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PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSCUS) FRUIT EXTRACT AS AN ADDITIVE INGREDIENT IN MAKING LOTION An Investigatory Project Presented to: Ms. Juliet G. Balos Saint Louis College High School In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in Research II By: Escoto, Adrian N. Viloria, Maruel Cabańog. Charisma Pascua, Kay Mae L. Rivera, Arlene Lea P.
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Transcript of Pineapple Lotion

PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSCUS) FRUIT EXTRACT AS AN ADDITIVE INGREDIENT IN MAKING LOTION

An Investigatory Project Presented to: Ms. Juliet G. Balos Saint Louis College High School

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in Research II

By: Escoto, Adrian N. Viloria, Maruel Cabaog. Charisma Pascua, Kay Mae L. Rivera, Arlene Lea P.

January 11, 2011

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Nowadays, people have developed a habit of looking presentable to others. Thus, bursting the production in the field of cosmetics arose. Products that are advertised come in their own unique way. But little did the people know that most of these commercially produced products have harmful chemicals that may danger not only to them but also to the environment. The enzymes in pineapple like bromelain, which breaks down protein, thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat, are being utilize in this research makes our skin elastic, hydrated, and free from damaged cells as mentioned earlier. Thus, it helps us achieve a clear and glowing complexion. The enzymes in pineapples also fight freeradical damage and can reduce age spots and fine lines. The researcher tries to provide an introduction in enhancing cosmetic products by using fruit extracts that are cheaper and can provide the community a living with minimal cost and effort. Statement of the Problem This study will test the acceptability of using pineapple fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion considering the fact that the extract made from pineapples has a variety of positive effects on the skin and promotes skin elasticity while removing dead damaged skin,

3 while improving hydration and moisture and promoting a more elastic and clear looking skin. 1. What is the level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? 2. Which of the formulations yield the best lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? Hypotheses and Assumption 1. The level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient is making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect is least acceptable; b. fragrance is not acceptable and c. viscosity is least acceptable. 2. There is no formulation that can yield the best lotion in terms of moisturizing effect, fragrance, and viscosity. Scope and Delimitation This study is limited only on determining the acceptability of pineapple fruit as an additive ingredient in making lotion. It does not

4 involve comparison between the commercial lotion and the lotion made up of pineapple. It considers different factors which led to the result of the study. The factors being included in the study relating to the acceptability of pineapple fruit extract are the moisturizing effect, fragrance and viscosity of the lotion to be made. This study will be conducted at Sitio Paratong, Poblacion, Bacnotan, La Union. Forty-five respondents are to be randomly selected by the researches. They are with different sexes, ages and occupation. The researchers also made sure that they have no relationship with the respondents. Significance of the Study Studying possibilities of producing cheaper yet very useful and beneficial lotion provide the researchers an opportunity to develop value of resourcefulness and become environmental friendly in a way. Pineapple is a terrestrial herb, very short and have stout stem. Thus, conducting and proving its acceptability will surely reduce the cost of lotions. This study provides basic process and experiences necessary for anyone desiring to extend possible measures of making a lotion that is more beneficial without the expense thus making the product useful by either utilizing it or selling it to satisfy aesthetic needs and create profit.

5 This study can provide the learners to become keener in seeing a new perspective in thing therefore developing values and desirable habit. This study can also provide a livelihood that is simple yet potentially profitable. Definition of Terms Pineapple- is the common name for an edible tropical plant and also its fruit Extract- a substance made by a part of a raw material; -a concentrated preparation of the essential constituents of a food, flavoring, or other substance -acquired through the process of distillation Lotion - any of various cosmetic preparations that are applied to the skin for cosmetic or medical reason; Emulsifying Wax- a cosmetic emulsifying ingredient used primarily in manufacturing creams, lotions, and other beauty products Beeswax- it is a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey bees of the genus Apis and can be used as a substitute for emulsifying wax. It is mainly esters of fatty acids and various long chain alcohols. Moisturizing effect - the ability to make the skin moist Fragrance - aroma: a distinctive odor that is pleasant

