Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the San Francisco Estuary SETAC Annual Meeting November...
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Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the San Francisco Estuary www.sfei.org SETAC Annual Meeting November 2007 Milwaukee, Wisconsin Susan Klosterhaus, Daniel Oros, John Oram, Don Yee, and Cristina Grosso San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, California. Francois Rodigari East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, California. David Crane California Dept. of Fish and Game, Rancho Cordova, California. Richard Grace AXYS Analytical Services Ltd., Sidney, British Columbia. Slide 2 Talk Outline I. Introduction to the Estuary and our dataset II. PBDEs in biota are high III. PBDEs in sediment seem low IV. Whats going on? Slide 3 San Francisco Estuary Largest estuary on west coast Urban, industrial, agricultural 90% of freshwater from Delta Shallow, highly mixed Net erosional except for Lower South Bay Delta Pacific Ocean Central Valley Slide 4 Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) I. Status & Trends Monitoring (1993 - ) -- Sediment, water (annually) -- Bivalves (every 2 years) -- Sport fish (every 3 years) -- Cormorant eggs (every 2 years) II. Pilot and Special Studies -- Provides framework for adaptive management -- e.g. emerging contaminants Collaboration: SFEI, State, Discharging Community Objective: Support management decisions Slide 5 Comprehensive PBDE Dataset Br O Water, sediment, bivalves (SFEI monitoring) Sport fish (Holden et al. 2003; Greenfield et al. 2003; Brown et al. 2006; Davis et al. 2006) Harbor seals (She et al. 2002; SFEI unpublished) Bird eggs (She et al. 2004; Davis et al. 2006; Hooper, unpublished) People (She et al. 2002; Petreas et al. 2003; Fischer et al. 2006; Bradman et al. 2007) Sources Wastewater effluent (North 2004; SFEI unpublished) Loadings from the Delta and local watersheds (SFEI in prep) Atmospheric deposition (CA Air Resources Board) Accumulation Mass Budget and Modeling Slide 6 Bivalves Annually since 1993 Deployed Mussels (90-100 days) Resident clams PBDEs since 2002 BD20 BD30 BC61 BC10 BB71 BA40 BA30 BA10 BD40 Resident Clams BG20 BG30 Deployed Mussels Slide 7 Resident clam concentrations have decreased Corbicula fluminea Sacramento River (BG20) San Joaquin River (BG30) Slide 8 Deployed mussel concentrations may be decreasing Mytilus californianus San Pablo Bay (BD30) Central Bay (BB71) Central Bay (BC10) Central Bay (BC61) South Bay (BA40) Slide 9 Data: 2006 NOAA Mussel Watch Program Deployed mussels comparable to resident mussels in other urban estuaries Total PBDE (ng/g dry weight) 0510152025 Delaware Bay Tampa Bay Long Island Sound San Francisco Bay Puget Sound Slide 10 Sport Fish Every 3 yrs since 1994 Popular fishing areas 7 species Organics, Hg, Se PBDEs since 2000 South Bay Oakland Inner Harbor Berkeley San Francisco Waterfront San Pablo Bay Slide 11 Trends in sport fish? 2006 NA Median Range Slide 12 Congener patterns in sport fish Shiner Surfperch White Croaker Striped Bass White Sturgeon Penta-BDE % of Total PBDE 47 99 100 153 154 Other 0 20 40 60 80 100 Slide 13 Sport fish among the highest SF white croaker SF shiner surfperch SF striped bass SF white sturgeon San Francisco Bay Total PBDE (ng/g lipid) 050010001500200025003000 Japan China European Average Taiwan Europe Asia > 5000 Chesapeake Bay N. American Average Maine Others in North America Great Lakes Slide 14 Cormorant eggs Wheeler Island Richmond Bridge Don Edwards NWR 3 nesting sites Biennial since 2002 Organics, Hg, Se Slide 15 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 22000 24000 20012002200320042005 PBDEs (ng/g lipid) PBDEs in eggs (ng/g lipid) 2002 200320042005 24,000 20,000 16,000 12,000 8,000 4,000 Don Edwards Pond (South Bay) Richmond Bridge Wheeler Island (near Delta) Cormorant concentrations may be decreasing Slide 16 Congener patterns in cormorant eggs 47 99 100 153 154 17,28/33,66,85,138 Wheeler Is. Richmond Br. D. Edwards Richmond Br. D. Edwards Richmond Br. 2002 2004 % of Total PBDE Penta- BDE Slide 17 LocationSpecies PBDEs (ng/g lipid) Reference San Francisco Baycormorants 4,000 - 24,000 Davis et al. 2006 (SFEI) San Francisco Bayterns, clapper rail300 - 63,000 She et al. 2003; She et al. 2004 Chesapeake Bayosprey200-700 (wet wt) Rattner et al. 2004 Great Lakesherring gull1800 - 16,000 Norstrom et al. 2002 British Columbia cormorants, herons, petrelsMax 7700 Elliot et al. 2005 Norwayosprey, sea eagle300 - 20,000 Herzke et al. 2005 UKherons, cormorantsmax 4,000 D'Silva et al. 2004 SwedenguillemotMax 2700 Sellstrm et al. 2003 Japancormorants600 - 3,300 Watanabe et al. 2004 Bird eggs among the highest Slide 18 BDE 47 in Sediment (2004 - 2006) Range: 0.2 4 ng/g Segment averages < 0.4 0.8 ng/g No trend over 3 years Slide 19 BDE 47 within range of other locations Location BDE 47 (ng/g dry) Reference San Francisco Estuary