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Panache Flair of Mind 2014


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Panache Flair of Mind 2014



15TH edition of panache, it makes us proud to bring 15 glorious years of our magazine which has a tradition of nurturing budding pharmacists & catalysing their thought process.Rx 2014 is an event which we look forward to; no doubt 2013 was a huge success. The theme Halloween brought out the fun side of the students and turned out to be a momentous occasion. As we take a leap into another resourceful, eventful year, we have chosen the theme 'Renaissance', a movement igniting minds & bringing a wave of change and rebirth.Every year ushers a change, which brings along new tides encompassing novice opportunities and ideas. This year the point system for the number of activities held by each college was introduced which kept the students on their toes.The 52nd National pharmacy week true to its theme: 'Pharmacist- A Healthcare Professional' was a successful event where 25 colleges actively participated in all health campaigns and conducted various street plays, blood donation drive, AIDS Awareness campaigns, etc. The week was enthusiastically concluded in the presence of more than 550 students and 50 faculty members where a team of ingenious and proficient speakers plagued the minds of the audience.The year gave the students an opportunity to experiment on various avenues of pharmacy profession by opening doors to the Maharashtra Local Exchange Programme, Hospital Pharmacy & Community Pharmacy training at reputable hospitals & drug stores. IPA-SF MSB has laid its foundation on the cornerstone to build booming & magnificent wonders in the field of pharmacy.

“Its never too late to seek to a newer worldTo sail beyond the sunset and baths of western stars,

But, therefore, what is needed isA stong mind-to seek, to find, and not to yield”

And this is how our bid to launch “Pharma Buzz -monthly newsletter of IPA SF MSB” ventured successfully and was on the receptacle end of huge response from the students and we would like to continue the trend for the coming years and keep up the good work. The endeavour of launching a newsletter -totally student centric was mainly based to render the needs of our budding pharmacists, to make them wisdom and skill based sufficient enough to tackle their professional lives. Hot off the press column equipped them with the recent know-hows of the pharma world and the take and impact of it. Innovative and multifarious themes for instance-Breakthroughs in the Pharma World, Drug Design and Development, Insight into FDA, Decoding Pharmacopoeias, I hope, would have surely played a part in expanding their horizon. “The Students Corner” section hit the bulls eye which went on

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receiving rave reviews from the students and faculties. Our main aim to touch on the arena of the entrance exam was broadly to furnish and accoutre the students with the multifarious avenues which they can pursue. The mock tests gave a peek and an insight into the actual tests. Panache this year throws a glimpse into “Synergy” which denotes that the combined effects are greater than the individual effects. Thus teamwork leads to best possible outcome. But the cons of synergy are the ones to pay heed to and not ignore as well, quite aptly construed in the article Synergistic Toxicity. The theme article-“Synergy Outcome of a Strong Interaction” cites the facet, aspect and impact of peculiarities of such synergistic action and reaction. “Addition of Food, Subtraction in Brain” pertinently illuminates the synergistic actions of food additives and its crunch on brain activity. Though pesticides are used to ward of diseases in the plants, but the same pesticide like endosulfan sprayed plants when consumed produces havoc on human health. This image of pesticides is very well unveiled in the article on Endosulfan. Our scientists have been fortunate enough to discover various drugs to heal our disorders. But the bioavailabilty of these drugs have still kept all of us intrigued. Herbal Bioenhancers have outweighed all the expectations and has unravelled the crux of solving the mystery on bioavailability. Parents and students these days engage into various crooked ideas to surpass their peers and competitors in all the fronts and emerge at the top. Use of such drugs and the ethics associated with it are described in the topic of “Nootropics”. It is well said that the playing with mind is much easier than playing with the drugs. Altering the mental belief and thought-the placebo effect may well prove to be equally, in fact in some cases, more efficacious than our conventional drugs. Many aspects regarding Pharma industry have been covered. Our efficient editorial team worked synergistically and would like to present you many intriguing and interesting articles, poems, interview, crossword, news hot off the press, happenings of IPA. As much as it was a pleasure making this issue, I hope, the readers find it even more blissful and indulging while browsing through, as the pleasures of reading are best known to the reader! Hope it broadens the horizon of the minds of young generation regarding this field, which will serve the purpose of our magazine. Awaiting your enthusiastic and exhilarating response in the coming years too!

Enjoy the issue folks!

Editor-In-ChiefKhushbu Bhatt

Associate EditorPragya Singh, Aditi Thakore

Joint EditorAnu Johnson, Rutuja Yawalkar, Prajakta Waghmare

MembersRahul Joshi, Siddhi Malgaonkar, Maureen Crasto, Vaibhavi Modi, Shivani Jadhav,

Dhanashree Ghume, Gauri Kadam

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Dear Students,On behalf of IPA MSB, I extend Season's Greeting to you dear students. May this year 2014 be a year that shall fulfill all your aspirations and usher positive change that shall propel you higher echelons of academic and professional excellence. 2014 has already witnessed a revolutionary change wherein masses elected a team of people from all walks of life and not politicians as their representative to govern a state. The election of Aam Aadmi Party (People's Party) to form a government at Delhi is unparallel event in the history of the world. This event has captured the attention of the entire world and has demonstrated the power of synergy of people working towards common goal of being change agents in the quest of cleansing corruption in government and public places and providing corruption free governance. The power of Synergy cannot be underestimated. History has witnessed a lot of defining moments and movements wherein power of synergy has triumphed and broken shackles of slavery, racism, colonization and tyrant leadership. The American war of Independence, the apartheid movement in Africa, the Satyagraha struggle for Independence in India from British Colonization and ouster of Dictatorial regimes in Iraq, Libya, Uganda and Egypt are testimonials to prove the power of Synergy of People.Synergy of people signifies the interaction of multiple minds working together as individuals and collectively creating a Tsunami effect of dimension greater than individual efforts. The success of the triumph of synergy of people lay in motivating people to believe in sharing a common dream and working relentlessly towards achieving it. Strong leadership, Teamwork, Courage of conviction, Resilience, Self Belief are some the tenets that inspire, propel and galvanize people towards achieving their common dreams. We at IPA MSB have been over the years witnessing the Success of Synergy of people both at State level and at Student's level.I am proud of their achievements and only hope and wish you d e a r students to apply this success formula in your personal and professional sphere of life. Best wishes for your future endeavors

PRESIDENT’S MESSAGEDr. Hemant Mondkar, President IPA MSB.

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Greetings and bonjour to all pharmacists and readers!!!It gives me immense pleasure to introduce the 15th edition of Panache-the flair of mind before you. This is an idea thought of, to reach out every pharmacist in the state and around. With Panache we try to spread awareness in the society about pharmacy and its multifarious role in the healthcare sector. It is an outcome from the great efforts of my entire team. No

man has ever wetted clay and left it as if there would be bricks by chance and fortune. We worked with entire dedication, devotion and determination, team work knowing that right thoughts and right efforts would inevitably bring about right results and our hard work finally bore the sweetest fruits.To go back and analyse, I can say, the year started with a hiatus! But as we played the show; it caught up energy and enthusiasm as fire. The year was coined “year of innovation” and worked out to be the same, the whole team worked with coordination and led the association to a higher altitude. With the record breaking placements in hospital pharmacy, blood bank visits and industrial visits, we had two very successful MLEP batches from Nashik and Aurangabad. My team flourished to gain maximum coverage and participation for various technical events as well. The health awareness campaigns we held this year were never like before, efforts were taken to influence all age groups ranging from school students up to senior citizens towards health. We had taken up the motto for the year as “Anti-tobacco crusade” .The people we approached have curbed tobacco from their lives under our influence and the content and the satisfaction reaped inspired us to move further and keep the trend going. We cited the importance of pharmacist as a healthcare professional during our 52nd national pharmacy week in the closing ceremony of which we had a whole auditorium filled with aspiring pharmacists & future leaders who were influenced enormously and that was again a milestone we could touch and added one more feather on our cap.After a year filled with such ups and downs, we are here at the end (I would rather term it as a “Pause”)….celebrating the success and awesomeness of the year with my team-mates in our very own inter collegiate festival Rx-2014 with over 22 colleges participating from the state and enjoying their heart out. For me it was the best year for IPA-SF-MSB so far, and I expect this to continue for years to come. Hopes to witness progression are deep within, all the very best to the next team.


