Pertusis or Whooping cough class presentation

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Paediatric disease Pertusis and whooping cough class presentation

Transcript of Pertusis or Whooping cough class presentation

  • Submitted to: Submitted by: Resp. Pawan Sir Miss Abhilasha Verma B. Sc. Nsg. Part-III (2011-2012)
  • 1. INTRODUCTION Pertussis, also known as whooping cough is a highly contagious bacterial disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. It's characterized by severe coughing spells, which can sometimes end in a "whooping" sound when the person breathes in. Whooping cough is also known as 100 days cough. Habbit pattern of coughing may longer or subscquent weeks & month,so chiniese call it; 100 DAYS COUGH.
  • 2. DEFINITION Pertusis is acute highly contagious disease which cause classic spasm (paroxyms) of uncontrollable coughing, that is violent and persistence followed by a sharp, high pitched intake of air which create characteristic WHOOP sound. Children who have typically illness of pertusis try to take deep breath between cough result in whooping sound.
  • 3. AGENT Agent of pertusis are- I. Bordetella Pertusis(gm +ve, rod shaped, non motile) II. Bordetella Parapertusis III. Haemophillus Haemolyticus IV. Adeno Virus V. Bronchi Septica
  • Fig: Bordetella Pertusis
  • 4. INCUBATION PERIOD The incubation period is typically seven to ten days in infants or young children, after which there are usually mild respiratory symptoms, mild coughing, sneezing, or runny nose.
  • 5. MODE OF TRANSMISSION Tiny droplets that comes from mouth & nose of infected patient. Respiratory Aerosole (Droplets) Close Contact It spreads through close contact with oral secretions or respiratory droplets. So it's easily spread through the cough, especially when people are in close contact, like living in the same house with a person who has whooping cough. It can also be spread through sneezes.
  • 7. AGE GROUP & SEX It is primarily disease of pre schoolar (3-5 years) & may occur in infants, new born, pregnant lady. Pre schoolar are responsible for about 50% of total case It is more common in females then males,`and single attack confers life long immunity.
  • 8. ENVIORNMENTAL FACTOR Pertusis spread throughout year but more cases found in winter/spring season. Over crowding place. Low sanitation area. Poor environmental hygiene. Person with decreased immunity. Unimmunized persons against whooping cough.
  • 9. PATHOGENESIS Causative Agent(B- Pertusis) Liberates numbers of antigen & toxins Pathological changes in the respiratory tract. (Nasophraynx to Bronchioles) Inflammatory response to mucosa & secreation appear Local epithelium damage & symptom appear PERTUSIS DISEASE
  • 10. CLINICAL MENIFESTATION Clinical menifestation include 3 stages; 1. Catarrhal Stage (Pre paroxymal stage, 0-2 weeks) 2. Paroxymal Stage (Spasmodic stage, 2-4 weeks) 3. Convulscent Stage (Last 2 weeks)
  • STAGE-I CATARRHAL STAGE Catarrhal symptoms appear that are: Fever Rhinitis Sneezing Anorexia Nausea & Vomiting Lacrimation Irritating cough at night (nocturnal but later become diurnal)
  • STAGE-II PAROXYMAL STAGE Cough means in paroxymus (repeatating) & is accompanied by vomiting. A typical attack consist of repeated series of many cough in expiration followed by sudden deep, violent inspiration with characterise crowing sound WHOOP . Ulcer of franulum of tounge. Sweating Congestion of neck & scalp vein. Patient appears suffocated with congested (red) face with or without cyanosis. Mouth opened, periorbital oedema Sub conjuctional haemorrhage Convulsion may be present.
  • STAGE-III CONVULSCENT STAGE Disturbing cough & vomiting stops and apatite too imprones.(start of hungerness) Habit pattern of coughing may be longer to several weeks & month.
  • 11. COMPLICATIONS Otitis media is quite frequent. Respiratory complications are: Pneumonia (specially in infants) Atelectasis Bronchictaxis Emphysema Neurological complication Intra cranial hage (Haemorrhage) Seizures (due to cerebral hypoxia) Paralysis Haemiplegia Encephalopathy (Encephalitis) (Due to cerebral anoxia)
  • Rupture of diaphragm. Rectal prolapse, umblical & inguinal hernia over whelming strain of violent cough. Malnutrition due to vomiting.
  • 12. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION Pertusis is difficult to diagnose because coughing may be due to common cold, bronchitis or chest infection. For accurate diagnosis:- 1. CBC (Lymphocytosis increased) 2. Chest X-Ray (Perihilar infiltration, atelectasis, emphysema) 3. ELISA (To detect IgM, IgG, IgA) 4. Nasophrayngeal swab (Mainly in stage-I)
  • 13. PREVENTION & CONTROL Active immunization is best preventive measure for pertusis. DPT Vaccine = 0.5 ml. IM, 5 dose DPT 1st dose 6 weeks DPT 2nd dose 10 weeks DPT 3rd dose 14 weeks DPT 1st Booster 16-18 month DPT 2nd Booster 5 Years
  • ANTIBIOTICS Erythromycin Azithromycin Clarithromycin
  • 14. HEALTH EDUCATION Emphasis should be placed on minimizing exposure to susceptible person, specially infant. Isolation & restriction of case, should be excluded from work, school, preschool & child care centers. Regular health check up. Educate pregnant women to keep distance to such cases. Active immunization.
  • 15. CONCLUSION So by this project, we can say that pertusis or whooping cough is a disease of respiratory mucus membrane. It is a bacterial and contageous disease which mainly caused by Bordetella Pertusis. It mainly occur in 3-5 year old children. It can be prevented by active immunization. It is treated by DPT Vaccines and Antibiotics.