OBD Plus Technology 201

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NationalBiotechnologyDevelopmentAgency(NABDA)(FederalMinistryofScienceandTechnology) 16,DunukofiaStreet(OldCACBuilding),Area11,Garki Abuja

State and Application of Bioremediation in Nigerias Oil FieldsPresenter:PROF.B.O.SOLOMON DIRECTOR-GENERAL(NABDA) Venue:NICONLUXURYHOTELABUJAAPRIL1-3,2009NABDA (c)2009 ENC 1

Outline:Introduction Bioremediation Efforts at Bioremediation Application State of Bioremediation Technology Lab-Scale Operations Field-Scale Operations Indigenous bioremediation products for: Drill Cuttings Management Produce Water Management Flare Pit Waste Mnagement Soil Hydrocarbon Pollution Management Way forward

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IntroductionHuman economic activities have always given rise to need for further activities to ameliorate the resulting adverse effects on the environment. This dimension suggests that man has not completely been unaware of environmental impacts of the quest for human survival, which draws energy and nutrients from the earth. The angle that has remained unsatisfactorily addressed is the choice of mitigation technology that can return mother earth to status quo ante or guarantee continuous availability of directly utilized resources or associated support systems.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 3

continuation...Technology choice has particularly been difficult for two recalcitrant and continuous threats: municipal waste, nutrient and hydrocarbon contamination. Incidentally, the former is a huge raw material for further economic growth while the later has presented itself as a true threat to human and environmental survival. This leaves us with one true class of enemy: nutrient and hydrocarbon contamination.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 4

NutrientandHydrocarbon Contamination.A number of approaches have successfully been deployed at industrial level with reckonable degree of achievement in controlling nutrient contamination and the most remarkable of them have been biological-technique enhanced treatments.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 5

continuation...However, the same cannot be said of bioremediation, especially in Nigeria. Considering the magnitude of threat from environmental degradation and the resultant socioeconomic dimension of hydrocarbon contamination in the Niger Delta area, the present administration has identified the security of the region as a national priority. This means all increased efforts at cleaning up the spills using sustainable technologies of which bioremediation is most suitable.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 6

continuation...Previous methods designed to deal with waste by-products from oil fields include: storage landfill relocation incineration

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TypicalflarepitintheNigerDeltaNABDA (c)2009 ENC 8

HydrocarbonpollutedfarmlandsinOgoniland

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FlowstationatOgbogucontaminatedwithhydrocarbon

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BIOREMDIATION:INTRO Decontamination of environmental media by naturally occurring biological agents in the environment is often slow. However, it goes on. The implication is that at pollution levels below the carrying capacity of the media concerned, restoration to best known conditions for life support is possible over long time.

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BIOREMDIATION It is the optimization of this natural restoration power of biological agents that bioremediation seeks to optimize in the face of overwhelming contamination. The technology seeks to catalyze natural decontamination process by stimulating the remedial activity of these organisms.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 12

BIOREMDIATION Our responsibility is thus to contribute to the success of stabilizing the Niger Delta through restoration of the environmental media to human usable forms. To achieve this task, various technologies must be identified and optimized for efficiency. At the moment, the most economic and sustainable technology is bioremediation.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 13

Bioremediation in NigeriaBioremediation is a multidisciplinary technology that decomposes contaminants transforming them into harmless byproducts, i.e. water and carbon dioxide, using the following products: microbes surfactants micronutrients and bio-stimulantsNABDA (c)2009 ENC 14

Bioremediation in NigeriaBioremediation Economical Sustainable Suitable for cleaning up oil spills after emergency response soils contaminated with petroleum/hydrocarbons derivatives dangerous organic compounds.

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continuation...Biostimulation involves aeration application of selected micronutrients and biostimulants.

Bio-stimulation is only effective when indigenous microbial populations present in the substrate are high enough to degrade the contaminants when these microbes can readily adapt to foreign contaminants.