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Man is a creation of God working in synergy,

Where body, mind and soul unite to give energy.

Energy of man yields discovery of medicinal treasury,

This happens when human energy and pharmacy undergo synergy,

Pharmacist as he is called boldly,

Now he thinks lets apply some synergy.

Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen, he combined smartly,

And Combiflam marketed its synergistic capacity.

Famous drug ever marketed possibly,

All credits and thanks to the idea of synergy.

Positive result would occur similarly,

When pharmacist and doctor act synergistically.

Negative the result would be drastically,

When two foe drugs combine synergistically.

Its all combination that works miraculously,

Because adding up energy that is synergy.

R. Saiprasanth, M.pharm (Quality Assurance),VES College Of Pharmacy, Chembur(West)

Panache Flair of Mind 2014

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Aditi ThakoreFinal Year B.pharm

Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy

E very year, students from various parts of the world have an excellent opportunity to work across borders and experience the professional

setup through the student exchange program cum internship organized by The International Pharmaceutical Students Federation. Having made the best use of this platform, my visit to Belgrade, Serbia had lots to offer.There was a lot of initial skepticism regarding my choice of country, as a lot of them thought I was going to SIBERIA and not SERBIA. Formerly known as Yugoslavia, there have been a lot of pre conceived notions about this place and its people. To put all these rumors and wrong ideas to rest, I knew that this was just the right opportunity. If not for SEP I would never have thought of exploring this beautiful place.

Belgrade was an absolute bundle of surprise right since day one. Contrary to all the beliefs about Serbs, they are, without a second thought the most lovable, welcoming and warm people I have ever come across. Not once did I ever feel away from home. The NAPSer team had everything well in place for my month long internship. And boy! Time just flew past.

Serbia is involved in a lot of substantial research work, and hence my area of research was Pharmaceutical Technology. Learning was never so much fun. Spending close to six hours a day in the laboratory, there was still something to look forward the next day. Be it using the spectrophotometer, making dispersions or handling the micropipette for the first time, everything seemed interesting with how even the complex of concepts were taught with ease.

Panache Flair of Mind 2014

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Working with a completely new set of people from different countries changed a great deal of my perception. I had the privilege of working under the tutelage of Vice Dean Dr. Svetlana Ibric and Prof. Branko Obradovic at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of

Belgrade. Working in a totally new professional culture helped me learn a lot in terms of work ethics, respect towards even the smallest of work, and team building. There was a lot of knowledge exchange and an insight into the way the European healthcare functions. It was a sheer delight meeting Prof.Branko considering how well we were guided on every detail of the experiment. Currently, Prof. Branko is pursuing his PhD studies in Germany.

Interestingly, a fact that cannot go unnoticed is the European education system. A little probe into their routine college life revealed that their examination pattern was VIVA based, that explains the importance they lay on concepts unlike the rote learning here in INDIA. Apart from the work, personally this was an experience I will treasure for the rest of my life. Belgrade also known as the party capital, every evening was a blast. The hosts left no stone unturned to show me around and soak in the rich culture and history. I can now proudly boast of friends from around the world who I met during the internship, all of who are a bunch of amazing people. This certainly helped me gain information and an outlook of pharmacy practices across the globe like Poland and USA

Lastly, I cannot sign off without having thanked the IPA-SF enough for its efforts and having considered me for t h i s r e m a r k a b l e a n d e n d u r i n g experience. Piece of advice to all u readers out there-This program is hard to miss, grab the chance while there is still time, every penny is worth it ;)

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Panache Flair of Mind 2014

Talent wins games, but synergy wins championships.-Michael Jordan

ehaviour of a system that cannot be Bpredicted by the behaviour of its parts.What is it? A teamwork? A combined action? Interaction? In every simplified terms; synergy describes the combined healthy action of every organ of a particular system. More actions can be completed when a team of people are working together than when one person is working by his or herself. The way to achieve this type of synergy is to find people you can work with who has the same goals and basic drive as you do. Synergy is the interaction of multiple elements in a system to produce an effect different from (not anticipated or desired) or greater than the sum of their individual effects (desired). The term synergy comes from the Greek word synergia "working together".DRUG SYNERGYDrug synergy occurs when drugs can interact in ways that enhance or magnify one or more effects, or side-effects, of those drugs. This is sometimes exploi ted in combination preparations, such as codeine mixed with acetaminophen or ibuprofen to enhance the action of codeine as a pain reliever. Other examples include the use of cannabis with LSD, where the active chemicals in cannabis have been r epor t ed to enhance the

.[citation needed]hallucinatory experience of LSD .Negative effects of synergy are a form of contraindication. For example, a combination of depressant drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS), such as alcohol and Valium, can cause a greater reaction than simply the sum of the individual effects of each drug if they were used separately. In this

particular case, the most serious consequence of drug synergy is exaggerated respiratory depression, which can be fatal if left untreated. TOXICOLOGICAL SYNERGYToxicological synergy is of concern to the public and regulatory agencies because chemicals individually considered safe might pose unacceptable health or ecological risk in combination. During the registration of pesticides in the United States exhaustive tests are performed to discern health effects on humans at various exposure levels. However, in normal agricultural practice, it is rare to use only a single pesticide.Each of them has had determined a regulatory level at which they would be considered individually safe. In many cases, a commercial pesticide is itself a combination of several chemical agents, and thus the safe levels actually represent levels of the mixture. In contrast, a combination created by the end user, such as a farmer, has rarely been tested in that combination. The potential for synergy is then unknown or estimated from data on similar combinations. This lack of information also applies to many of the chemical combinations to which humans are exposed, including residues in food, indoor a i r contaminants , and occupational exposures to chemicals. Some groups think that the rising rates of cancer, asthma, and other health problems may be caused by these combination exposures; others have alternative explanations. This question will likely be answered only after years of exposure by the population in general and research on chemical toxicity, usually

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performed on animals. Examples of pesticide synergists include Piperonyl butoxide and MGK 264.HEALTHCARE SYNERGYFor most in healthcare, it feels familiar. In relation to the health sectors it is necessary to understand not only the work of a drug expert(Pharmacist) who is involved in designing drug, keeping in mind the patient but, also the work of a physician, involved in the diagnosis of diseases, both together making a synergy.THE GAPIn India, a physician is considered as a person holding God's place when it comes to treat a disease or cure a patient. But, the work of a drug expert who works behind the curtains is never sighted, and is a misconception among the people. On the other hand, many pharmacists have limited their interactions with physicians to such activities and do not regular ly discuss whether a drug is therapeutically optimal for the patient.Now lets see; who is the drug expert (Pharmacist)? A main source of data on drug use. The one who is involved in new drug

molecule development. The one who knows well about drug-drug

interactions and their side-effects.Who is the physician? The one who detects the disease The one who performs the surgery The one who prescribes the medicineTHE REALITYNothing else is important than to bring about a cure, health and disease free lives. Absence of any one is a problem, as if pharmacist would not work on medicines than what a physician would prescribe and treat with? And if physician would not dignose the diseases, how the molecules be developed or designed by keeping in mind the form of diseases? Hence, we can say that both makes 'disease cure' a success in synergy. Most pharmacists have

already reached the stage of professional awareness with physicians. THE NEEDPharmacists should work to make physicians aware of the resources they can provide to the physicians' practices. Through a series of positive exchanges with a pharmacist, a physician can start to build a foundation of trust and a growing commitment to the relationship. The challenge for pharmacists and doctors should therefore be to work together to increasingly develop common strategies in order to achieve optimal treatment for the benefit of the patient


THE IMPACTThe vision of doctors, pharmacists, working together across departmental or institutional boundries is to improve their systems of care. The benefits of collaboration are clear. When both work together : Total knowledge and understanding is

greater than when they work separately. They increase the probabili ty of

successfully discovering solutions of problems.