6 Viscosity - a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a brief literature and study on the effectiveness of Pineapple (Ananas Comoscus) fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making a moisturizing lotion. Lotion or emulsion is a skin care product that is used to soothe dry skin and is sometimes formulated with ingredients (mainly oil, water and emulsifying wax) that are intended to offer added benefits to the skin. A lotion might help to correct uneven tone in the skin or help to balance combination skin, which is skin that has some oily patches and some dry patches. Body lotion is a product that can be used from the neck down to the toes. There are, however, also emollients that are meant to be used specifically on the face. As such, face lotion is often more delicate than formulas for skin on the rest of the body. Face lotion also is sometimes formulated to address skin issues specific to the face or most commonly targeted on the facial skin. There are some lotions that are meant to help manage acne on the face. There are also many emollients for the face that are made with ingredients that help to reverse or fight the signs of aging such as fine lines, wrinkles, and various forms of sun damage. Lotions for the face often vary in thickness or viscosity, depending on whether they are meant to be worn during the day or at night. Day moisturizers and lotions are almost always lighter and less viscous than night lotions.

8 Lotions for the body might be used to address the kinds of skin issues that crop up on the legs, arms, back, belly, and so on. A lotion may include ingredients that are meant to help fade and heal stretch marks that may be the result of rapid growth, pregnancy, or weight fluctuation. Like face lotion, body lotion often includes sun block as a way to prevent sun damage to the skin. Many people who are serious about protecting their skin from sun damage wear body and face lotions with sun block on a daily basis. Lotion consists of primarily oil and water which are naturally incompatible. This physical incompatibility of water and oils can be overcome by agitating the water and oil mix. Agitation disperses the molecules, and generates an emulsion. However, emulsions made by simply agitating water and oil will is just temporary because water is denser than oil, it will sink to the bottom while the oil will float on top. However there is one way to stabilize emulsion and that is through the use of an emulsifying agent. EMULSIFYING AGENTS Emulsifying agents are substances that help water and oils bind together, and allow it to prepare stable emulsions where water and oils do not separate or substances that are soluble in both fat and water and enable fat to be uniformly dispersed in water as an emulsion.

9 There are several classifications of emulsifying agents: Natural emulsifying agents from vegetable sources which consist of agents which are carbohydrates and include gums and mucilaginous substances. Since these substances are of variable chemical composition, these exhibit considerable variation in emulsifying properties. They are anionic in nature and produce emulsions. They act as primary emulsifying agents as well as secondary emulsifying agents, natural emulsifying agents from animal source the examples include gelatin, egg yolk and wool fat (anhydrous lanolin), type A gelatin (Cationic) is generally used for preparing emulsion while type B gelatin is used for emulsions of pH 8 and above lecithin and cholesterol present in egg yolk also act as emulsifying agent, semi-synthetic polysaccharides Includes mainly cellulose derivatives like sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxyl propyl cellulose and methyl cellulose and synthetic emulsifying agents contains surface active agents which act by getting adsorbed at the oil water interface in such a way that the hydrophilic polar groups are oriented towards water and lipophillic non polar groups are oriented towards oil, thus forming a stable film. Each differs from its source, effect and usage. EMULSIFYING COMPOUNDS AND E-WAXES