Bioaugmentation involves application of beneficial microbes that have an affinity towards a specific contaminant.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 16

Somecontaminantsuitableforbioremediation

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Environmentalconditionsaffecting bioremediation

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1

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Allbioremediationmethodscouldbeex-situ (1) (outside point of occurrence) or in-situ (2) (at the point of occurrence)NABDA (c)2009 ENC 19

continuation...BioremediationBenefits Degradation in a relatively narrow time Simultaneous multiple activity Toxin resistant Reduced risk / higher degree of safety Reduced labor and equipment costs

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continuation...Engineering

Bioremediation technology

Biology

Chemistry

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Bioremediation process optimization Without intervention, microbes degrade oil but at a rather slow rate. Enhancing this process is the essence of research in bioremediation. Some of the process optimization strategies in bioremediation include the following: Control of physical and chemical parameter example Temperature, pH, moisture and oxygen content. Control of microbial parameters

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Bioremediation process optimization parameters

Process optimization

Physico-chemicalFactors Temperature pH Water O2 / Redox potential Mass transfer SolubilityNABDA (c)2009

MicrobialParameters Genetic characteristics Physiological properties Metabolic diversity Enzymological capabilitiesENC 23

Reviewofbioremediationeffortsin NigeriaUnfortunately, very few successful efforts have been documented for field-scale bioremediation projects, but many lab-scale research work have been carried out. At lab-scale, the methods adopted include: Simulation of field contamination Bio-augmentation (indigenous and engineered microbes) Bio-stimulation (agricultural fertiliser) Tilling

Some of the results obtained are presented below:NABDA (c)2009 ENC 24

Reviewofbioremediationeffortsin NigeriaS/N1. 2.

Physico-ChemicalParametersMoisture Drop Organic Carbon Drop Ph Drop Nitrogen Increase Duration of bioremediation Total Hydrocarbon Reduction (THP)

Range(%)19-13 85-1.5

3. 4. 5. 6.

6.34-4.5 0.021-0.081 8weeks 73-88

Rangeofvaluesforresultsobtainedfromlab-scalebioremediationresearchNABDA (c)2009 ENC 25

Reviewofbioremediationefforts inNigeriaS/N1.

MethodBiostimulation, Bioaugmentation with indigenous HUB Tilling

(%)THC Reduction83

2.

mixing uncontaminated soil with polluted soil, tilling and Bioaugumentation with HUB

73

3.

Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation with indigenous HUB

88

4. 5.

Biostimulation with tilling No intervention (control)NABDA (c)2009 ENC

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Pilotscalebioremediationprojects

Some measure of success has been achieved in large scale application of bioremediation. Very few attempts have been made though but the results have been particularly inspiring. One of such attempts is the development and pilot scale deployment of an indigenous bio-formulation for the cleaning of the following forms of hydrocarbon contamination: Drilling mud Produced water Hydrocarbon contaminated sediment and soil Hydrocarbon contaminated waterNABDA (c)2009 ENC 27

Current Practices of hydrocarbon waste management Drilling Mud and Produced Water On-shore: dumped in temporary or permanent pits which eventually overflows into adjoining land and water.

Off-shore: deposited into the surrounding waters where it also causes pollution.NABDA (c)2009 ENC 28

Untreated Drill Mud on soil

Drillmudisacidicandisdangeroustotheenvironmentifdumpedwithout treatment NABDA (c)2009 ENC

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Untreated Produced water

NABDA (c)2009 ENC 30 ScumandoilwastepollutiononaflarepitinNigerDeltapriortotreatmentwithan indigenousproduct

Untreated Produced water

ProducedwaterdoesnotsupportlifeduetohighCODandBODvaluesfrom NABDA (c)2009 ENC 31 contamination

Current situation....There is hardly any further remediation of sediments and water systems following emergency response to a reported spill. This situation results in: Exertion of undue pressure on the attenuation potential of resident microbes Death of resident microbes, flora and fauna due to acidity from contaminants Loss in water and soil qualityNABDA (c)2009 ENC 32

Indigenous products in bioremediationResearch has been intense lately in Nigerian universities and research centres for the development of products capable of remedying hydrocarbon contamination. Some indigenous products have been able to handle the following operations: Clean-up of oil polluted soil. Clean-up of oil on water. Conversion of oil sludge into organic fertilizer