Participation in problem solving process increases acceptance of the solution.

Meaningful relationships are built and are the key to future improvement.

Synergy: the combined power of different things working together to create a greater effect than if they were


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odern pharmaceutical research is M mainly concerned with the low oral bioavailability of important drugs which are administered orally. Poorly bioavailable drugs remain subtherapeutic because a major portion of dose never reaches to the plasma or exert its pharmacological action unless and until a large dose of drug is administered. This may lead to serious side effect and increase in treatment cost. One way to achieve reduction in drug dosage, and therefore drug toxicity and cost, is to increase drug bioavailability. Both the physicochemical properties of drug and physiological conditions of body affect the bioavailability of drugs. Barriers like GIT and first pass metabolism, efflux pumps like P-glycoproteins are the major factors which are responsible for the poor bioavailability of drugs.The consumption of antibiotics and drugs by human is increasing at an alarming rate.Out of the total drugs and chemicals, 20–50% of that use is unnecessary depending on the class of antibiotic and other drugs.This is responsible for side effects, illness, and reduction in life expectancy. One of the possible ways to reduce drug dosage is synergism between two therapeutic agents, that is, combination therapy. However, if both drugs used concurrently have antimicrobial property, the problem of selection pressure and drug toxicity will continue.Thus, there is need of molecules, which are not antimicrobial or target drugs but enhance activity and

Jadhav Abhijeet Shivajirao & Khan Gufran Karim(Class – T.Y.B.Pharm )

Bombay College of Pharmacy

availability of main drugs in combination therapy, that is, Bioenhancers. Until now, methods of increasing drug bioavailability have been operated within a narrow manipulative framework, mainly based on physical processes like, increasing the polarity of the drug through chemical m o d i fi c a t i o n , m i c r o n i z a t i o n a n d nanonization, liposomal microencapsulatin and so forth. However, based on Ayurvedic literature, a new approach of increasing bioavailabili ty of drugs with poor b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y b y u s i n g H e r b a l Bioenhancers is gaining attention.Herbal Bioenhancer is an agent of herbal origin or any phytomolecule, which is capable of enhancing bioavailability and bioefficacy of a particular drug or nutrient with which it i s combined, wi thout any typica l pharmacological activity of its own at the dose used.Herbal Bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, a n t i v i r a l , a n t i f u n g a l , a n d anticancerousdrugs at low doses. They have a l so improved ora l absorp t ion of neutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds.The term bioavailability enhancer was first coined by Indian Scientists at the Regional Research laboratory, Jammu (RRL, now known as Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine) discovered and scientifically validated piperine as the world's first bioavailability enhancer in 1979.

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Herbal Bioenhancers act through several mechanisms of action. Different herbal bioenhancers may have same or different mechanisms of action. Some of the proposed mechanisms of actions are

1. Increasing gastrointestinal blood supply and reduces HCl secretion.

2. S t i m u l a t i o n o f g a m a -glutamyltranspeptidase activity ehich enhances uptake of amino acids.

3. Inhibition of gastric emptying time and gastrointestinal transit.

4. Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes and suppression of first pass metabolism.

5. Modifications in GIT epithelial cell membrane permeability.

The available scientific research on

bioenhancers has shown to produce s i g n i fi c a n t e n h a n c i n g e f f e c t o n bioavailability when coadministered or p r e t r e a t e d w i t h m a n y d r u g s a n d nutraceuticals. These natural compounds include piperine, Zingiberofficinale, n i a z i r i d i n , g l y c y r r h i z i n , Cuminumcyminum, Carumcarvi, allicin, lysergol, Aloe vera, Stevia rebaudiana, cu rcumin , s inomenine , gen i s te in , Ammanniamultiflora, capsaicin, quercetin, naringin, capmul and cow urine distillate. They reduce the dose, shorten treatment, and thus reduce drug-resistance and drug toxicity or adverse reactions. Due to dose economy, treatment is cost-effective. Bioenhancers are also found to decrease or having no effect or little effect on the bioavailability of some drugs.

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Final Year B.PharmHK College of Pharmacy

I n t h e p r e s e n t scenar io , s t e r i l e environment tops the cGMP criteria of P h a r m a c e u t i c a l i n d u s t r i e s . Maintaining these conditions for herbal d r u g s , b i o t i c organism is s t i l l a n o t h e r t e r r o r . Wonder, even in this crucial condition, the scientist thought of developing a sterile organism! Gnotobiotic animals are those transferred directly into an aseptic environment the moment they are born so as to have a nearly zero microbial count in them. Gordon and Pesti, Bacterio. Rev. in 1972 came up with some of the terminologies concerned with G n o t o b i o t i c animals one of an animal stock or strain derived by aseptic caesarean section (or sterile hatching of eggs) which are reared and continuously maintained with

germfree techniques u n d e r i s o l a t o r conditions and in w h i c h t h e composition of any associated fauna and flora, if present, is f u l l y d e fi n e d b y accepted cur ren t m e t h o d o l o g y . Germfree animal

(axenic animal) is a gnotobiote which is free from all demonstrable associated forms of life including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and other saprophytic or parasitic forms. Gnotobiotic animals are helpful as it provides the relationship of a single microbe or a set of microbes and the host. This means, that if a relation between E.coli and rat is to be

studies, the just b o r n r a t o n C a e s a r e a n i s transferred to an environment free f r o m a l l t h e possible microbes e x c e p t E . c o l i . Studies concerned with microbes for n u t r i t i o n , o n injuries etc can

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also be understood. Animals like germ-free rata, rabbits, guinea pigs, beagle dogs, sheep, goats, and m o n k e y a n d s o o n a r e a l s o developed. Various studies on gnotobiotic animals carried were they proved useful for example in the study of importance microbial flora for par t ia l inact ivat ion of pancreatic enzymes like t r y p s i n o g e n a n d chymotrypsinogen after finding them in higher concentration in the faeces of these germ free animals. A study even showed the four times higher ammonia levels in portal blood of a

usual guinea pig and a germ free. These differences are the plus points for studying microbiology. Apart from animal model study, these animals are also used to develop healthy species by stepwise exposure to microbes during their development phase. The disadvantage of these species is that they are very weak in terms of their immunity, cardiac output and thus the defence against pathogens. Also the environment required for maintaining sterility during their growth phase is

difficult in financial as well as maintenance aspect. However, this new and innovative technique of developing animal model would truly open way for bringing new i m m u n o s u p p r e s s a n t , immunostimulant as well as in studies related to nutraceuticals and antibiotic.

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B.Pharm + MBA(Pharm. Tech.)NMIMS SPP SPTM