10 Often referred to as "e-wax", emulsifying compounds are widely used, both in the cosmetic and in the food industry, to prepare stable emulsions that do not separate. Virtually all emulsifying compounds and e-waxes are blends of chemically prepared substances. The vast majority of commonly available emulsifying compounds include a significant portion of petrochemical materials (fossil hydrocarbons), and several are considered or feared to be possible sources of irritation and sensitisation reactions. PINEAPPLE Pineapples are usually grown by propagation. That is, they are grown by replanting a part of themselves. The four common parts are: the slips, which are located on the stem below the fruit, the suckers that start at the leaves, the crowns-the leafy growth on top of the pineapple, and the ratoons that are located on the roots. Pineapples are thought to have gotten their start in the Caribbean Islands from Spanish shipwrecks. The fruit is thought to have washed ashore from ships that met the terrible fate of destructive storms, or other such perils of the sea. The Spanish explorers knew that eating pineapple helped to prevent scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C, so they carried pineapples whenever it was possible. The plant grows about 3 feet (90 cm) tall and bears 30 to 40 stiff, sword-shaped leaves clustered very tightly around a thick, fleshy stem.

11 The leaves are often jagged at the edges. Flowers, generally lavender, located in the axis of red or green bracts, from on a flower stem several inches long. As the flowers mature, they become fleshy and the ovaries fuse to form the multiple, small, hexagonal fruits that together constitute the pineapple. (Freeman S. Howlett, Ohio State University, Americana) Pineapple fruit has some active principles with important effect on skin - sugars and a-hydroxy-acids (AHA) as well as enzymes. These active principles are responsible for its moisturizing and anti-ageing action, and also have a antifungal and purifying effect on the skin. In studies it was also shown that bromelain, contained in pineapples, also has a strong anti-inflammatory action and has a positive effect, interfering with the growth of malignant cells and tumors. The ahydroxy-acids (AHA) are a group of organic acids that work on the corneal layer and reduce the cohesion of the corneocytes. The result of the application of AHAs is a thinner corneal layer, which improves its elasticity and flexibility regardless of the degree of skin hydration. Bromelain is a natural anticoagulant that works by breaking down the blood-clotting protein fibrin. This may help to explain why results of at least two clinical trials suggest that the enzyme can help to improve the symptoms of angina and thrombophlebitis. As well as thinning the blood, bromelain also thins mucus, and thus may be of benefit to asthmatics and people suffering from chronic bronchitis. There is also

12 evidence that bromelain can trigger beneficial changes in white blood cells, and thus may improve immune function. However, whether or not the enzyme would be beneficial to immunocompromised people has not been established clinically. Bromelain has potent anti-inflammatory properties and therefore may be useful in promoting the healing of minor muscle injuries such as sprains and strains. Results of one study also found evidence to suggest that it can help to improve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. When applied topically it may help to speed wound healing. There has also been some suggestion that bromelain has anticancer properties, although this has not been proven. Several recent studies have linked chronic inflammation to cancer, thus any anti-cancer action of bromelain could be due to it anti-inflammatory properties. The enzyme may also enhance the effect of the antibiotics amoxicillin, erythromycin, penicillamine, and penicillin. In a study of people with urinary tract infections, 100% of participants given antibiotics in combination with bromelain and another enzyme called trypsin were cured of their infection, compared with just 46% who received antibiotics alone. Bromelain aids digestion by enhancing the effects of the digestive enzymes trypsin and pepin. It can also help to prevent heartburn by ease diarrhea, if either is caused by a deficiency of digestive enzymes. Bromelain supplements often contain a plant pigment called quercetin.

13 The two substances are found in combination simply because they enhance each others antiinflammatory actions, and that bromelain appears to improve quercetin absorption.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter gives the general outline of the procedure used in the study. It includes the research design, instrumentation, materials and procedures of the study. Research Design This study made use of the descriptive and experimental research using different treatments. Under this study, we will be using the Single group with only a post-test design. This involves a group that is subjected to an experimental factor for a period of time. Then, after the experimental period, that group will be then compared to another group with similar characteristics and studying the same subject matter under customary instructional methods but unexposed to the experimental factor. Any excess between the two achievements is considered due to the experimental factor. This design is best suited for this study or experiment because it determines the effectiveness of each individual method. Selection Phase There are no experiments to be done without the materials used. These materials must be abundant and easy to find. Water, olive oil, emulsifying wax or beeswax and pineapple extract was the ingredients used in this study. These ingredients, except emulsifying wax or beeswax can be found at the market of City of San Fernando in La Union. The

