P11 forms of adult torsos

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P11 forms of adult torsos

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  • 1. FORMING Brenda Hoddinott P-11 INTERMEDIATE: PEOPLE A persons head, arms, and legs are all connected to the major body structure, known as the torso (or trunk). This article introduces the major forms of the adult torso that are important when you want to draw a human figure well. You follow along with step-by-step illustrations, and outline the various forms of adult torsos in their proper locations. Finally, four worksheets test your memory of the shapes and locations of the forms. This article is divided into the following four sections: DIVERSITY AND GENDER DIFFERENCES: Even though all torsos are made up of similar parts, the bodies of human beings are innately diverse. EXAMINING THE FORMS OF TORSOS: The key to drawing figures well is to be able to visually identify the locations and shapes of the exterior forms of the body, as defined by the individuals fat, bones, and muscles. SKETCHING TORSOS FROM THE FRONT: You rely on your vision rather than text instructions to outline frontal views of male and female torsos, and sketch the shapes of the primary forms in their correct places. SKETCHING TORSOS FROM BEHIND: You outline rear views of male and female torsos, and then outline the primary forms. SKETCHING FORMS ON YOUR OWN: You lightly sketch the outlines of the forms of torsos on four worksheets, and try your hand at adding shading to each with curved crosshatching lines. You need a few different grades of pencils, erasers, good quality drawing paper (if you decide to refer to this lesson to do additional drawings), and a pencil sharpener. This article is recommended for fine art educators, and artists of all ages who have an interest in drawing human figures. 15 PAGES 24 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada 2006

2. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 2 - DIVERSITY AND GENDER DIFFERENCES A persons head, arms, and legs are all connected to the major body structure, known as the torso (or trunk). Even though all torsos are made up of similar parts, such as the neck, ribcage, pelvis, and spinal column, the bodies of human beings are innately diverse. The following sketch demonstrates a very tiny sampling of the various heights and body structures of adult males and females. As you can see, their torsos vary in both shape and size. ILLUSTRATION 11-01 In addition to the diversity of the human race as a whole, the torsos of men and women are anatomically and visually different from one another. Generally speaking (of course) womens torsos tend to differ from those of men in the following ways: Women are not as tall; hence, their torsos are shorter. The bones and muscles of adult females are less visible, because they have more body fat than males; hence, their torsos appear rounder and softer. Womens bone structures are smaller, and their muscles are less developed. Adult females have proportionately higher and longer waists, and fuller lower buttocks. Womens hips and thighs are wider. Their necks are more slender, and their shoulders are not as wide. ILLUSTRATION 11-02 3. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 3 - EXAMINING THE FORMS OF TORSOS First and foremost, I have no intentions of boring you with the names of the bones and muscles of the human body. Besides, even if I knew all those names, I certainly wouldnt be able to spell them! Knowing these names wont help you draw them better, anyway. The key to drawing figures well is to be able to visually identify the locations and shapes of the exterior forms of the body, as defined by the individuals fat, bones, and muscles. Im not a big fan of what present-day society deems as an ideal body; I prefer to appreciate all human bodies, each inherently beautiful in its uniqueness. This being said, not many individuals have bodies that are as highly developed as those in this lesson. However, my goal is to show you the shapes and locations of the major forms of human torsos; hence, I took the liberty of using generic bodies with exaggerated forms. In the next illustration, simple outlines of male and female torsos demonstrate the partial shapes of the forms around the perimeter of torsos. ILLUSTRATION 11-03 The locations and shapes of the major forms of human torsos are outlined in this drawing. ILLUSTRATION 11-04 4. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 4 - SKETCHING TORSOS FROM THE FRONT In this exercise you outline frontal views of male and female torsos, and then sketch the shapes of the primary forms in their correct places. You rely completely on your vision rather than text instructions. The first four illustrations show you the forms of a female torso. Use a ruler to sketch a very faint vertical line down the center of your paper before you begin. This line will help you to draw both sides of the torso symmetrical. ILLUSTRATION 11-05 ILLUSTRATION 11-06 As you draw, try to remember each individual shape, and its location on the body. In the last section of this lesson, youll find four worksheets that will test your memory of the shapes and locations of the forms of adult torsos. 5. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 5 - Keep in mind that female torsos are anatomically and visually different than those of men. Extra body fat obscures the surface forms of many of the smaller bones and muscles and even creates independent forms (especially when the individual has a more Rubenesque body). ILLUSTRATION 11-07 ILLUSTRATION 11-08 When you plan to sketch a standing figure from head to toe, make sure you set up your drawing space in such a way that the entire figure will fit on the paper. To be safe, you can very lightly sketch the outline of the full body before you begin adding details. Take it from the voice of experience - running out of paper before you get to the knees is incredibly frustrating! 6. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 6 - The following four illustrations show you the process of sketching the outlines of the forms of a male torso. Generally speaking, men's muscles are more developed than womens, and determine most of the independent forms that artists visually define in drawings. Adult males tend to have proportionately longer and larger torsos, with larger ribcages, wider shoulders, and narrower hips than females. The best possible way to develop an understanding of human anatomy is to draw the forms of a human figure from life. Oh, and not having a model is no excuse. As long as you have a mirror, you have an excellent model. ILLUSTRATION 11-09 ILLUSTRATION 11-10 Each individual man (and woman) has a unique torso, which can differ considerably from those of others. Very few human bodies fall within generic proportional guidelines. Therefore, you need to rely on and learn to trust your visual skills to recognize the subtle nuances of uniqueness. 7. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 7 - ILLUSTRATION 11-11 ILLUSTRATION 11-12 SKETCHING TORSOS FROM BEHIND In this exercise, you outline rear views of male and female torsos, and then sketch the shapes of the primary forms in their correct places. Again, I'd like to stress that adult bodies come in a broad range of heights, weights, and body structures, and a generic set of guidelines cant possibly apply to everyone. Mastering figure drawing takes time and lots of practice. Be gentle with yourself. Focus your attention on drawing correct proportions and making the individual forms of the body appear three-dimensional. Experiment with lots of different drawing and shading techniques until you find what works best for you. You are a unique individual with distinctive artistic needs. Stay true to yourself and continue developing your own vision and style. 8. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com - 8 - ILLUSTRATION 11-13 ILLUSTRA