Overview of global trends in international migration Overview of global trends in international...

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  • Overview of global trends

    in international migration and urbanization

    Sabine Henning

    Population Division, DESA

    UN Expert Group Meeting on

    Sustainable Cities, Human Mobility and International Migration

    New York, 7-8 September 2017

  • International Migration

  • 5

    7

    15

    40

    49

    56

    172

    8

    9

    21

    54

    75

    76

    244

    0 50 100 150 200 250 300

    Oceania

    Latin America and the Caribbean

    Africa

    Northern America

    Asia

    Europe

    World

    Number of international migrants by region of destination, 2000 and 2015

    2015

    2000

    Nearly 2/3 of all international migrants live in Europe and Asia

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision. (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015).

  • Percentage female among all international migrants, 2015

    Women comprise slightly less than half of all international migrants.

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision. (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015).

  • 38

    45

    41

    38

    40

    35

    27

    39

    44

    43

    42

    36

    35

    29

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    World

    Oceania

    Europe

    Northern America

    Latin America and the Caribbean

    Asia

    Africa

    Median age among international migrants and by region of destination, 2000 and 2015

    2015

    2000

    Median age of international migrants Worldwide was 39 years, compared to 29.6 years for the total population age (years)

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision. (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015).

  • 1

    3

    23

    26

    52

    68

    2

    4

    34

    37

    62

    104

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120

    Oceania

    Northern America

    Africa

    Latin America and the Caribbean

    Europe

    Asia

    Number of international migrants by region of origin, 2000 and 2015

    2015

    2000

    Almost half of all international migrants worldwide were born in Asia

    Number of migrants (millions)

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision. (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015).

  • Number of international migrants by region of origin, 2000 and 2015

    In many parts of the World, migration occurs primarily within major areas

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision. (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015).

  • Components of population change - Africa and Europe compared

    -30

    -20

    -10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    1950- 1960

    1960- 1970

    1970- 1980

    1980- 1990

    1990- 2000

    2000- 2010

    2010- 2020

    2020- 2030

    2030- 2040

    2040- 2050

    m il

    li o

    n s

    Europe

    -30

    20

    70

    120

    170

    220

    270

    320

    370

    420

    1950- 1960

    1960- 1970

    1970- 1980

    1980- 1990

    1990- 2000

    2000- 2010

    2010- 2020

    2020- 2030

    2030- 2040

    2040- 2050

    m il

    li o

    n s

    Total net population change Net international migration

    Natural change

    Africa

    Net international migration is slowing population decline in Europe – in Africa, it has hardly any effect

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2015 Revision. (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2015).

  • URBANIZATION

  • 0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0

    6.0

    7.0

    1 9

    5 0

    1 9

    5 5

    1 9

    6 0

    1 9

    6 5

    1 9

    7 0

    1 9

    7 5

    1 9

    8 0

    1 9

    8 5

    1 9

    9 0

    1 9

    9 5

    2 0

    0 0

    2 0

    0 5

    2 0

    1 0

    2 0

    1 5

    2 0

    2 0

    2 0

    2 5

    2 0

    3 0

    2 0

    3 5

    2 0

    4 0

    2 0

    4 5

    2 0

    5 0

    Po p

    u la

    ti o

    n (

    b ill

    io n

    s) Urban and rural population of the world,

    1950-2050

    Urban

    Rural

    A majority of the world’s population lives in urban areas

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision.

  • 2015: 40.4

    47.8

    73.6 79.8 81.6

    70.8

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean

    Northern America Oceania

    P ro

    p o

    rt io

    n u

    rb an

    o f

    to ta

    l p o

    p u

    la ti

    o n

    ( p

    er c

    en t)

    Urban and rural population as proportion of total population, 1950-2050

    Urbanization has occurred in all regions, but Africa and Asia remain mostly rural

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision.

    1950-2050

  • 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

    Po p

    u la

    ti o

    n (

    b ill

    io n

    s)

    Rural Fewer than 500 000 500 000 to 1 million 1 to 5 million 5 to 10 million 10 million or more

    Close to half of the world’s urban population lives in settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants

    500,000 -

    1 mill.

    < 500,000

    rural

    > 10 mill.

    1 – 5 mill.

    5 – 10 mill.

    World’s population by size class of settlement, 1990-2030

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision.

  • 0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    1990 2016 2030

    Po p

    u la

    ti o

    n (

    m ill

    io n

    s) Global urban population by size class of

    settlement, 1990-2030

    10 mill.

    239 cities 21 cities

    10 cities

    294 cities

    558 cities

    436 cities

    31 cities

    41 cities

    731 cities 551 cities

    45 cities

    63 cities

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision.

  • Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision.

    Note: The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    Percentage urban and location of urban agglomerations with at least 5000,000 inhabitants, 2014

  • Growth rates of the world’s cities, 2000-2016

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision.

    Most of the world’s Fastest growing cities are located in Asia and Africa

  • 72

    87

    72

    48

    72

    100

    80

    39 46

    70

    14

    34

    0 7

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    World Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the

    Caribbean

    Northern America

    Oceania

    Governments with policies or strategies in the past five years to encourage population redistribution, 2015

    Reduce rural to urban migration

    Decentralize large urban centres to smaller urban, suburban or rural areas

    The majority of countries have policies in place to reduce rural to urban migration

    Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2016): World Population Policies Database: The 2015 Revision

  • Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision; Gu and others (2015). Risk of exposure a