Jack is in the final year of his undergrad program. He is a part of the cultural committee and helps in co-ordinating various college events and activities. However, with the exams looming overhead, he is hopelessly overworked and fatigued. His friend introduces him to a 'wonder' drug – Modafinil. The drug helps him to stay awake, focus on his work and stay on top of things. With the extra oomph provided by this drug, Jack is able to successfully juggle between his schoolwork and co-curricular activities.Modafinil is amongst one of the many drugs that are rising in popularity on university campuses around the world. Students are using these drugs – not for pleasure, but for enhanced cognitive capabilities. In other words, becoming 'smarter'.Modafinil has been approved for treatment of narcolepsy (excessive sleepiness). However, recent studies support the notion that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Other such drugs include Adderall (Amphetamine and Dextroamphetamine), Nootropil(Piracetam) and Ritalin(methyphenidate). Adderall and Ritalin are primarily prescribed for treatment of ADHD while Piracetam is said to possess neuroprotective properties. According to a recent survey of 6,725 students, conducted by researchers from the universities of Zurich and Basel, 1 in 7 students has dabbled in 'smart' drugs. Drugs, in our current society carry a negative connotation. Drug abuse is widespread and use of performance enhancing drugs in sports is banned. For many, nootropics carry the same negative connotation. Many people's intuitive objection is that any artificial means of enhancement is 'cheating'. Nootropics are viewed as unnatural means of bringing about enhancement by altering the normal functioning of brain. In his book “Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution,” Francis Fukuyama says “The original purpose of medicine is to heal the sick, not turn healthy people into gods.”Many people think cognitive enhancement drugs would undermine the human qualities of hard work and determination. Indeed, our most loved myths and stories – from David and Goliath to Mahabharata -- have us rooting for the underdog who achieves victory through perseverance. Apart from the ethical and moral quandaries, there are more practical concerns about the wider impact of nootropics on the society as a whole. For example, if an individual does not use cognitive enhancement drugs due to his personal beliefs, medical conditions, lack of access to such drugs or any of the several reasons -- he would be inherently at a disadvantage in a society where the use of nootropics is widespread. His normal, unenhanced cognitive abilities would effectively have been pathologized when compared to others.Others are concerned about the safety of cognitive enhancement drugs in the long run. These fears are not entirely unfounded. Few studies have been conducted about the long term effects of nootropics on the human brain. The few studies that have been conducted often provide conflicted results. For example, one study claims that Piracetam raise cognitive abilities in old people while another study claims exactly the opposite.However, these drawbacks shouldn't discourage us from fully exploring the advantages of cognitive enhancement. The use of drugs to enhance cognition is not an entirely new phenomenon. Caffeine is perhaps one of the oldest known stimulant. Amphetamines are used in military for promoting vigilance and wakefulness. For many, use of pharmacological products to better their experiences is already a fact of life. Dr.Anjan Chatterjee, an associate professor of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania who foresaw this debate in a 2004 paper, argues that the history of cosmetic surgery — scorned initially as vain and unnatural but now mainstream as a form of self-improvement — is a guide to predicting the trajectory of cosmetic neurology, as he calls it.“We worship at the altar of progress, and to the demigod of choice,” Dr. Chatterjee said. “Both are very strong undercurrents in the culture and the way this is likely to be framed is: 'Look, we want smart people to be as productive as possible to make everybody's lives better. We want people performing at the max, and if that means using these medicines, then great, then we should be free to choose what we want as long as we're not harming someone.' I'm not taking that position, but we have this winner-take-all culture and that is the way it is likely to go.”More studies need to be conducted about the mechanism of action of cognitive enhancement drugs and their long term effects on the brain. Awareness should be spread among individuals – especially students, who are most likely to take advantage of nootropics – on the advantages and disadvantages of nootropics. Institutions with real enforceable powers should be set up to control and regulate nootropics.In conclusion, we shouldn't be held back by paralyzing pessimism but move forward into uncharted territories with cautious optimism. As with any new advancement in science, we should work on maximizing benefits offered by nootropics and minimizing the harm caused by them.

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The Exploria is one of the few Experiential Learning

organisations helping the K12+ students to understand

and have a practical exposure to Industries. We are

committed towards our mission,

'To breach the Gap between Industries and Academia'.

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Rx is the prescription to dispense a potent combination of displaying the academic, cultural, sports n technical skills of budding pharmacists. Over the past 4 years, I have enjoyed the taste of this prescription, both as a participant and member of the organizing team. I miss those memorable moments of working with a team to execute this prescription in a Perfect manner but the online rx this year helps us relieve 'the pulse of Rx'. Good luck to the next council to bring Rx to higher and higher!

Forum Jhalundwala, Student Exchange Officer, 2012-13

While going back to the IPA days, the first thing that strikes a chord is that moment when I was declared as the Head of Treasury Committee for 2012-13. May it be the task of running around for sponsorships, trying to gather funds from anywhere and everywhere, committee meetings, bunking lectures to do IPA work, etc all this truly imbibed into me the art of management and leadership. I am extremely proud to be a part of IPA and I wish all the best to the people who were a part, who are still a part and those who would be continuing the legacy ahead.

Sonia Malthankar, Treasurer, 2012-13

IPA was really fascinating. I enjoyed a lot especially missing those meetings, discussion with other IPA members. Now it is like I am missing some part of my body. Being a Sports Secretary, it imbibed many virtues and developed many soft skills like communication, management, balancing my academics with IPA. I will truly cherish my IPA experience forever.

Bhavik Motasha, Sports Secretary 2012-13

IPA was a journey that took me on a joy adventure ride. The exhilarating deadlines, last minute additions, the discussions with my panache team, are memories that will be forever etched in my life. Coming to Rx, which is the most awaited event of the year, it has a life of its own and IPA has taken it to a new pedestal each and every year. My fondest memories are tied with Rx when all the hard work shows fruit during the release of Panache. The colourful banners, the enthusiastic faces on students, the graceful dances are a part and parcel of Rx and I was proud to be a part of this legacy.I wish all the best in continuing this beautiful celebration to the IPA SF MSB Team. Happy Rx 2014!

Annapurna Venkat, Editor-In-Chief 2012-13

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Aditi ThakoreFinal Year B.Pharm

Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy

ver since the first civilization Eflourished and INDIA got its

identity, the word agriculture has been

synonymous with it. With tons of spices

and grains exported annually, there also is

a sinister and dark side to this…..


“Pesticides are substances or mixture of

substances intended for preventing,

destroying, repelling or mitigating any

pest.” To put it simply, pesticides are to

plants, what medicines are to humans. A

specific case which portrays the

horrendous scenario of these chemicals is

the compound 'ENDOSULFAN'.

Endosulfan is an organochlorine

insecticide which is banned globally,

according to the Stockholm Convention,

but the Indian reality to it is otherwise.

Many parts of India still use this poison


Evidence to which is “THE CANCER

TRAIN” which runs from Bhathinda to


A reality which lies beyond those lush

green fields in Punjab is CANCER. The

Kasargod district of Kerala, a victim to this

yellow labeled pesticide, has been one of

the most severely affected. Classified as a

highly toxic and potent carcinogen, the

persistent uses of chemicals like these

have challenged the status of agriculture

in India.

Ironically, the pressure from endosulfan

manufacturing companies made India the

largest consumer of this chemical which

made the government stand against the

ban. Although, a global phase-out, India

still holds a stance on its use. On papers,

the ban may have been implemented

since early 2012, but the figures showing

pesticide toxicity are a sad reality.

Owing to its controversial status, the

harmful effects are a matter of concern.

Known to manifest the humans leading to

endocrine disruption, delay in sexual

maturity, and cause acute neurotoxicity, it

is an ATPase inhibitor and a GABA-gated

chlorine channel antagonist. These

enzymes are responsible for transfer of

nerve impulses. Cases of lethal poisoning

which result in permanent brain damage

have also been reported.

High levels of endosulfan, a highly toxic

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pesticide which has been widely used in

cashew nut and other cash crop

plantations, have been found in the bone

marrow of children suffering from blood

cancers in the areas using the pesticide.

Children who had endosulfan in their

bone marrow had 7.5 times more risk of

developing blood-related cancer

compared to those with no detectable

pesticide in the bone marrow, scientists

said. Bone marrow acts as a factory of

blood cells.

The study, published in the journal Indian

Pediatrics, was carried out by scientists

from MS Ramaiah Medical College,

Bangalore, Kasturba Medical College,

Mangalore, Fr Muller Medical College,

Mangalore and Manipal University,


The fight for survival continues as a

plethora of reports show an increasingly

scary side to its exposure.

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1. To overcome bacterial resistance to antibiotics which produce a synergic effect clavulanic acid is combined with

2. Racemate of scopolamine known as3. Neuritis is due to deficiency of4. Multinuclear microbial growth is

known as


1. Drug that increases NA and 5HT concentration

2. Test for aloe-isobarbaloin3. Fibrin is digested by4. FDA approves extended-release

tablets for the treatment pulmonary arterial hypertension



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Gloria PatelFirst Year B.Pharm


Today everyone's behind some unclaimed chase,For them life seems nothing but a award winning

race,If only the world could see through my eyes,

All these worldly shimmers would seem lies.