15 emulsifying wax or the beeswax is available at some craft store or online. All emulsifying wax are blends of chemically prepared substances. Such that we used the natural emulsifying agents, since these substances are variable chemical composition. These exhibit considerable variation in emulsifying properties. They are anionic in nature and produce o/w emulsions. We used the beeswax as an alternative of emulsifying wax. Beeswax is a natural wax produced in the beehive of honeybees of genus Apis. The one we used as an additive ingredient is the pineapple extract. Pineapple extract has a variety of positive effects on the skin and promotes skin elasticity while removing dead damage skin, improving hydration and moisture and promoting more elastic and clear looking skin. Preparation Phase Preparation of Materials 1. Kitchen knife 2. Basin 3. Pineapple fruit Extraction of Pineapple 1. Blender 2. Distilling flask 3. Burette 4. Tripod

16 5. Bunsen burner 6. Water tube 7. 2 pail Preparation of Lotion 1. 3 measuring cup 2. Blender 3. Saucepan 4. Tripod 5. Bunsen burner 6. Container for lotion Methods in Product Making 1. Preparation of Materials We bought pineapple fruit from the market. Rinse thoroughly with water to remove dirt and other foreign materials. Then twist the leafy top of the pineapple with hands. Set aside. Using the kitchen knife, we carefully carve the rinds off of the outside of the fruit. And carve the fruit off of the core then cut the core into several chunks. 2. Extraction of Pineapple We put the chunks of core and the pieces of rind into the blender. We use the blender to blend the pineapple. Then assemble the distilling set up. We put the blended pineapple in the flask and

17 perform the distilling process until we have the ample amount of extract ass an additive. 3. Preparation of Lotion We prepared the treatments by group. There are three treatments, Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2) and Treatment 3 (T3). Each treatment has controlled and uncontrolled variables. The controlled variable is the variable that is being controlled in every treatment while the uncontrolled variable is the variable that is not controlled in every treatment. The controlled variable used was the pineapple extract while the uncontrolled variables were olive oil, water, beeswax. In T1, the pineapple extract was measured 5mL. In T2, it was measured 10mL. And last, in T3, the pineapple extract was measured 15mL. The next step was filling the small saucepan with water and set it on low fire to use as a water bath. This water bath was used for mashing the beeswax with the use of spoon but we made sure that it would not melt the beeswax. Then we added the cup beeswax into the saucepan and we mash the beeswax in the water bath until it formed a refined lump without any granules of beeswax. And then, we got the lump of beeswax and transferred it to another saucepan with 1 cup of hot water in it, again made sure it would not melt the beeswax. Then we added the pineapple extract first followed by the cup oil and mixed all the ingredients thoroughly by

18 using a blender or an electric whisk. We let it cool slightly, stirred with a spoon or chopstick and poured the lotion into a bottle while its still warm and pourable. Otherwise, it would be hard to get the lotion into its container and you might have to use a funnel. And the last step, we left the cap off to let it cool completely, but occasionally cap the lotion and we gave it a quick shake to help blend the mixture. Table 1 Proportion of Ingredients in each Treatment Treatment extract T1 T2 T3 olive oil (cups) 1/2 1/2 1/2 water (cups) 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/4 beeswax (cups) 1 /4 1/4 1/4 pineapple (mL) 5 10 15

Data Collection Phase The product will be evaluated by 45 respondents using the subjective score card which includes the moisturizing effect, fragrance and viscosity, with an equivalent numerical rating of 1 as the least and 5 as the highest. A. Moisturizing Effect 5- very highly acceptable 4- highly acceptable 3- acceptable

19 2- least acceptable 1- acceptable B. Fragrance 5- very highly acceptable 4- highly acceptable 3- acceptable 2- least acceptable 1- acceptable C. Viscosity 5- very highly acceptable 4- highly acceptable 3- acceptable 2- least acceptable 1- Acceptable The respondents who will evaluate the product were composed of citizens at Sitio Paratong, Poblacion, Bacnotan, La Union. Forty-five respondents are to be randomly selected by the researches. Instrumentation and Data Collection A. Preparing the Treatments 1. Treatment 1 (T1) The formulation consists of cup olive oil, 1 1/4 cup of water, cup emulsifying wax or beeswax and 5 mL of pineapple extract.

