Open Wide and Trek Martha Blalock, Medical Arts and Photography Branch, National Institutes of...

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  • Open Wide and Trek Inside

    under a contract from the National Institutes of Health

    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

    BSCS Videodiscovery, Inc.

    5415 Mark Dabling Boulevard 1700 Westlake Avenue, North, Suite 600

    Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 Seattle, Washington 98109

  • This material is based on work supported by the National Institutes of Health under Contract No: 263-98-C-0056. Any opinions, find­ ings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the funding agency.

    Copyright © 2000 by BSCS and Videodiscovery, Inc. All rights reserved. You have the permission of BSCS and Videodiscovery, Inc. to reproduce items in this module (including the software) for your classroom use. The copyright on this module, however, does not cover reproduction of these items for any other use. For permissions and other rights under this copyright, please contact BSCS, 5415 Mark Dabling Blvd., Colorado Springs, CO 80918-3842, www.bscs.org, info@bscs.org, (719) 531-5550.

    NIH Publication No. 00-4869

    ISBN: #1-929614-04-7

  • BSCS Development Team Nancy M. Landes, Principal Investigator

    Anne L. Westbrook, Project Director

    Debra A. Hannigan, Curriculum Developer

    Ann C. Lanari, Research Assistant

    Carol Vallee, Project Assistant

    Karen Bertollini, Project Assistant

    Mary Crist, Project Assistant

    Carrie Hamm, Project Assistant

    Raphaela Pascoe, Project Assistant

    Barbara Resch, Editor

    Ric Bascobert, Editor

    Diane Gionfriddo, Photo Research

    Sandra Matthews, Evaluator

    Videodiscovery, Inc. Development Team Shaun Taylor, Vice President for Product Development Michael Bade, Multimedia Producer, Project Director,

    Programmer David Christianson, Animator, Programmer Terry Gangstad, Voice of Exee Emma Swanson, Child’s voice

    Advisory Committee Nina Finkel, Whittier Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois Isabel Garcia, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial

    Research, Bethesda, Maryland Beth Hines, Dental Hygienist, Olympia, Washington Richard Lamont, University of Washington, School of Dentistry,

    Seattle, Washington Cindy Lindquist, Cañon Elementary School, Colorado Springs,

    Colorado Marilyn Lindsay, Taos Day School, Taos, New Mexico Marcia Rubin, American School Health Association, Kent, Ohio

    Writing Team Michael Bade, Videodiscovery, Seattle, Washington

    Gail Bemis-Stoops, Synergy Seminars, Dewey, Arizona

    Cynthia Buckley, Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado

    Springs, Colorado Cathy Griswold, Lyons Elementary School, Lyons, Oregon Charles Kalish, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison,

    Wisconsin Jane Steffensen, University of Texas Health Science Center at

    San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas

    Spanish Translations Isabel Garcia and Eligia Murcia, National Institute of Dental and

    Craniofacial Research

    Spanish Translation Reviewer Guillermo Solano-Flores, WestEd, Washington, D.C.

    Artists Susan Bartel

    David Christianson, Christianson Animation

    Photographs Carlye Calvin

    Corel

    Visuals Unlimited

    BSCS Administrative Staff Carlo Parravano, Chairman, Board of Directors

    Rodger W. Bybee, Executive Director

    Janet Carlson Powell, Associate Director, Chief Science

    Education Officer Larry Satkowiak, Associate Director, Chief Operating Officer

    Videodiscovery, Inc. Administrative Staff D. Joseph Clark, President

    Shaun Taylor, Vice President for Product Development

    National Institutes of Health Bruce Fuchs, Office of Science Education

    Isabel Garcia, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial

    Research William Mowczko, Office of Science Education Gloria Seelman, Office of Science Education

    Field-test Teachers Marge Bartovich, Franklin Elementary School, Eveleth,

    Minnesota Janet Crockett, Shepherd Elementary School, Washington, D.C. Maritsa George, Shepherd Elementary School, Washington, D.C. Susan Howell, Cañon Elementary School, Colorado Springs,

    Colorado Cindi Hudgins, Yale Elementary School, Yale, Oklahoma Cynthia Lindquist, Cañon Elementary School, Colorado Springs,

    Colorado Marilyn Lindsay, Taos Day School, Taos, New Mexico Sharon Neighbors, Lela Howland Elementary School, Eagle

    Grove, Iowa Martha Oestreich, Taos Day School, Taos, New Mexico Kathryn Powers, Holy Trinity School, Washington, D.C. Denise Rankin, Carlton Math Science Magnet School, Wichita,

    Kansas Chris Ritter, Carus School, Oregon City, Oregon Stephanie Short, Volga-Century Elementary School, Volga, West

    Virginia Jonna Smith, Lost River Elementary School, Bowling Green,

    Kentucky Rita Streets, Volga-Century Elementary School, Volga, West

    Virginia Ida Willis, Norman Smith Elementary, Clarksville, Tennessee

    Cover Design Martha Blalock, Medical Arts and Photography Branch,

    National Institutes of Health

    Cover Illustration David Christianson, Christianson Animation

    Design and Layout Angela Greenwalt, Finer Points Productions

    Acknowledgments Special thanks to Harold Slavkin for his ideas and enthusiastic support of this project and to the NIDCR scientific advisors: Robert Coghill, Alice Horowitz, Michael Iadarola, Karen Jaffe, Candace Jones, Mary MacDougall and Lawrence A. Tabak.

  • Contents

    Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

    About the National Institutes of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix

    About the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research . . . . . .xiii

    Introduction to Open Wide and Trek Inside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 • What Are the Objectives of the Module? • Why Teach the Module? • What’s in It for the Teacher?

    Implementing the Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 • What Are the Goals of the Module? • What Are the Science Concepts and How Are They Connected? • How Does the Module Correlate with the National Science Education

    Standards? ■ Content Standards: Grades K-4 ■ Teaching Standards ■ Assessment Standards

    • How Does the 5E Instructional Model Promote Active, Collaborative, Inquiry-based Learning?

    • How Does the Module Support Ongoing Assessment? • How Can Teachers Promote Safety in the Science Classroom? • How Can Controversial Topics Be Handled in the Classroom?

    Using the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 • Installation Instructions • Getting the Most out of the CD-ROM • Collaborative Groups

    Using the Student Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 • Format of the Lessons • Timeline for Teaching the Module • Master List of Materials

    v

  • Student Lessons • Lesson 1

    What Do Mouths Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

    • Lesson 2

    Open Wide! What’s Inside? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

    • Lesson 3

    Let’s Investigate Tooth Decay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

    • Lesson 4

    What Lives Inside Your Mouth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

    • Lesson 5

    What Keeps Your Mouth Healthy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

    • Lesson 6

    What Have You Learned about the Mouth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

    Additional Resources for Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105

    Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

    Masters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

    Masters in Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165

    vi

  • Foreword

    This curriculum supplement, from The NIH Curriculum Supplements Series, brings cutting-edge medical science and basic research discoveries from the laboratories of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) into classrooms. As the largest medical research institution in the United States, NIH plays a vital role in the health of all Americans, and seeks to foster interest in research, science, and medicine-related careers for future generations. NIH’s Office of Science Education (OSE) is dedicated to promoting science educa­ tion and scientific literacy.

    We designed this curriculum supplement to complement existing life sci­ ence curricula at both the state and local levels, and to be consistent with the National Science Education Standards.1 It was developed and tested by a team composed of teachers from across the country, scientists, medical experts, and other professionals with relevant subject-area expertise from institutes and medical schools across the country, an NIH scientist or repre­ sentative from eac