Oak Ridge National Labs - Automotive / Electric Vehicle Capabilities
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ORNL Automotive PEEM Capabilities
Mitchell Olszewski Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Presented to Drive Oregon
November 7, 2013
“All of the Above” The present ORNL R&D Program
New technologies and processes for: • Safe, secure, and
affordable vehicles for passengers and freight
• Domestic production of transportation fuel
• Reducing environmental impacts of transportation
• Predictable, reliable transport schedules
Accelerating electrification • Wireless
power transfer • Advanced
battery materials, processing, and modeling
• Battery manufacturing R&D
• Fuel Cells
Efficient vehicles • Lightweighting • Advanced
combustion/ electric power train technology
• Trucks as well as autos
Alternative fuels • Renewable
fuels for advanced engines
• Drop-in biofuels for legacy cars
• Sustainability analysis
• Natural gas
Intelligent systems and operations • Efficient
operations in commercial vehicles
• Data for decision-making
• Managing congestion
Associate Members at the Technical Level
We support two national Government-Industry Partnerships in Transportation
• Performance verification of new WBG devices; new power electronics topologies and packages that make full use of WBG attributes.
• Stationary and dynamic wireless power transfer technology at the prototype vehicle scale. Recent award from DOE for further development.
Power electronics lab expands wireless charging and WBG evaluations
Enables system-level research for advanced combustion, electric drive, controls, and fuels research within applicable emissions constraints.
• Current CRADA partner Meritor with participation from Cummins
• Hybrid powertrain development • Integrates engine and emission
data with modeling, simulation, and analysis
• Support R&D to accelerate calibration methods
Vehicle Systems Integration Lab unique in DOE system
Highly flexible powerpack research lab large enough for HD vehicles
Battery Manufacturing Facility, companion labs
• Lower cost, faster manufacturing methods for Li-ion. Successes emerging.
• Improved materials
• Modeling for better design and systems performance
• Neutron beam studies
• New chemistries like Li-S
• Non-mobile applications Rechargeable battery
Voltage: 3.7-4.5VCapacity: 100mAh-7Ah
Exceptional capabilities will yield success in energy storage
Defining Strengths in Intelligent Transportation Systems
• Cars that “think”— new sophistication of vehicle controls
• Cyber-security • Big data sciences, managing and
using the data load from connected vehicles (V2x)
• Increasing vehicle autonomy • Wireless charging • Sustainable Communities Strategies,
analysis, next version of FE.gov
• Additive manufacturing (part photo below) • Processing functional materials, light metals • Carbon fiber and composites, links to CFTF
Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) A great resource and partner to Transportation There is a manufacturing element in biomass and fuel cell programs in EERE. Focus on additive manufacturing, lightweight materials processing, carbon fiber. User program in place. Co-located battery manufacturing lab.
Initial success with HFIR imaging beam Neutron imaging complements optical and x-ray methods
• Current focus on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) – Improve understanding of regeneration behavior – Improving understanding of ash build-up – Aids validation of full-scale modeling
• EGR cooler fouling project enhanced with neutron imaging and data reconstruction – Full size coolers imaged at HFIR
• Expanding role in diesel fuel injectors – Internal and external dynamics, and their
relationships – Cavitation and durability issues
• Imaging experiments with battery processes. Augments diffraction experiments at VULCAN beam.
• Collaboration with Ford examines stochastic and deterministic processes that drive cycle-to-cycle instabilities.
• Collaborations with GM to improve the understanding and design optimization of gasoline fuel injector hole patterns.
• Open architecture software for computer aided engineering
for batteries to facilitate rapid battery design and prototyping by integrating battery modeling components.
New user project business model offers advantages to industry for proprietary work
Highly-resolved simulations of cylindrical cell with coupled
electrochemical, electrical, and thermal processes showing
temperature distribution in the cell.
Engaging high-performance computing to accelerate design and deployment
PEEM R&D Capabilities
• Circuit Topologies • Integrate functionality and reduce capacitance
• Packaging • Increase efficiency and improve heat removal
• Wide Bandgap Devices • Increase efficiency and temperature tolerance
• Charging • Wireless charging for static and dynamic
applications • Advanced Manufacturing
• New designs possible
• Non-Permanent Magnet Motors • Eliminate costly rare earth magnet material
• Advanced Materials • Use for laminations, etc. to improve efficiency
Inverter Development Addresses Near Term Application Leading to Transformational Minimal Changes from OEM way of business for near-term
• Segmented inverter can be applied now with minor winding changes in motors (reduces capacitors by 60%)
Changes from OEM way of business for transformational
• Current Source Inverter reduces capacitance requirement by 90%, decreases cost by eliminating needs for diodes and integrating boost function and charger into inverter – Near- to Mid-term application: need multiple sources for reverse blocking IGBTs – Transformational: use WBG frequency and efficiency to reduce cost
• ZCSI adds charging functionality to CSI
• Reactive Power Inverter and other inverter concepts – take advantage of new switches and materials
Advancement of PBA packaging technology and power modules:
ü Decreased package thermal resistance by 30%; ü Decreased package parasitic electrical inductance by 75%, and electric resistance by 90%; ü Reduced the major packaging manufacturing steps from five (5) to two (2); ü Achieved more than 30% volume, and weight reduction.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0 20 40 60 80
100 120 140 160 180 200
0 500 1000 1500 2000
NissanLeaf ToyotaPrius10 PlanarBondAll Specific Thermal
resitance (Cm2.C/W) 0.52 0.471 0.334
PBA Module Wire Bond Module
Planar_Bond_All Power Module Characterization
Novel Flux Coupling Motor Without Permanent Magnets
Projected Benefits • Concept achieves the benefits of PM machines
without rare earth magnets - Reducing dependency on China for rare
earth materials - 20% cost reduction, based on present
material costs - 3% overall efficiency increase due to
adjustable field - Free from temperature restrictions of PM
Objectives • Develop a traction motor without rare earth
permanent magnets (PMs) achieving specific power and power density similar to PM machines but at lower cost and with higher efficiency.
Status • Significant advances have been accomplished
in the simulation and design proving the feasibility of meeting DOE’s 2020 motor power density target.
• Work is ongoing to reduce costs and volume to achieve 2020 targets.
• A breakthrough on the mechanical design was achieved allowing the rotor to safely operate at 14,000 RPM.
Camry Novel Machine 2020 Target Max. power
output 70 kW
(tested) 115 kW (computed) 55 kW
Weight 36.3 kg 55.7 kg 34.38 kg
Volume 13.9 Liters 13.6 Liters* 9.65 Liters
kW/kg 1.9 kW/kg 2.1 kW/kg 1.6 kW/kg
kW/l 5.0 kW/l 8.5 kW/l 5.7 kW/l
Power factor 0.61 – 1.00 0.75 – 1.00 Cost **10.7 $/kW
( $749 for 70 kW) ***6.1 $/kW
( $702 for 115 kW) 4.7 $/kW
( $259 for 55 kW)