Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Power Point #3

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Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Spring 2013 - Power Point Presentation #3 - © 2013 Tabakian, Inc.

Transcript of Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Power Point #3

  • 1.Dr. Tabakians Political Science 1US Government Spring 2013Power Point Presentation #3

2. COURSE LECTURE TOPICS The Irony Of Democracy Elites and Masses Democracy and the Survival of Democracy Elitism Being The Most Realistic Elite Theory Supporting Upward Mobility Defining The Elite Consensus Elitism And Public Policy Mass Behavior And Mass Threats Pluralism In A Democracy Elitism Versus Pluralism 3. ELITISM Elitism does not promote elite rule The rules of a society obstruct social progress of masses Elites are needed due mass ignorance and apathy Elites have two main goals Preserve and enhance their positions of power Masses open to demagogues When the economy is doing poorly The country is fighting a war that it is losing Demagogues come from the far left or far right The Founding Fathers were against national referenda 4. ELITISM SUMMARIZED - 11. Society is divided between the powerful few and the majority weak.2. Governing few are not typical of the governed masses. Elites are not drawn mostly from the upper class socioeconomic section of society.3. Non-elites have to be given the opportunity to rise up to elite positions. The masses have to believe that the process is continuous or revolution may occur. Barriers prevent finite elite positions from being overtaken by unqualified individuals. This is a rat and cheese scenario. Sufficient CheeseSufficient Cheese Lack Of Cheese 5. ELITISM SUMMARIZED - 21. Elites share a common belief on the basic values of the elite. Any change of public policy will be incrementally slow rather than revolutionary.2. Elites may base their actions either on narrow, self- serving motives and risk undermining mass support, or they may initiate reforms, curb abuse, and undertake public-regarding programs to preserve the system.3. Active elites are not typically influenced from apathetic masses. Elites influence masses more than the masses influence elites. 6. ELITISM SUMMARIZED - 3 7. ELITISM / INFORMATION FLOW - 1 Information flows from opinion elites down to opinionleaders who are looked to the public for information News is first created by opinion elites and then sent toopinion leaders to help disseminate the information Those at the very top of the elite network decide whatinformation is deemed as necessary to offer society These elites may be news makers themselves or in chargeof large media corporations Opinion leaders may be thought of as journalists, newsanchors, expert pundits or even celebrities who possesslegitimacy among those in society. 8. ELITISM INFORMATION FLOW 9. MANIPULATION EXAMPLEHow can weprotectourselves against the threatsof germs and toxins? ColdWar America gears up tofendoff threatsfromunconventional bioweapons.This is another example ofhow propaganda is utilized tofoster fear within society.Enjoy the video. 10. MIRROR MYTH 1 News media outlets decide what willbe decided Bias is exhibited throughout themainstream and nontraditional newssources The news media stress that they arenonbiased since they only reflectreality 11. MIRROR MYTH 2 Their choice of newssubjects proves their bias All news is biased 12. CINEMOCRACYVarious forms of propaganda havebeen utilized to drum up masssupport to better assure elitelegitimacy.Cinemocracy, therelationship betweenmotionpictures and government is one waygovernmental elites sell theiragenda. Enjoy this classic cartoonwhere Popeye The Sailor Manbattles the Nazis. 13. PROPAGANDA CITIZEN BASEDTechnological advancements haveempowered common citizens withcreative minds to produce theirown propaganda. The War OnTerror sparked a great deal ofmedia distributed via the Internet.Elites no longer maintain totalcontrol over distribution. Manycitizens may deem these video asoffensive. Keep in mind thatpropaganda is meant to producean Us versus Them mindset.Does this video have any impactover your belief system? 14. PLURALISM & SPHERES 1 Pluralism insures that groups are restricted from singlehandedly influencing public policy cross-cutting cleavages would form, as groups seekcompromise with others to build coalitions that wouldsucceed in affecting change Minorities are protected from an overwhelming majority Majority power-holders are essentially checked Cross-cutting cleavages balance against overwhelming forces 15. PLURALISM & SPHERES 2 Pluralism insures that groups are restricted from singlehandedly influencing public policy cross-cutting cleavages would form, as groups seekcompromise with others to build coalitions that wouldsucceed in affecting change Minorities are protected from an overwhelming majority Majority power-holders are essentially checked Cross-cutting cleavages balance against overwhelming forces 16. PLURALISM & SPHERES 3 17. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 11. Society is divided into numerous groups with all making demands on government while none of the participants are able to dominate all decision-making.2. Citizens do not directly participate in decision-making, but they are able to vote for leaders to make decisions through a process of bargaining, accommodation, and compromise. 18. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 23. Competition among leadership groups helps protect individuals interests. Countervailing centers of power for example, competition among business leaders, labor leaders and government leaders can check one another and keep each interest from abusing its power and oppressing the individual. Each of these individual spheres of influence allies themselves with other spheres that possess similar goals. See Spheres Of Influence.4. Individuals may not participate directly in decision-making, but they can exert influence through active participation in organized groups, political parties and elections. 19. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 35. Leadership groups are open; new groups can form and gain access to the political system.6. Political influence in society is unequally distributed, but power is widely dispersed. Access to decision making is often determined by how much interest people have in a particular decision. Because leadership is fluid and mobile, power depends on ones interest in public affairs, skills in leadership, information about issues, knowledge of democratic processes, and skill in organization and public relations. 20. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 47. Multiple leadership groups operate within society. Those who exercise power in one kind of decision do not necessarily exercise power in others. No single elite dominates decision making in all issues.8. Public policy does not necessarily reflect majority preference, but is an equilibrium of interest interaction competing interest group influences are more or less balanced, and the resulting policy is therefore a reasonable approximation of societys preferences. 21. ELITISM VERSUS PLURALISM 11. Elitism asserts that the most important division in society is between elites and masses.2. Elitism emphasizes the importance to leaders to maintain their position of power Pluralism emphasizes this devotion to their group interests.3. Elitism asserts that mass membership of organizations rarely exercises influence on elite leadership. That these organizations have no democratic processes and are controlled by leaders who operate for their own self-interest. Pluralists offer no evidence that the giant organizations represent the interests of their individual members. 22. ELITISM VERSUS PLURALISM 24. Elitism takes into account of all power holders private and public. Pluralism focuses on governmental leaders and those who interact directly with them.5. Elitism emphasizes shared characteristics of leaders on top of their interest in preserving the social diversity among leaders, differences in backgrounds, ideologies, and viewpoints. Pluralism also argues that decisions made by leaders are a product of their role perception, institutional constraints, interest group pressure, public opinion, etc. Elitism focuses on leadership consensus Pluralism focuses on elite conflict. 23. CINEMOCRACYHemp For Victory is a classicexample of Cinemocracy. Thisgovernment propaganda filmmade during WWII touted thevirtues of hemp. The film wasaimed at farmers at a timewhen the military was facing ashortage of hemp. It showshow hemp is grown andprocessed into rope and otherproducts. Why do you thinkhemp was later vilified? 24. SPHERES OF INFLUENCE Competing spheres of influenceprotect minority rights againstmajority factions Alliances will form among oncecompeting spheres in order tocheck anothersphereorindividual elite base that acquirestoo much power Individual spheres of influence arealways on the alert for one of theirpeers assuming too much power. 25. COMPETING SPHERES Competing Spheres of Influenceessentially check each other withinthe political system This is essential for the protectionof minority rights especially as itpertains to majority factions Elites are those who hold positionsof power in society Our Founding Fathers consideredthe protection of minority rights asthose few individuals who retainedcontrol over society 26. TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS 1 Competition produces great returns for humanity The result has been America progressing from apredominantly agricultural society to an industrial, nuclear,and information based society Innovation has led to advancements that have greatlyinfluenced every aspect of society. Society has benefited from constant advancements inenergy harvesting, computers, communication, waterpurification, medicine, etc. 27. TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS 2SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUTEvery significant discovery has in turn greatly influencedsocietal norms of behavior Masses today view internet communications as a vital necessity. It is nearly impossible to operate in a complex society without easy access to the web.The majority of masses did not have this belief fifteen years ago. Only society determining that the internet allowed forgreater efficiency was it adopted as a societal norm. Those notwilling to adapt became obsolete