Philippine Revolution (1896–1898)

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Transcript of Philippine Revolution (1896–1898)

Philippine Revolution (18961898)Tagalog War By: Angelica Marie M. Manalo

Philippine Revolution

called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.

Spanish EmpireThe Spanish Empire (Spanish: Imperio Espaol)

consisted of the territories and colonies administrated directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. In the peak of its power, it was one of the largest empires in world history, and one of the first global empires.

August 1896

The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, upon the discovery of the anticolonial secret organization Katipunan by the Spanish authorities.


The Philippine Revolution was an accumulation of numbers of ideas and exposition to international community that led to the opening of nationalistic endeavors. The rise of Filipino nationalism was slow but inevitable. Abuses by the Spanish government, military and the clergy prevalent during its three centuries of occupation, and the exposition of these excesses by the ilustrados in the late 19th century paved the way for a united Filipino people.


Unfortunately, the growth of nationalism was slow because of the difficulty in social and economic intercourse among the Filipinos.


They were the middle class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals. The Ilustrado class was composed of native-born intellectuals and cut across ethnolinguistic and racial linesIndios, Insulares, and mestizos, among others and sought reform through a more equitable arrangement of both political and economic power under Spanish tutelage.


Graciano Lpez Jaena Marcelo H. del Pilar Mariano Ponce Antonio Luna Jos Rizal


The main stream of influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century when the country was opened for world trade. In 1809, first English firms were established in Manila followed by a royal decree in 1834 opening the city officially to world trade. It must be noted that Philippines was formerly only tied to Mexico from 1565 when galleon trade become the prominent means of economy


The use of galleons ended in 1815 when Mexican War of Independence broke up. At this point, post-French Revolution ideas entered the country through literature which caused the rise of enlightened Ilustrado class in the society.


The 1868 Spanish Revolution brought to an end of the autocratic rule of Queen Isabella II and was replaced by a liberal government led by General Francisco Serrano. Serrano dispatched the 91st governor-general Carlos Mara de la Torre in 1869. The leadership of de la Torre has brought the idea of liberalism in the Philippines. That same year, in 1869, the Suez Canal was opened to the world after almost ten years of construction.


The election of despot Amadeo of Savoy to the throne of Spain led to replacement of de la Torre in gubernatorial power in 1871. In 1872, the government of the succeeding governor-general Rafael de Izquierdo was leashed by a bloody uprising of Filipino soldiers at the Fort San Felipe arsenal in Cavite el Viejo. Seven days after the mutiny, many people were arrested and tried in courtroom.

Secular Priest (GomBurZa)

Jos Burgos Mariano Gmez Jacinto Zamora

priests who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Bagumbayan in Manila, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities

Propaganda Movement

The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino migrs who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines and to propagate a closer relationship between the colony and Spain.

Specifically, the Propagandists aims were:

Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament; Secularization of the clergy; Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality; Creation of a public school system independent of the friars; Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government);

Specifically, the Propagandists aims were:

Guarantee of basic freedoms of speech and association; Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service. Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain Secularization of Philippine parishes. Recognition of human rights


The revolution flared up initially into the eight provinces of Central Luzon. General Emilio Aguinaldo, a member of the Katipunan, spread an armed resistance through Southern Tagalog region where he liberated Cavite towns little by little. In 1896 and 1897, successive conventions where held at and Tejeros which decided the fate of the new republic. By November, the republic was transferred in Biak-na-Bato where a new constitution was ratified.


On May 1, 1898, the Battle of Manila Bay took place as part of the Spanish-American War. On May 24, Aguinaldo, who had returned from voluntary exile on May 19, announced in Cavite,

"... I return to assume command of all the forces for the attainment of our lofty aspirations, establishing a dictatorial government which will set forth decrees under my sole responsibility, ... -Emilio Aguinaldo


June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence June 18 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree proclaiming a Dictatorial Government headed by himself. On June 23, another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government.


Elections were held by the Revolutionary Government between June and September 10, resulting in Emilio Aguinaldo being seated as President in the seating of a legislature known as the Malolos Congress. between September 15, 1898 and November 13, 1899, the Malolos Constitution had been adopted, creating the First Philippine Republic with Aguinaldo as President.


which, on June 12, 1899, promulgated a declaration of war on the U.S., beginning the Philippine-American War. Aguinaldo was captured by U.S. forces on March 23, 1901, and swore allegiance to the U.S. on April 1. On July 4, 1902, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all people in the Philippine archipelago who had participated in the conflict, effectively ending the war.

Start of Revolution

The existence of the Katipunan eventually became known to the authorities through a member, Teodoro Patio, who revealed it to a Spanish priest, Mariano Gil. Patio was engaged in a bitter personal dispute with fellow Katipunero Apolonio de la Cruz and exposed the Katipunan in revenge.

Start of Revolution

Father Gil was led to the printing press of the newspaper Diario de Manila , where a lithographic stone used to print the secret society's receipts was uncovered. A locker was seized containing a dagger and secret documents.

Start of Revolution

In the last days of August, 1896, Bonifacio called Katipunan members to a mass gathering in Caloocan, where they decided to start a nationwide armed revolution against Spain. The event was marked by a mass tearing of cedulas (community tax certificates) accompanied by patriotic cries. The exact date and location are disputed, but two possibilities have been officially endorsed by the Philippine government: August 26 in Balintawak and later, August 23 in Pugad Lawin. Thus the event is called the "Cry of Balintawak" or "Cry of Pugad Lawin".

Start of Revolution

However the issue is further complicated by other dates such as August 24 and 25 and other locations such as Kangkong, and Furthermore, at the time "Balintawak" referred not only to a specific place, but also a general area which included some of these proposed sites like Kangkong.

Start of Revolution

Bonifacio also reorganized the Katipunan into an open revolutionary government, with him as President and the Supreme Council of the Katipunan as his cabinet. On the morning of August 25, the rebels came under attack by a Spanish civil guard unit, the rebels having greater numbers but the Spanish being better armed. The forces disengaged after a brief skirmish and casualties on both sides

Start of Revolution

By August 30, the revolt had spread to eight provinces. On that date, GovernorGeneral Blanco declared a state of war in these provinces and placed them under martial law. These were Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija. They would later be represented in the eight rays of the sun in the Filipino flag.

Tejeros Convention

On December 31, an assembly was convened in Imus to settle the leadership status. The Magdalo insisted on the establishment of revolutionary government to replace the Katipunan and continue the struggle. On the other hand, the Magdiwang favored retention of the Katipunan, arguing that it was already a government in itself. The assembly dispersed without a consensus


Aguinaldo and his men retreated northward, from one town to the next, until they finally settled in Biakna-Bato, in the town of San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan. Here they established what became known as the Republic of Biak-na-Bato, with a constitution drafted by Isabelo Artacho, and Felix Ferrer and based on the first Cuban Constitution.

Declaration of Independence