Happiness would have a greater meaning,When seen through someone's happiness- devoid

eyes beaming.

If the world could see through my eyes, Pleasure couldn't be having more Facebook

friends, It would be watching sunset with a true friend,

Where baseless talks, pulling legs and fun wouldn't end.

Hatred, anger, jealously, greed would be part of no ones dictionary,

Peace, love and happiness would be everyone's cardinal missionary.

If the world could see through my eyes, Partying with loud music wouldn't be

awesomeness, Driving into jungles undisturbed silent darkness,

Lying on grass watching the starlit sky, Would be where hearts satisfaction would lie.

Parents would be above all priorities, Never would they be neglected but the ones

thanked for all opportunities.

If the world could see through my eyes, In this vast universe where man is electron like,

He would end his 'who's much better' fight, And would thank god for keeping him in his

gracious light.

People would wait, open their eyes, look around, And try to find the happiness which is infront of

them, they never found.

Life without worldly negativity would be worth,This place would be heaven on earth,

If only people could see through my eyes, If only people seen through my eyes......

RAIN DROPSAnu JohnsonThird Year B.PharmSaraswati Vidya Bhavan's College of Pharmacy

Worn out and tired,I hopped onto bed.That's when I saw rainon my window pane.

Drawn to its sight as a fluttering fly to light.I moved towards the window,to look across the meadow.

There I stood watching,Silent, absorbed and pensive Unlike drifting into fantasies,I was entangled in a string of memories.

When I was only just four,I simply loved to watch a downpour.At the age of five,The pools lured me to dive.

When I grew up to be six,I had paper boats to fix.On turning seven years,I jumped in puddles with my peers.

In the formative years that followed too,I never failed to find a pleasure or two.For the monsoon was always filledWith cheer and laughter and fun.

I know not then at what age,I seemed to turn over a new page.Buried in books and studies,In classes and co-curricular activities.

Crammed the little mind with facts,That helped settle matters with tact.But could recollect nothing eventful,That was once so blissful.

The mere remembrance of the past Brightens my dull day at last.With a smile I return as I recallMonsoon – the dearest season of all.

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HOT OFF THE PRESS!!!!!! Researchers find potential new treatment approach for pancreatic cancer:

The research, found pancreatic cancer cells may have their own specialised energy supply that maintains calcium levels and keeps cancer cells alive.Maintaining a low concentration of calcium

within cells is vital to their survival and this is achieved by calcium pumps, known as PMCA, on the plasma membrane. All cells generate energy from nutrients using two major biochemical

energy "factories", mitochondria and glycolysis. However, in pancreatic cancer cells there is a shift towards glycolysis as the major energy source. It is thought that the calcium pump may have its own supply of glycolytic ATP, and it is this fuel supply that gives cancer cells a survival advantage over normal cells.Scientists used cells taken from human tumors and looked at the effect of blocking each of these two energy sources in turn.Designing drugs to cut off this supply to the calcium pumps might be an effective strategy for selectively killing cancer cells while sparing normal cells within the pancreas.

FDA Approves Tretten to Treat Rare Genetic Clotting Disorder:Patients with Congenital Factor XIII deficiency which is an extremely rare genetic disorder do not make enough Factor XIII, a protein that circulates in the blood and is important for normal clotting. Factor XIII is composed of two subunits, A and B. Factor XIII deficiency is usually caused by a deficiency of the A-subunit. Without treatment, people with this rare condition are at

risk for serious and life-threatening bleeding. Tretten is a recombinant analogue of the human Factor XIII A-subunit that is produced in yeast cells and then further purified. It is a sterile freeze-dried-powder to be reconstituted with diluent and injected intravenously. Tretten can be administered by a physician or be self-administered.

FDA Approves AnoroEllipta to Treat Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease:AnoroEllipta works by helping the muscles around the airways of the lungs stay relaxed to increase airflow in patients with COPD. AnoroEllipta is a combination of umeclidinium, an inhaled anticholinergic that affects the muscles around the large airways and stops the muscles

from tightening and vilanterol, a long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (LABA) that improves breathing by relaxing the muscles of the airways to allow more air to flow into and out of the lungs. The safety and efficacy of AnoroEllipta were evaluated in over 2,400 patients with a diagnosis of COPD. Those treated showed improved lung function compared to placebo. The drug carries a boxed warning that LABAs increase the risk of asthma-related death.

FDA Approves Xiaflex as First Drug Treatment for Peyronie's Disease:Xiaflex is the first FDA-approved non-surgical treatment option for men with this condition, who have a plaque (lump) in the penis that results in a curvature deformity of at least 30 degrees upon erection. Peyronie's disease is caused by scar tissue that develops under the skin of the penis. This scar tissue causes an abnormal bend during erection and can cause problems such as bothersome

symptoms during intercourse. Xiaflex is a biologic medicine made from the protein product of a living organism, collagenase clostridialhistolyticum. Xiaflex is believed to work for Peyronie's disease by breaking down the buildup of collagen (a structural protein in connective tissue) that causes the curvature deformity. A treatment course consists of a max.of four cycles. Each cycle consists of two Xiaflex injection procedures (in which Xiaflex is injected directly into the collagen-containing structure of the penis) and one penile modeling procedure performed by the health care professional. The most common adverse reactions associated with use of Xiaflex for Peyronie's disease include penile hematoma, penile swelling and penile pain.

GSK transfers thrombosis drugs to Aspen:GlaxoSmithKline has this week completed the transfer of its thrombosis brands Arixtra (fondaparinux) and Fraxiparine (nadroparin) to Aspen after receiving the regulatory seal of approval for the deal. Under the transaction, first announced back in June, Aspen is paying the UK

drug giant $700 million for ownership of the thrombosis drugs (excluding China, India and Pakistan) as well as the related manufacturing site at Notre-Dame de Bondeville and most employees

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Bedtime aspirin may be more beneficial for heart patients:Patients at high cardiovascular risk who took aspirin at night had significantly reduced platelet reactivity compared with those who took aspirin in the morning, according to the results of a study. The open–label study randomized 290 patients with cardiovascular disease to take 100 mg of aspirin either at bedtime or when they woke up in the morning for two 3–month periods. Blood

pressure and morning platelet reactivity were measured at the end of each period. The results indicated that platelet reactivity during morning hours was significantly reduced by 22 aspirin reaction units among patients who took aspirin before bed compared with those who took it in the morning. In addition, patients in the bedtime dosing group did not suffer more side effects than those in the morning dosing group. However, there was no significant difference in the blood pressure measurement of patients taking aspirin at night and those taking it in the morning.

Novartis' Troubles With Packaging Continue:Novartis Consumer Health announced earlier today a recall on certain OTC medicines that were

badly packaged and might have broken or chipped pills, as well as incorrect product mixed into bottles of pills. Rather worrying for consumers with risks of possible wrong or overdoses of their

medicine. Now the problems seem to be more endemic with the FDA inspection of the Novartis' Manufacturing facility finding other drugs that may have become mixed in the packing process. It's

rare for pharmaceutical manufacturers to have a problem of mixing up drugs, as the products are usually pressed into pills on a dedicated machine for that particular batch of the drug. The products in the spotlight this time are opiate products made for Endo Pharmaceuticals by Novartis Consumer Health. The FDA is working closely with both companies to resolve the problems and prevent them occurring in the future.

