Fall in love

    Generally, immediate consequences have a greater impact than delayed consequences.

    The greater the proportion of responses that are followed by the punisher is the greater the response reduction.

    Continuous Punishment (FR-1) Schedule = Gives maximal response suppression, but allows for rapid recovery when the punishment contingency is removed.

    Ignore behaviors that should be punished.o Puts persons on a random schedule

    Don’t start early.o Usually wait until misbehavior persists or becomes more

    severe

    Delay.o Wait until class is over before sending to principal’s office

    Don’t reinforce alternative “good” behavior.

    May be a general decrease in all behavior Kids who are punished may not talk as much – can become

    withdrawn.

    May cause emotional outbursts. Yelling, acting out, fear

    May generate hostility toward the source or the person giving the punisher.

    Escape and Avoidance

    Increased rate of the problem behavior under nonpunishment

    Modeling undesirable behavior

    Not teaching the learner what to do

    Physical punishment is highly correlated with aggressive behavior in kids.

    Lots of physical punishment increases aggression in kids.

    Negative Reinforcement of the Punishing Agent’s Behavioro Punishment tends to terminate the punished behavior quickly.

    The deliver’s behavior is negatively reinforced by the immediate cessation of the punished behavior.

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    Reprimands Response Blocking Contingent Exercise Overcorrection Electrical Stimulation

    The delivery of verbal reprimands following the occurrence of misbehavior is an example of attempted positive punishment.Reprimands given repeatedly may lead to the subject habituating to the stimulus

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    Are expressions of disapproval. Does not include body language or intensity. Is a problem for teachers.

    o Usually give more reprimands (usually ineffectively as well) than reinforcers.

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    Examined students in grades 1-12. Found,

    o After grade two, in every class, reprimands excluded praise.o Teachers gave at least one reprimand every two minutes.o Often teachers gave more reprimands to students in “low ability

    classes” than “high ability classes.”

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    Verbal and non-verbal behavior Verbal content Proximity Immediacy Intensity Firmness of voice Backup punishers Praise for alternative behaviors.

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    Verbal content can have an effect. Using eye contact grasping the arm or shoulder markedly

    increases the effectiveness.o Depends on the setting and age of the person

    • School• Home

    Don’t need to yell – use your normal voice.

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    Using verbal alone takes 4-7 times for a behavior change. Verbal + non-verbal only takes 1-2 times for behavior

    change.

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    Specifically Define the Target Behavior. Johnny or Susie stop that = poor. Johnny or Susie stop talking = better. Johnny or Susie stop talking and work on your math = best.

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    Closer you are when giving the reprimand, the greater the decrease in the behavior.

    1 yard vs. 10 yards.

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    The faster the reprimand is given following the response, the greater the response suppression.

    Problemo If reprimanding all the time – organisms go on extinction.

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    More intense the reprimand (loudness), the more effective the suppression.

    Note: Reprimands do not need to be loud to be effective.

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    Use a “I Mean Business” tone. Firmness is very important.

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    When paired with backup punishers, reprimands can be very effective.

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    When you use praise for alternative behaviors, reprimands become more effective.

    Physically intervening as soon as the person begins to emit the problem behavior to prevent or “block” the completion of the response

    Has been show to be effective in reducing the frequency of some problem behaviors.

    Suppressive effects of response blocking may be due to punishment or to extinction.

    Must be approached with great care. Can get side effects such as aggression and resistance

    An intervention in which a person is required to perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior.

    The learner is required to engage in effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem. 2 Forms:

    Restitutional Positive Practice

    The learner is required to repair or return the environment to its original state

    Then to engage in additional behavior to bring the environment to a condition vastly better than it was in prior to the misbehavior.

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    The learner is required to repeat a correct form of the behavior, or a behavior incompatible with the problem, a specified number of times.

    46 studies have demonstrated that contingent electric stimulation can be a safe and highly effective method for suppressing chronic and life- threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB).

    Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS)One of the most rigorously researched and carefully applied procedures for implementing punishment by electric stimulation for self-inflicted blows to the head or face.

