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    Playful Advertising: In-Game Advertising for Virtual Reality Games




  • Playful Advertising: In-Game Advertising for Virtual Reality Games

    Lekfull Reklam: Reklam i Spelet för Virtuell Verklighet Spel

    Xiaopeng Li [email protected]

    A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Science

    Supervisor: Mario Romero Examiner: Haibo Li

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology 2015

  • Abstract

    We present an early exploration of in-game advertising for virtual reality games. The study investigates what the impacts of interactivity and immersion on consumer learning and game experience are. First, we establish a theoretical grounding for understanding interactivity and immersion in virtual gaming environments. Then, we form a research framework and propose hypotheses around the research question. Next, we report the results of the field research, prototype design, and user study. The prototypes run in mobile browsers and are tested on virtual reality goggles with smartphones attached. Based on the results, we discuss the design of interactivity and immersion, the design’s impacts on consumer learning and game experience as well as the correlation between game experience and consumer learning. The main contributions of the work are an original research framework and a set of design considerations that can be utilized to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of in- game advertisements for virtual reality games.

  • Sammanfattning

    Vi presenterar en tidig utforskning av reklam i spelet för virtuell verklighet-spel. Studien undersöker hur interaktivitet och inlevelse påverkar konsumentlärande och - spelupplevelse. Först etableras en teoretisk grund för att förstå interaktivitet och inlevelse i virtuella spelmiljöer. Sedan skapas ett ramverk för forskning samt hypoteser kring frågeställningen. Sedan rapporterar vi resultaten från fältforskning, prototyp och användarstudie. Prototyperna körs i mobila webbläsare och testas på virtuell verklighet- glasögon med smartphones inuti. Baserat på resultaten, diskuteras utformning av interaktivitet och inlevelse, dess effekter på konsumentlärande och -spelupplevelse, samt sambandet mellan spelupplevelse och konsumentlärande. De viktigaste bidragen från arbetet är ett ramverk för forskning och en uppsättning av designöverväganden som kan användas för att utvärdera och förbättra effektiviteten hos reklam i virtuell verklighet-spel.

  • Contents

    Contents 4

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Background 1

    1.2 Research Question 1

    1.3 Project Scope 1

    1.4 About Goo Technologies & Goo Create 2

    2 Related Work 3

    2.1 Effectiveness of Interactive 3D Advertising 3

    2.2 User Experience of 3D Graphics Systems 4

    2.3 Game Players’ Responses to In-Game Advertising 5

    2.4 Advertising in Virtual Environments 6

    2.5 Summary 8

    3 Methods 9

    4 Research Framework 11

    4.1 Theoretical Grounding 11

    4.2 Research Framework 12

    5 Field Research 15

    5.1 Summary 15

    5.2 Interview 15

    5.3 Interviewees 16

    5.4 Qualitative Data Analysis 16

    6 Prototype Design 21

    6.1 Design 21

    6.2 Manipulation 22

    6.3 Implementation 24

    7 User Study 25

    7.1 Experiment Design 25

    7.2 Participant Recruitment 25

    7.3 Setup 26

    7.4 Procedure 27

    7.5 Dependent Measures 27

  • 7.6 Data Collection 28

    7.7 Pilot Study 28

    8 Results 29

    8.1 Pre-Experiment Survey Responses 29

    8.2 Post-Experiment Questionnaire Responses 30

    8.3 Post-Experiment Interview Summary 38

    8.4 Answers to the Research Question 40

    9 Discussion 41

    9.1 Interactivity 41

    9.2 Immersion 41

    9.3 Threats of Validity 42

    9.4 Design Method 43

    10 Conclusions and Outlook 44

    References 46

    Appendix A 50

    Appendix B 51

  • 1 Introduction

    1.1 Background

    Interactive 3D advertising has been receiving increasing attention and may soon become the mainstream. By utilizing interaction techniques and 3D graphics, advertisers are able to produce highly engaging and effective digital advertisements. Virtual reality (VR), with its recent development in consumer-level devices, enables the interactivity and immersion of 3D graphics to be lifted to a new level. Among various types of digital advertising, in-game advertising stands out for being interactive and immersive, which correspond to the two salient characteristics presented by virtual reality. We’ve set out to study in-game advertising for virtual reality games due to the shared attributes of virtual reality and games: interactivity and immersion.

    Previous researches have studied the influence of interactivity on advertising (Liu and Shrum, 2002) as well as the impact of media richness, a major antecedent of presence (Li et al., 2002). Yet, the correlation between interactivity, immersion and sense of presence in digital advertisements is still uncharted. User experience of 3D graphics systems (Yoon et al., 2008) and gamers’ response of in-game advertising (Nelson et al., 2004) have als