20 2. Treatment 2 (T2) The formulation consists of cup olive oil, 1 1/4 cup of water, cup emulsifying wax or beeswax and 10 mL of pineapple extract. 3. Treatment 3 (T3) The formulation consists of cup olive oil, 1 1/4 cup of water, cup emulsifying wax or beeswax and 15 mL of pineapple extract. B. Testing the Treatments a. Moisturizing Effect The following scale was used to evaluate the lotion: SCALE 4.5-5 3.5-4.49 2.5-3.49 1.5-2.49 1-1.49 DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT Very Highly Acceptable Highly Acceptable Acceptable Least Acceptable Not Acceptable

Highly effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is too evident and is effective to the skin. Effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is evident and effective to the skin.

21 Moderately effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is not so evident and least effective to the skin. Least effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is least evident and least effective to the skin. Not effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion has no effect to the skin at all. b. Fragrance The following scale was used to evaluate the lotion: SCALE 4.5-5 3.5-4.49 2.5-3.49 1.5-2.49 1-1.49 DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT Very Highly Acceptable Highly Acceptable Acceptable Least Acceptable Not Acceptable

Highly Acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion highly pleasing. Acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is pleasing. Moderately acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is considerably pleasing.

22 Least acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is slightly pleasing. Not acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is not pleasing. c. Viscosity The following scale was used to evaluate the lotion: SCALE 4.5-5 3.5-4.49 2.5-3.49 1.5-2.49 1-1.49 DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT Very Highly Acceptable Highly Acceptable Acceptable Least Acceptable Not Acceptable

Highly Acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion very thick. Acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is thick. Moderately acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is considerably thick. Least acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is thin. Not acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is watery.

Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Formulations yield the best lotion in terms of moisturizing effect, viscosity, and fragrance. Moisturizing Effect As to test the moisturizing effect, results show that Treatment 1 (T1) were rated by the panelist with a mean of 3.20 having an acceptable descriptive equivalent, Treatment 2 (T2) gained 4.20 mean rating which is described as highly acceptable and Treatment 3 (T3) with 4.73 mean rating is very highly acceptable also as shown in Table 1. The panelists rated T1 and T2 as acceptable and highly acceptable while T3 was also rated as very highly acceptable but with a higher mean. Results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple distillate was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL, respectively.

Table 2.1 Results of the Evaluation of the Respondents (Moisturizing Effect) Panelist 1 2 3 T1 3 3 3 T2 5 4 3 T3 5 5 4

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total Mean Descriptive Equivalent

3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 48 3.20 Acceptable

4 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 63 4.20 Highly acceptable

5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 71 4.73 Very Highly

acceptable

25 Fragrance As to test the fragrance, results show that Treatment 1 (T1) were rated by the panelist with a mean of 2.93 having the least acceptable descriptive equivalent, Treatment 2 (T2) gained 3.93 mean rating which is described as acceptable and Treatment 3 (T3) with 4.27 mean rating is acceptable as shown in Table 2. The panelists rated T1 as least acceptable while T3 was rated as highly acceptable. Again results show that T3 which uses 15mL of pineapple distillate was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. Table 2.2 Results of the Evaluation of the Respondents (Fragrance) Panelist 1 2 3 4 5 6 T1 4 4 3 3 4 2 T2 4 5 4 3 5 4 T3 4 5 4 4 4 5