    When the person is emitting the response, spray them with a water mistGets over the problems with electric shockCan be very effective

    Use the same principles as Electric shock

    Punishment as part of a behavior change program has nothing to do with retribution.1. Punishment is not about threats.2. When punishers are threatened and not delivered, the child learns that your verbal threats are not associated with the actual punishing behavior.

    Select Effective and Appropriate PunishersConduct Punisher Assessments

    Parallel process to a reinforcer assessment (Ch. 11).Advantages:

    1. The sooner an effective punisher can be identified, the sooner it can be applied to treat the problem behavior.

    2. Data from punisher assessments might reveal the magnitude or intensity of punisher necessary for behavioral suppression.

    Allows practitioner to determine the smallest intensity of punisher that is still affective.

    Consider Using Varied PunishersVarying the form of the punishing stimulus enhanced the punishing effect.

    It appears that by presenting a varied format of commonly used punishers, inappropriate behaviors may further decrease without the use of more intrusive punishment procedures.

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    Use the Least Intensity of Punishment That is Effective

    Ethical guidelines and the doctrine of the least restrictive alternative demand that the most effective, but least intrusive, form of punishment be used initially.

    Questions to answer when deciding on a form of punishment:

    Will this form of punishment suppress the behavior?

    Will this form of punishment be controlled from application to application?

    Experience the Punishment Personally

    Practitioners should experience any punisher personally before the treatment begins

    Doing to reminds the practitioner that the technique produces physical discomfort.

    Deliver the Punishment Immediately

    Every instance of the inappropriate behavior should be punished.

    Punishment affects most the behavior that immediately precedes the onset of punishment.

    Deliver the Punishment at the Beginning of the Response Chain

    As much as practical, punishment should occur early in the behavioral sequence rather than later.

    Deliver the Punishment Unemotionally

    Punishment should be delivered in a business-like, matter-of-fact manner.

    Resist statement such as, “I told you so.” “Now, you’ve gone and done i.” and “What do you have to say for yourself?”

    All you want to do is modify behavior, not make people atone for their sins.

    Punish Each Instance of the Behavior

    Punishment is most effective when the punisher follows each instance of the behavior.

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    Provide Response Prompts and Reinforcement for Alternative Behavior.

    Punishment is most effective when the learner can make other responses for reinforcement.

    The more reinforcement the learner obtains by emitting appropriate behavior, the less motivate he will be to emit the problem behavior.

    Watch for Side Effects of Punishment

    The suppression of one inappropriate behavior may lead to the increased expression of another or the complete suppression of all other behaviors.

    Decreasing episodes of self-injurious behavior bay produce increased levels of verbal noncompliance

    Expand observations to include collateral or parallel behaviors.

    Record, Graph and Evaluate Data Daily

    Data collection in the first session or two of a punishment based intervention is especially critical.

    Graphing the frequency of the target behavior before, during, and after the presentation of the punisher establishes the effectiveness of punishment.

    MONITOR BEHAVIOR IMPLEMENT A INTERVENTION

    Use Reinforcement Techniques. Reinforce good behavior and extinguish or punish bad

    behavior

    Right to Safe and Humane Treatment

    The first ethical canon and responsibility for any human services program is to do no harm.

    Least Restrictive Alternative

    The less intrusive procedures should be tried and found to be ineffective before more intrusive procedures are implemented.

    Interventions can be viewed as falling along a continuum of restrictiveness from least to most.

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    Least Restrictive Alternative

    A procedure’s overall level of restrictiveness is a combined function of its absolute level of restrictiveness, the amount of time required to produce a clinically acceptable outcome, and the consequences associated with delayed intervention.

    Right to Effective Treatment

    Failing to use a punishment procedure that research has show to suppress self-destructive behavior similar to the client’s is unethical because it withholds a potentially effective treatment and may maintain a dangerous or uncomfortable state for the person.

    Developing and Using a Punishment Policy can ProceduralSafeguards

    Follow a written policy statement.

    Consult local, state, or professional association policy statement regarding the use of punishment.

    Recognizing Punishment's Natural and Necessary Role in Learning

    Behavior analysts should not shy away from punishment.

    Positive and negative punishment contingencies naturally as a part of everyday life.

    Positive Punishment can be very effectiveMust be done within the context of an Applied Behavior

    Analysis perspective