CoQ10 Drug InteractionsCoenzyme Q10, or CoQ10 as it is often called, is commonly taken in supplement form to counteract the muscle pain and weakness associated with cholesterol–lowering statin drugs. Statins do appear to lower levels of CoQ10, a substance that is naturally produced in almost every cell in the body, where it helps convert food to energy and acts as an antioxidant. The coenzyme

Q10 has several important roles in the body. But those who take it should do so carefully, because in some cases it can blunt or amplify the effects of other drugs, particularly those that are used to control blood sugar and blood pressure. In roughly half of people who take it, CoQ10 has a relaxing effect on blood vessels that can lower blood pressure levels. But it takes about eight weeks for this effect to kick in those who are already on blood pressure medications and choose to take CoQ10 should do so under the guidance of a doctor. Taking CoQ10 can lower blood sugar levels as well, which can be problematic for people with diabetes and anyone using medication to control hyperglycemia. It can also interact with blood thinners, so people who use drugs like aspirin or warfarin should be particularly cautious.

FDA Approves Sovaldi for Chronic Hepatitis C:Most people infected with HCV have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. Some people with chronic HCV infection develop scarring and poor liver function (cirrhosis) over many years, which can lead to complications such

as bleeding, jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections or liver cancer. Sovaldi is a nucleotide analog inhibitor that blocks a specific protein needed by the

hepatitis C virus to replicate. Sovaldi is to be used as a component of a combination antiviral treatment regimen for chronic HCV infection.

there. The move falls in line with GSK's strategy of divesting non-core brands. As such, the group said it has also this week completed the divestment of nutritional drinks brands Lucozade and Ribena to Suntory Beverage & Food Ltd for £1.35 billion.

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Maureen CrastoS.Y.B.Pharm

St.john College Of Pharmacy And Research

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The association of food additives with hyperactivity is a popularly accepted notion. Feingold (1975) hypothesized that food dyes are pharmacological ly act ive substances that induce or aggravate symptoms of hyperactivity in children. Subsequent studies have confirmed that food colors can induce clinical symptoms of hyperactivity ( Batemanet al., 2004;Boris and Mandel, 1994) i.e. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(ADHD)The present study investigated the developmental neurotoxic effects of four common food additives. Two independent models were used to assess interactions in this study: “effect additivity” and “dose a d d i t i v i t y. ” C o m b i n a t i o n s a c t e d synergistically in reducing the length of neurite outgrowth from differentiating mouse NB2a neuroblas toma cel ls . Quinoline Yellow and aspartame showed greater synergy than Brilliant Blue and L-glutamic acid; however, the results indicate that both combinations are potentially more toxic than might be predicted from the sum of their individual compounds.The colors that were examined in this study were synthetic dyes that are certified as safe and are permitted for use as food additives in the U.K. Brilliant Blue (E133) is banned in the

majority of the EU countries and causes mitochondrial toxicity in vitro ( Reyeset al., 1996).

The use of Quinoline Yellow (E104) in foods is banned in Australia, Norway, and the U.S., and genotoxic effects have been reported (Macioszek and Kononowicz, 2004). (However, very little informatio about the neurotoxicity of food colors is

available, and the mechanism by which they exert their toxic effect on nerve cells is not clear.)

In contrast, the excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-glutamic acid, and aspartic acid are well established neurotoxins. Over three decades ago, it was discovered that L-glutamic acid destroys dendrites and cell bodies of neurons in the developing brain, thus causing brain lesions. Oral and subcutaneous administration of L-glutamic acid to infant animals (rodents and primates) induces acute neuronal necrosis in several regions of the developing brain including the hypothalamus and the hippocampus. As adults, treated animals show stunted skeletal development, obesity, and female sterility. Retinal neuronal changes also occur in rats after prolonged administration of high L-glutamic acid diets, whilst in adult humans, it elicits headache in susceptible individuals and is believed to be responsible for the “Ch inese Res t au ran t Syndrome” , symptoms of which include chest pain, numbness, burningand facial pressure.Similar hypothalamic lesions can be induced by aspartic acid, one of two of the constituent amino acids in the dipeptide sweetener aspartame. Following ingestion, aspartame is rapidly hydrolyzed to release three biologically active chemicals: aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol, which are absorbed into the portal blood. It has been commonly used in diet drinks and sugar-free foods throughout the world for over 20 years, despite reports of panic attacks, seizures, and headaches with its use. Recently, chronic exposure of aspartame was found to affect memory in rats.

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Excitotoxins destroy central neurons by excessive stimulation of postsynaptic excitatory membrane receptors, whereas the under-stimulation of such receptors during the developmental period triggers apoptosis. Thus, excitotoxic and apoptotic neurodegeneration are two distinct cell d e a t h p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e r e a d i l y distinguishable ultrastructurally. It is well established that an excitotoxic mechanism plays a role in many neurologic disorders, from acute insults such as stroke and head trauma to chronic neurodegenerative states such as Huntington's disease and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. The over-stimulation of such receptors leads to the opening of voltage-dependant calcium channels, initiating a cascade of events involving the activation of protein kinases, phospholipases, proteases, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), generation of free radicals and mitochondrial damage. The NMDA receptor plays a prominent role because of its high permeability to Ca2+; however other EAA receptor subtypes also contribute to these processes. Selective non-competitive NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 markedly protect CNS neurons against direct excitotoxic effects; this has been demonstrated in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons following L-glutamic acid exposure. Our data are consistent with a role for excitotoxicity in the mechanism of injury caused by some flavor-enhancing food additives. CNS-1102 (a NMDA receptor antagonist) protected against both L-glutamic acid and aspartame-induced neurite inhibition, whilst the results demonstrated that food color-induced neurotoxicity was not mediated by NMDA receptor activation. When assessing cell death mechanisms of food additive combinat ions, we found that both combinations studied had a straightforward additive effect on cell viability, as measured by Trypan Blue dye exclusion. The

mechanisms of synergistic neurotoxicity are therefore unrelated to effects on viability.The list of non-nutritional additives in foods is extensive, and it is virtually impossible to hold a single chemical responsible for a particular dysfunction. For many of the commercial products analyzed, more than one additive was detected. Children's sweets were found to contain both Brilliant Blue and Quinoline Yellow, whilst corn snacks were found to contain both aspartame and L-glutamic acid. Humans are not only exposed to such simple mixtures, but also to complex mixtures of chemicals rather than to individual chemicals, yet they continue to be tested for toxicity in isolation from each other. Also present in the environment are numerous po t en t i a l l y neu ro tox ic compounds such as pesticides that get into foods somewhere along the chain from farm to plate. Thus mixture studies are important to elucidate whether these interactions or chronic exposure to such mixtures would cause deleterious effects to a developing child. Very few long-term experiments have been attempted, and cumulative toxic effects have hardly been explored at all.Despite being a major factor relevant to c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s , c o m b i n a t i o n pharmacology is a topic that has not received much attention. It is essential that such investigations are carried out by reliable experimental procedures and appropriate statistical methods; however there is widespread disagreement over terminology, definitions, and models for the analysis of interactions. Several methods for calculating the expected combination effect of two or more compounds are currently in use, the majority of which can be associated with two popular basic concepts known as effect additivity and dose additivity. Effect additivity focuses on measuring the effects

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of mixtures at only one specified concentration for each compound, thus lacking the information on concentration-response relationships. Dose additivity is an equally valid procedure for analyzing interactions between agents irrespective of their mechanisms of action, and aims to establish the required concentrations of i n d i v i d u a l c o m p o u n d s w i t h i n a combination that produces a specified level of effect. During the developmental period of synaptogenesis (brain growth spurt period), neurons are very sensitive to specific disturbances in their synaptic environment. In humans, this period extends from the sixth month of gestation to several years after birth, thus children are considerably more vulnerable to harm from toxic chemicals than adults. Since they are at a crucial stage of development, exposure to toxic chemicals may directly or

indirectly attack their undeveloped nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Dysfunction in any of these systems may lead to deleterious health effects. In conclusion, we present evidence that specific combinations of common food additives show synergistic effects to inhibit neuronal cell differentiation in vitro, using both the effect additivity and dose additivity models of assessing interactions. The immature nervous system may be vulnerable to such toxic insults since this marker of neurotoxicity was found at concentrations of additives theoretically achievable in plasma by ingestion of a snack and/or drink typically consumed by children. Mechanisms of synergistic toxicity have yet to be determined, and the implications of these data on developmental disorders remain to be investigated


