Organizational and Office Politics

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Organizational politics refers to the relationship between power and influence, involving certain individuals and group from within or outside of the organizational environment. It also refers to the tactics and activities done by members of the organization in order to fulfill their own objectivities and interests in the workplace.

Transcript of Organizational and Office Politics


2. Politics closely related to the concept of power, authority and influences.2 3. ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS- due to behavioral changes among organizationalmembers- in organization-leaders are selected based ontheir credentials. 3 4. BEHAVIORAL CHANGES Could lead to: interpersonal conflicts inter-group conflict This phenomena indicate the political condition in an organization.4 5. PERCEPTION TOWARDS POLITICS In general- politics are tarnished by activitieslike: Suppression Individuals negative attitude Competition for power , influence and status Injustice 5 6. DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATIONALPOLITICS Relationship between power and influence,involving certain individuals and group fromwithin or outside of the organizationalenvironment. -It also refers to the tactics and activitiesdone by members of the organization inorder to fulfill their own objectivities andinterests in the workplace.6 7. THE NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS To solve organizational conflict To create rules and order among organizational members. 7 8. ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS (OP) Decision making process in an organizationis also a political process. This is because actors (employess) in anorganization tend to fulfill both theorganizational interest and their owninterest. 8 9. Political behavior is not rational in nature, interms of decision making. -OP managementprioritize managementskills. -Effective OP management will lead to a win-win situation jeopardizing professional andpersonal ethics. 9 10. FACTORS INFLUENCING POLITICALBEHAVIORTo understand the behavior of OP, Farrell andPeterson (1982) introduced a three 1dimentional typology1. the place where political activities happen- in or outside of the organization2. the direction of influence vertical or lateral10 11. 3. the legitimacy of political action Political activities within in or outside of theorganization effect the organization and itsmembers -Tendency among members to be influenced eithervertical or laterally -Actionstaken must belegitimate.Otherwise, members of the organization will notgive their support. 11 12. FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGESOF OP1. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS -Machiavellianism -Locus of control -Need for power -Individual values2.ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS. -Organizational values -Ambiguity -Opposing norms -Competition Level in organization12 13. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS 1.Machiavellianism This stream believes that political behavior ispragmatic Managers with high needs will be pragmaticand engage in the ends will justify meansapproach. Therefore, those who adopt this thought mayuse others and even sacrifice their ownmorals to achieve their interests.13 14. 2.Locus of control able to change and adopt in different circumstances and avoid threats. Behavioral changes could lead to positive reaction from others able to present oneself accordingly and communicate effectively with various level and others in organization able to adjust to change in the leadership in organization align oneself with the head of department14 15. 3.Need for power Politics and power are closely related in anorganization Power has certain needs/relationship with specificactivities in organization Power is needed to influence and control thebehavior of others. Power may enable an individual to act and makedecision effectively May influence political behavior eg. Unethical. 15 16. INDIVIDUAL VALUES Values: Basic beliefs that individuals have formally orinformally Could lead to conflict if attempt is made tochange them Very important to individuals society Values could act as a strong guidance onindividuals behavior16 17. ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS1.Organizational Values An organizational influence on political behavior Strength- existin an organization due to its development aspect on to groups. eg. Organization that focus on handwork-affect changes in political behavior.17 18. 2. Ambiguity Ambiguity results in poor organization mission and objectives Ambiguous and unclear changes in organization lead to employees unable to adjust and in turn exploits the poor decision -Making in to their personal advantages and influence. 18 19. 3.Opposing Norms Situation where norms are opposite one another (counter norms) Positive norms-factor rules, honest, open Negative norms- not disciplined, bribery, autocratic In organization-positive and negative norms may occur separately but they affect organizational development tremendously. 19 20. 4.Competition Behavior in organization is also influenced by competition to achieve ones objectives, interests and needs. -Individuals will want to win against their opponent in order to achieve their goals- this problem will influence organizational politics. 20 21. 5.Levels in organization Hierarchyand levels in an organizationmay influence political behavior in organization e.g transmission and delivery of information from top management to employees/bottom management Anyinterference(e.gunclear information, misconception, delay) may create confusion-organizational politics factors21 22. POLITICAL STRATEGY3 Political strategies in an organizationJeffrey Pfeffer (1981)1.Develop power The leader used power for controlling through therules, procedure and instruction. The leader used maximum power and autocratic. Used power rightfuloutput in organizational willincrease.22 23. 2. Develop Legitimacy Legitimacy- followers accept a leaders powerbecause they believe it to be sufficiently just andrightful to comply willingly, rather than to submitgrudgingly or to oppose the leader. Legitimate power the power that someone hasbecause others recognize and accept his or herauthority.23 24. The managers actionis consistent with the organizational values. Legitimacy is essential to the successful conduct of leadership. The power of managers may appear to flow from higher authorities in the organizations, but true power ultimately is obtained by gaining the support of subordinates. 24 25. Legitimacy of supervisors influencing various types of subordinate behaviour. Legitimacy can fulfill the needs of democratic values in the organization. When legitimacy is lost, the influence of the leader will usually wane.25 26. 3. Develop Base Support The strategy to build basic support- important inthe organizational to increase the power of themanagers.26 27. TACTICS OF ORGANIZATIONALPOLITICS. To understand organizational politics, we must recognize the various forms political behavior can take. Five major techniques of organizational politics are used most often.27 28. 1. Restricting access to informationPeople can control access to information in ways that enhance their organizational position.Some of the information are secret but some are open.The person that can withholding information be able to control the power.The person who has crucial knowledge and information in an organization may as well develop power.28 29. 2. Cultivating a favorable impression People interested in being highly influential tendto go out of their way to engage in some degree ofimage building-attempts to enhance the goodnessof ones impressions on others. Associating oneselfwith thesuccessfulaccomplishments of others. Drawing attention to ones own successes andpositive characteristics, making others are awareof them. 29 30. 3. Developing a base of support To successfully influence people, it is useful togain the support of others within the organization. Support from employee to the managers.1.Managers may lobby for their ideas before theypresent at meeting.2.Doing favors for others who may feel obligatedto repay them in the form of supporting theirideas.30 31. 4. Blaming and attacking others. A scapegoat-someone who could take the blamefor some failure or wrongdoing. Ex: A supervisor, may explain that the failure of asales plan designed was based on the seriousmistakes of a subordinates-even if this is notentirely true.31 32. 5. Aligning oneself with more powerful others One of the most direct ways to gain power is byconnecting oneself with more powerful others. Finding a very powerful mentor who can protectones interest Relatively powerless groups or individuals thatderive strength by banding together to achievesome common goal.32 33. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR INORGANIZATIONS1. Managers have to prioritize employees welfare2. Managers have to uphold justice3. Managers havetorespectemployees fundamental rights33 34. COST AND BENEFITS OF POLITICALIN ORGANIZATIONSMinimize Political organizational Managers must consider ways to minimizethe effect of political behavior- do severalthings to limit its effects.1. Do not turn a blind eye to game players.2. Suppose you see one of your subordinates attempting to gain power over another by taking credit for that individuals work. Do not ignore what he or she did. 34 35. 3. Confront political behavior4. Decrease ambiguity5. Fulfill pledges6. Minimize political behavior7. Clarify job expectations 35 36. SUMMARY Management or the leader and workersneeds to master the skills of OP The best OP management can avoid conflictsthat might jeopardize the organizationperformance Consultation and patience is important toachieve a win-win situation36