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total Mean Descriptive Equivalent

3 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 44 2.93 Acceptable

4 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 59 3.93 Highly Acceptable

4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 64 4.27 Highly Acceptable

27 Viscosity As to test the viscosity, results show that Treatment 1 (T1), Treatment 2 (T2) and Treatment 3 (T3) with means of 3.40, 4.27 and 4.60 respectively were rated as acceptable as shown in Table 3. The panelists rated T1, T2 and T3 as acceptable but again results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists having the highest mean of 4.60 rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. Table 2.3 Results of the Evaluation of the Respondents (Viscosity) Panelist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T1 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 T2 4 4 3 4 3 4 5 T3 4 5 4 4 4 5 5

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total Mean Descriptive Equivalent

5 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 51 3.40 Acceptable

5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 64 4.27 Highly Acceptable

5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 69 4.60 Very Highly Acceptable

Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Summary of Findings As to the test on the moisturizing effect, panelists rated T1 and T2 as acceptable and highly acceptable while T3 was rated as very highly acceptable but with a higher mean. Results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL, respectively. As to fragrance, the panelists rated T1 and T2 as least acceptable and acceptable, respectively, while T3 was rated as highly acceptable. Again results show that T3 which uses 15mL of pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. As to the viscosity, the panelists rated T1 as acceptable, T2 as highly acceptable, T3 as very highly acceptable but again results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists having the highest mean of 4.60 rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. As to the acceptability of the pineapple fruit extract, T1 and T2 are moderately acceptable formulations of pineapple fruit extract as an ingredient in making lotion with 5 and 10 mL of fruit extract, respectively.

Conclusions 1. Pineapple fruit extract can be an ingredient in making lotion;

30 2. The use of 15 mL of pineapple fruit extract in making lotion

provide better results in terms of moisturizing effect, fragrance, and viscosity; and 3. Pineapple fruit extract is an acceptable ingredient in making lotion.

Recommendations 1. Pineapple fruit extract should be tested for other cosmetic

purposes; 2. Another formulation can be developed to study its effectiveness

and acceptability in terms of moisturizing effect, fragrance, and viscosity; and 3. Pineapple fruit extract can be added to other ingredients to make

cosmetic products such as lotions.

31 WORKS CITED Bender, D.A.. (2005). Emulsifying agents [Electronic version]. A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition Retrieved December 21, 2010. from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O39-emulsifyingagents.html Blood, A.F.. (ed.). Riverside: home economics. Bromelain (Pineapple enzyme). (2005, December 30). Retrieved December 20, 2010. from http://www.worldhealth.net/news/bromelain_pineapple_enzyme/ Crops in peace and war. (1951). United States: Government Printing Office. Janick, J., Freeman, W.H., & Company. (2003). Horticultural Science (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Author. Morton, J.. (1987). Pineapple. In Fruits of warm climates. Retrieved December 21, 2010. from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/pineapple.html#Food %20Uses Pineapple, a natural remedy for poor digestion and skin problems. (2009, June 5). Retrieved December

20, 2010. from http://guide2herbalremedies.com/pineapplenatural-remedy-for-poor-digestion-and-skin-problems/ 32 Pineapple extract in skin care use to promote skin elasticity and removing damaged skin. (2011. January 1). Retrieved January 16, 2011. from http://www.dermaxime.com/pineapple.htm#Cosmetic%20Properti es%20Of%20Pineapples The history of Pineapple. (2009, Jan. 22). Kitchen Project. Retrieved December 22, 2010. from http://www.kitchenproject.com/history/Pineapple/index.htm The history of the Pineapple. (n.d.). [ Article posted on Web site essortment]. Retrieved December 21, 2010. from http://www.essortment.com/all/pineapplehistor_rmfj.htm The Reader's Digest Association. (1997). Readers digest: foods that harm foods that heal. Pleasantville, New York/Montreal: Author..