Positive Punishment - University of Idaho Punishment...آ  Physical punishment is highly correlated...

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Transcript of Positive Punishment - University of Idaho Punishment...آ  Physical punishment is highly correlated...

  • 10/7/2011

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     

    Punishment is: o Poorly understood o Frequently misapplied o Controversial

    Many recommendations for punishment are derived from basic research conducted more than 40 years ago.

    Azrin and Holz, Campbell and Church, See Van Houten

    As a principle of behavior, punishment is not about punishing the person.

    Punishment is a: response consequence

    contingency suppresses the future frequency of a behavior or response.

     Is a procedure  Occurs when a response is followed by a stimulus

    that decreases the future frequency of similar responses

     Is not defined by the actions of the delivery device or person

     Is not defined by the nature of the consequence.  A decrease in the behavior must be observed before

    a consequence-based intervention qualifies as punishment

     Positive: Presentation of a stimulus (or an increase in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following a response that results in a decrease in the frequency of the response behavior.

    Negative: The termination / removal of an stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of an already present stimulus) immediately following a response that results in a decrease in the future frequency of the behavior.

    Discriminative Effects of Punishment

    The 3 term contingency for punishment (1) In a particular stimulus situation (S), (2) some kinds of behavior (R), when followed immediately by (3) certain stimulus changes (SP), show a decreased future frequency of occurrence in the same or in similar situations.

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    Discriminative Effects of Punishment

    If punishment occurs only in some stimulus conditions and not in others, the suppressive effects of punishment will be most prevalent under those conditions.

    Discriminative stimulus for punishment is SDp.

    Two options:  Suppression under punishment conditions

    When punishment is discontinued responding returns Response rate may briefly exceed the level at which it was occurring prior to punishment

     Total suppression Permanent of the response.

    Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers

    A punisher is a stimulus change that immediately follows the occurrence of a behavior and reduces the future frequency of that type of behavior.

    Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers

    An unconditioned punisher is a stimulus whose presentation functions as punishment without having been paired with any other punishers.

    Product of the evolutionary history of a species (phylogeny); all biologically intact members of a species are more or less susceptible to punishment by the same unconditioned punishers.

    Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Punishment Severity or Intensity of punishment Manner of Introduction Certainty Schedule

    Availability of reinforcement for the target behavior

    Availability of reinforcement for an alternative behavior.

     Intensity refers to the physical parameters of the stimulus.  Severity refers to the degree of suppression achieved.

     Very intense punisher that produces minimal suppression is a mild punisher.

     Low intensity stimuli that produce complete suppression are severe punishers.

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     Sudden introduction of punishment produces much greater response suppression than if the punishment intensity is gradually increased. o Don’t begin with mild punishers and make more intense.

     If use gradual small punishers and increase the intensity, it takes a more intense punisher to suppress the unwanted behavior than if had given the full amount immediately.

     Is problematic for Human Rights Organizations and Criminal Justice System.

     If you give intense punisher first, often times milder punishers that had no effect before now become effective.

     Gradual low intensity punishers lead to temporary suppression.

     Moderate intensity punishers lead to partial suppression.  Intense punishers lead to total suppression.

     E.g., $200 ticket for speeding Bill Gates You It will impact you more.

     Public Whipping, May affect you both the same.

     In general, the longer the delay between the response and the punisher, the less effective the punisher becomes.

     Immediate punishment is no more effective than stimulus delivery within the first hour.

     After the first hour, effectiveness continues to decrease.

     Can have high intensity.  Can have good immediacy.  But will be ineffective if there is low certainty.

     The greater the certainty of receiving the punishing stimulus, the greater the response suppression.

     If have high intensity but low certainty of apprehension, you will usually perform the behavior.

     Rob a Bank get 10 million dollars.  Get caught you get executed.  1/10 million chance of apprehension.  Vs 1/1000 chance of apprehension.

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     What is the probability of being caught if I do a behavior.

     The higher the odds of success, the more likely the probability of engaging in the behavior.

    Occurs even when severity is high.

     General Deterrence o Prevents you from engaging in the act in the first place.

     Specific Deterrence o Relates to preventing you from repeating the behavior after being

    caught.

     Even low intensity punishers can be effective when an alternative unpunished behavior is available that produces reinforcement.

     With no alternatives, need higher intensity.

     Punishers are more effective when punished behavior is no longer reinforced.

     The more reinforcement for the behavior, the less effective the punisher becomes.

    Also, depends on the intensity.

     Kid in class shoots a spit wad.  Teacher – Stand in the corner  Kid gets lots of attention from other kids  Behavior increases

     Drug selling behavior by juveniles  Get caught – slap on the wrist  Also, kid gets lots of attention.

     Punishment is more effective when it is delivered before the behavior is reinforced.

     Early studies found it was more effective.

     Today it is not so clear cut.

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     Relates to immediacy vs. delayed consequences for a behavior.

     Several Types

     Small Immed. Pos Delayed Lg. Neg o Smoke Cig Cancer, Death

     Small Immed. Neg Delayed Lg. Neg o See Dentist Get Root Canal

     Small Immed. Pos Delayed Lg. Pos o Save Money Buy a boat or car

     Small Immed. Neg Delayed Lg. Pos o Meet new People Fall in love

     Generally, immediate consequences have a greater impact than delayed consequences.

    The greater the proportion of responses that are followed by the punisher is the greater the response reduction.

    Continuous Punishment (FR-1) Schedule = Gives maximal response suppression, but allows for rapid recovery when the punishment contingency is removed.

     Ignore behaviors that should be punished. o Puts persons on a random schedule

     Don’t start early. o Usually wait until misbehavior persists or becomes more

    severe

     Delay. o Wait until class is over before sending to principal’s office

     Don’t reinforce alternative “good” behavior.

     May be a general decrease in all behavior  Kids who are punished may not talk as much – can become

    withdrawn.

     May cause emotional outbursts. Yelling, acting out, fear

     May generate hostility toward the source or the person giving the punisher.

     Escape and Avoidance

     Increased rate of the problem behavior under nonpunishment

     Modeling undesirable behavior

     Not teaching the learner what to do

     Physical punishment is highly correlated with aggressive behavior in kids.

     Lots of physical punishment increases aggression in kids.

     Negative Reinforcement of the Punishing Agent’s Behavior o Punishment tends to terminate the punished behavior quickly.

    The deliver’s behavior is negatively reinforced by the immediate cessation of the punished behavior.

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     Reprimands  Response Blocking  Contingent Exercise  Overcorrection  Electrical Stimulation

    The delivery of verbal reprimands following the occurrence of misbehavior is an example of attempted positive punishment. Reprimands given repeatedly may lead to the subject habituating to the stimulus

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     Are expressions of disapproval.  Does not include body language or intensity.  Is a problem for teachers.

    o Usually give more reprimands (usually ineffectively as well) than reinforcers.

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     Examined students in grades 1-12.  Found,

    o After grade two, in every class, reprimands excluded praise. o Teachers gave at least one reprimand every two minutes. o Often teachers gave more reprimands to students in “low ability

    classes” than “high ability classes.”

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     Verbal and non-verbal behavior  Verbal content  Proximity  Immediacy  Intensity  Firmness of voice  Backup punishers  Praise for alternative behaviors.

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     Verbal content can have an effect.  Using eye contact grasping the arm or shoulder markedly

    increases the effectiveness. o Depen