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sAuMItrA EntErprIsE

Unit No. 6 & 8, Shivam Industrial Estate,

Sativali Tungareshwar Road,Tungar Phata, Vasai (East)-401 208,

Maharashtra, INDIA.Tele-Fax :91-250-2481299

Email: [email protected]

Proprietor- Sanjeev Thakur Mobile :+91 9822633567

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Synergy: TOXIC in its own way!!!Maureen Crasto

S.Y.B.PharmSt.john College Of Pharmacy And Research

“Synergistic toxicity” refers to the effect that when exposed to two toxins, the toxicity level is far greater than the additive toxicity levels of the two is important to understand the concept of 'synergistic toxicity', as research is increasingly showing that different toxins are typically synergistic rather than additive in the human body. However when testing is performed on a toxicity of a substance, the 'level of harm' is set based on an assumption that the substance is the only toxin to which he body is being exposed.Case studies suggest that synergistic toxicity is likely highly relevant in the causality of autism. Assume, as example, that a fetus or young infant already has high levels of toxins (e.g. lead and mercury from environmental sources) due to a lessened ability to excrete tox ins . Then mul t ip le vacc ines a re administered which contain an aluminum salt (e .g .a luminum hydroxide) which i s specifically included as an “adjuvant” to elicit an abnormally large immune reaction (the adjuvant is essentially what makes a vaccine work as it causes the body to build an immune response to the disease-causing virus or bacteria such as measles, etc). Additionally, the vaccines can contain live virus, endotoxins produced by the bacteria, and/or organic mercury. There is significant potential for unexpected 'synergistic toxicity' effects from vaccines, particularly for a susceptible population that may already have high toxin levels due to a lessened ability to excrete toxins. Yet synergistic toxicity of vaccines has not been studied–studies have focused on only individual toxicity of a single component of the vaccines (e.g.mercury or measles virus).

CASE STUDY- person's unique metabolism can also influence toxic exposure. The mother of a newborn was prescribed acetaminophen with codeine for lingering episiotomy pain. This is a fairly standard practice. Initially the baby was healthy. Then he developed increasing lethargy and after 11 days was brought to a pediatrician due to concerns about his skin color and poor feeding. Two days later the boy died. It was determined the boy had 6x more morphine in his blood than is considered safe for a neonate. He also had high levels of acetaminophen (which depletes glutathione, and important detoxification molecule). It turns out that the mother has three CYP 2D6 genes. These genes express the enzyme for catalyzing the O-demethylation of codeine to morphine. In other words, the mother is an "ultra-rapid metabolizer" of codeine to morphine -- leading to an unexpectedly fast build-up of the opiate in her breast milk. Ultra-rapid metabolization of codeine occurs in as much as 30% of some African and Asian populations.

RELEVANT STUDIES Exposure to noise and the solvent

toluene results in a higher risk of hearing loss than exposure to either stressor alone.

C o m m o n f o o d c o l o r s a r e synergistically neurotoxic with flavor enhancers at levels obtained from a typical snack and drink.

Exposure to carbon monoxide and methylene chloride produces elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin that

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reduce the blood's ability to carry oxygen.

Aluminum, copper, lead, mercury, and cadmium can be found in mussels at levels that, individually, are considered below the threshold of toxic harm. But these metals act synergistically with low concentrations of the mussel's own okadaic acid to kill cells.

Viruses can increase susceptibility to heavy metals and vice versa.PBDEs, PCBs, and methyl mercury are each synergistically toxic with the others. Very low exposures combine to induce greater than expected harm.

In general, metals have synergistic toxicity -- and organic metals have synergistic toxicity with organic compounds. Research indicates that low PCB exposure while in the womb, in combination with low exposure to methyl mercury and lead, results in cognitive impairment.

Exposure to a combination of 1 PCB, 2 dioxins, and 3 pesticides means a person is 38x more likely to develop type-II diabetes than someone exposed to just 1 of the chemicals.

Tungsten and cobalt together can be carcinogenic and together have been found to rapidly accelerate the growth of human leukemia cells.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are being used in an expanding range of products. These nanoparticles have been observed to greatly enhance the accumulation of cadmium in fish.

Melamine and cyan uric acid are both considered non-toxic at low doses. But

if those low doses combine in the kidneys, a fatal amount of crystals can form. Melamine and cyanuric acid were added to wheat gluten used as an ingredient in animal chows that caused the death of hundreds of pets in early 2007.

The dust shed by automotive tires contains a mixture of chemicals. These chemicals act in synergy with each other. By this account, microscopic particles in diesel exhaust combine with lipids in cholesterol to activate genes that trigger inflammation of blood vessels, in turn leading to atherosclerosis, heart attacks and strokes.

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53, Shubh Commercial, Akruti Road,

Kandivili EastExclusive Software for Pharmaceutical


Email : [email protected]

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Vaibhavi ModiFirst Year B.Pharm


ABSTRACT: Aim was to develop a rectal nicotine delivery system for treating ulcerative colitis (UC). To evaluate nicotine transport and cytotoxicity of delivery system using Caco-2 cell

culture. LC method was used for assay of nicotine. Effect of bioadhesive was carried out using Caco-2 permeability studies. Adhesive glyceryl monooleate showed enhanced release of nicotine but carbopol showed

opposite effect. Presence of both adhesives lead to decrease in flux of nicotine. Nicotine below 2%w/v and bioadhesive conc. below 10%w/w did not show any cytotoxic

effect on Caco-2 cells. PREVIOUS APPROACHES:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the most common but difficult to treat disease, which is mostly limited to large intestine. Sulfsalazine (5-aminosalicylate+sulfapyridine) was used extensively but discontinued due to severe side effects. Mesalamine was then used but it was extensively absorbed in upper GI tract(75%) and remaining part would get covered with stools. Harris documented use of nicotine patch would reduce UC symptoms and thus it was predicted that nicotine could be used for treating symptoms of UCMATERIALS & METHODS: Suppocire AI , Suppocire AM was used as suppository base along with Carbopol 934, Carbopol 974, Glyceryl monooleate as bioadhesives for making the delivery system. Nicotine used in the experiment was from chemical company, USA, in oily liquid form, 98-100% purity. Analysis was carried out using HPLC for separation using C18 column at 260nm, using citrate buffer: methanol (85:15%v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate of 0.7ml/min. Suppositories were made by using fusion method.Caco-2 ABSORPTION STUDIES , INTREGRITY STUDIES , VIABILITY STUDIES: Absorption of nicotine alone/in presence of mucoadhesive/ cell specific bioadhesive was determined by using side by side diffusion apparatus. Side by side diffusion chamber was used in which donor compartment comprised of buffer and fluoroscein, while receiver compartment comprised of only buffer and at regular time intervals, sample were withdrawn from the receiver chamber and were tested using spectrofluorometer at 488nm excitation and 510nm emission of fluoroscein. Effect of nicotine, bioadhesive and suppository base on cell monolayer was determined by using MTT toxicity assay, based on ability of living cells to metabolize the tetrazolium salt to a chromophore whose absorption can be measured spectrophotometrically.

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Fig 1 : Effect of type of base on release of nicotine Fig 2 : Effect of GMO on release of nicotine in AM base

In fig.1 it can be seen that nicotine release from AI base is higher than AM base. From fig.2 it can be predicted that increase in concentration of GMO leads to enhanced release of nicotine from AM base when compared to standard graph of nicotine release (Fig.1).

Fig 3 : Effect of carbopol 974 load in AM base on release of nicotine

Fig 4 : Effect of carbopol 934 laod in AM base on release of nicotine

From fig.3 &4 enhanced nicotine release is observed due to introduction of carbopol 974 compared to carbopol 934.

