Planning a Research Paper Milly Grillone FAO Consultant.
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Planning a Research Paper
Milly GrilloneFAO Consultant
Writing as a ProcessThe communication of complex ideas is a process that requires thinking and rethinking, working and reworking
Brainstorming write down your ideas just the way they come in your mind
BrainstormingChoosing a Topic
.organize your ideas
Imposing order on your ideas make the information easier to understand and easier to remember.If you choose a clear, recognizable pattern (on the level of the paragraph and also on the level of the whole essay body) you guide your reader in discovering relationships that connect things.
Thesis StatementChoosing a thesisBrainstormingChoosing a TopicThe Thesis Statement is that sentence or two in your text that contains the FOCUS or CORE of your essayTry to narrow your topic. Example: Agricultural Policy Agricultural Policy in the EU Agricultural Policy Changes in the EUThe TS should remain FLEXIBLE until the paper is finished.If you discover new information that ought to be included in the TS, youll have to rewrite your TS. On the other hand if you discover that the TS appears to include things that you havent addressed, then you need to limit your TS.
Structure of the Essay OutlineINTRODUCTION-ARGUMENT-CONCLUSIONConstruct your Outline by listing all the important points you want to cover in your essayProvide one main point for each paragraphStart with the introduction under which you will write out your TS and work through LOGICALLY, point by point until you reach the conclusion
The OutlineChoosing a thesisBrainstormingChoosing a Topic
Structure of the Essay Outline (2)Group related ideas together under general headings and arrange them so they flow logicallyEach point in your outline should connect with the nextEach main category should be linked to your thesisFocus your outline by discarding anything not useful or pertinentCategorize your points according to their importance, keeping in mind the method of organization you intend to use
Principles of Organization: Transition between IdeasOrganize your information according to a:Chronological Order (Order of Time) Following the order in which events occurSpatial Order Items are arranged according to their physical position or relationshipClimactic Order (Order of Importance)Items are arranged from least important to most important
Principles of Organization (2)General to Specific OrderSpecific to General OrderSimplest to Most Complex OrderTopical Order
5 Golden RulesTry to be alwaysClear SimpleBriefCoherentLogical
RESEARCHReading or/and Field Research
Collecting and verifying dataResearchThe OutlineChoosing a thesisBrainstormingChoosing a Topic
RESEARCH (2)Selection of informationSummary of information
Ready to start
Some Simple Rules...No comma between subject and verbAgriculture, is one of the main component of GDPSubject-Verb Agreement: the subject and the verb must agree in number, both must be singular or both plural ( Arabic!)Syria have a comparative advantage The media was biased in its reporting of the event