CONCLUSION: GMO is found to give faster drug release than carbopol. Addition of GMO in suppocire will increase hydrophilicity of the matrix, thus enhancing

the nicotine release. Caco-2 monolayer studies indicated the presence of bioadhesives and suppository bases

affected the nicotine flux through the monolayer. Future studies will be aimed at evaluation of this system in invivo animal model.REFERENCE:Development of a rectal nicotine delivery system for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, by Alekha K. Dash, Zheng Gong, Donald W. Miller, Han Huai-Yan, Jean-Pierre LaforetInternational journal of pharmaceutics 190(1999) 21-34

From fig.5 it can be concluded that GMO reduces the flux of nicotine through cell monolayer as compared to carbopol in the respective concentrations

Fig 5 : Effect of bioadhesive on flux of nicotine through cell monolayer

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Tanvee ThakurPrajakta Waghmare

T.Y.BPharm, Bombay College of Pharmacy

espite being an ancient disease, TB Dcontinues to be a major health concern around the world. According to the WHO, 9 million cases of active TB emerge annually, resulting in 2 million deaths every year. This article focuses on the role of liposomes as nanodelivery systems of anti-TB drugs targeting the alveolar macrophages (AMs) b y i n t r a v e n o u s a n d i n h a l a t i o n administration.

About Tuberculosis:Tuberculosis is generally caused by mycobacterium tuberculae. It is an air-borne disease and spreads through the cough droplets from infected people found in air. The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. There are two types of tuberculosis infections-Extra pulmonary TB and pulmonary Tb.1.Pulmonary TB: When the infection is not active it commonly involves the lungs. Upper lungs are more frequently affected by TB than the lower lungs. Pulmonary TB is seen in 90% of the TB cases.2.Extra pulmonary TB: Occurs more commonly in immunosuppressed person. Around 15-20% active cases are of extra pulmonary TB. In those with HIV it occurs in more than 50% cases.

Treatment:The most effective pharmacotherapy in TB treatment is a multidrug combination of First line treatment. Ethambutol + isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin, coupled with streptomycin is 1st line treatment. Rifabutin, ethionamide, amikacin, kanamycin A and levofloxacin are more toxic, more expensive and less active than first-line agents and used as a second-line therapy.

What are Liposomes?A liposome is an artificially-prepared vesicle composed of a lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s a n d pharmaceutical drugs. Liposomes are composed of natural phospholipids, and may also contain mixed lipid chains with surfactant properties. The major types of liposomes are the multilamellar vesicle (MLV), the small unilamellar vesicle (SUV), the large unilamellar vesicle (LUV). Liposomes are ampiphilic in nature. Advantages of liposomes in the drug delivery are as follows- Biodegradable, biocompatible, flexible Controlled hydration Provide sustained releaseRifabutin encapsulated with liposomes, is seen to be more effective against

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extrapulmonary TB. Rifampicin with isoniazid with liposomes when taken via inhalatory route is more effective against pulmonary TB. Due to the chemical dual nature of liposomes their use has been seen as vehicles for both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. Liposomes can be used as anti-TB nanocarriers for the treatment of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB.

Experiment:Two types of routes are employed: Passive route Active route

Passive targeting: Passive targeting corresponds to transport in the organism according to the normal distribution pattern of the liposomes

Intravenous Administration: Gaspar et al. developed formulations of liposomes with rifabutin encapsulated. These MLV f o r m u l a t i o n s , a f t e r i n t r a v e n o u s administration every 3 days over a 2-week period in mice with disseminated TB, were c o m p a r e d a g a i n s t t h e f r e e d r u g administrated by the same route.Rifabutin given intravenously in mice through passive route shows significant reduction in bacilli present in the spleen and liver as compared with free drug group.

Amicacin given intavenously in mice through passive route in semilaminar vescicles show increased activity against mycobacterium tuberculosis and improved half life.Inhalatory Administration: A liposome-based formulation of encapsulated rifampicin and isoniazid was developed by Pandey et al. This formulation consisted in MLVs and was tested in guinea pigs via the inhalation route.The experiment performed by Dhillon et al gave the following results- An increased activity against M. tuberculosis and higher half-life time towards the free drug thus reducing administration frequency.The experiment performed by Pandey et al gave the following results-Both drugs were present in the lungs as well as in the AMs until day 5 post-nebulization. Hence a possible reduction of the daily administration frequency of the two first-line anti-TB drugs is seen.Rifampicin and isoniazid given through inhalatory route in guinea pigs through passive pathway in multi laminar vesicles showed increased therapeutic drug levels in plasma with a single dose.

Future Prospectus:The investment in the search for new drugs for TB is increasing. In the near future, a large investment in nanotechnology and the development of drug delivery systems to increase the therapeutic index of several drugs is also expected to occur. Although the use of liposomes as anti-TB drug delivery systems does not guarantee the absence of resistance, it will certainly decrease the probabi l i ty of thei r appearance.

Panache Flair of Mind 2014

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Panache Flair of Mind 2014

VOTE OF THANKSGoals are the fuel in the furnace of accomplishment. Every accomplishment starts with the decision to try. We dreamt, we thought, and finally we materialized our dreams into action of successfully envisioning our “Year of Innovation”. “No man is an island. When we achieve, we usually do so because others have helped”. I would like to extend my deep gratitude to all those who have lighted the flame in making IPA SF MSB a grandeur success We have come to an end of another successful year because of the untiring efforts and contributions of a number of people to whom we are very grateful, without whose support this wouldn't have been possible. There will always be a frontier where there is an open mind and a willing hand. We lend you an open mind and you provide a willing hand and let us together conceive an association deep-rooted. To all who contributed in whatever way to the success, we are very grateful. Dalai Lama has very well said “The roots of all goodness lie in the soil of appreciation for goodness”First of almost, I would like to thank the Office Bearers and Council members of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association- Maharashtra State Branch for their continuous support and hardwork, which has helped us sail through another wonderful year. Our sincere thanks to the President, Dr. Hemant Mondkar, Vice President, Dr. Anand Shedge, Hon Secretary, Mr. Nitin Maniar and Hon. Joint Secretary Mr. Satish Shah, Hon. Treasurer Dr. N. Sivaprasad., Dr. Rakesh Tirpude and the council members of Maharashtra State Branch, for their valuable guidance and mentoring. We extend our heartfelt gratitude to the management of Bombay College of Pharmacy, especially Mr.Nitin Maniar (Chairman, GB-BCP) Dr. Kulkarni (Director) and Dr. M.N Saraf (Principal) for their countless contributions.We are grateful to All India Organization of Chemists and Druggist (AIOCD), Mr. J.S. Shinde for their support in all our activities. We fall short of words as we thank Mr. Mathew Abreo for his unfailing and continuous support. We also extend a warm thank you to the faculties of the various pharmacy colleges who have been supportive and have been encouraging students all year round.We extend our gratitude to NCRD's Sterling Institute of Pharmacy, especially Dr. M.S Gadge (Principal) for his contributions during the National Pharmacy Week celebrations. We thank Mumbai District AIDS Control Society (MDACS) for their support towards all our health campaigns.We are deeply indebted to Saifee Hospital, Life Care Hospital, Umrao Hospital for providing their services in our Hospital Pharmacy Training Programs and Samarpan Blood Bank of Sarvodaya Hospital for Blood Bank Visit Programs. Our thanks to Shreechem Pharmaceuticals, Sanjeevani Pharmaceuticals and Gopaldasvisram, ACG Capsules for rendering us an opportunity to allow our students to undergo training.Our sincere thanks to all our sponsors and well wishers, who have played a vital role in all the activities of IPA-SF-MSB and made this an eventful year, and contributed in making Panache a grand success. We are happy to mention our obligation to all the sponsors especially to LUPIN pharmaceuticals.Our thanks are also due to Mr. Rohit Agre and his team for conceptualizing our vision into publication. Last but not the least we thank Mr. Ajay –Richi Printers and A to Z printers for meeting our printing and publication needs, kit bags and stationary requirements. Finally we extend our most hearty gratitude to the IPA SF MSB cell, without whose vision, dedication and hard work nothing would have been possible. It has been a memorable experience for us to work together as one big family!