NYARC 2014: Frick/Zeri Results

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Photo Archive Image Analysis John Resig March 2014 http://ejohn.org/research/

description

Talk given at the 2014 NYARC annual meeting.

Transcript of NYARC 2014: Frick/Zeri Results

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Photo ArchiveImage Analysis

John Resig March 2014

http://ejohn.org/research/

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Ukiyo-e.org

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Frick Art Reference Library Photoarchive

• Frick Art Reference Library Photoarchive established in 1920.

• Collects photographs of works of art from around the world, including sponsoring own photography.

• Traditionally image analysis has not been applied to photo archives.

• The Frick Photoarchive was interested in exploring image analysis more after seeingUkiyo-e.org.

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Test case: Anonymous Italian Art Photographs• Anonymous Italian Art photographs are

small part (~18,000) of over 1.2 million images in the Frick Photoarchive.

• Very few color photographs (makes most image analysis difficult, good test case).

• Analysis was performed by myself in collaboration with the Frick Photoarchive.

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Digital Anonymous Italian Art

• Early digitization project.

• At the time there was no in-house digital lab at the Frick Photoarchive.

• Digitization self-funded and executed by an outside institution.

• When new images were added they were not “merged” -- too hard with no attribution.

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Image Analysis

• I wrote custom software to automate matches using MatchEngine (a TinEye service).

• Extremely effective image matching technology.

• Matches same images and portions of images, even in black-and-white.

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MatchEngine

image1.jpg

image2.jpg

image3.jpg

imageN.jpg

Upload Images to MatchEngine

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MatchEngine

image1.jpg

image2.jpg

Retrieve Image Matches from MatchEngine

image9.jpg

Matches

image2.jpg

image1.jpg

Matches

Match Database

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Archive (e.g. Frick Art Reference Library)

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

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Artwork

Confirming a Known Match

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ArtworkArtwork

Discovering a New Match

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5%

3%

92%

Artworks with no match Confirms a known match Matches a new work

Frick Artworks That Have A Match

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Similar Images

Different photo, same work of art.

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Similar Images

Different photo, slightly different cropping.

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Similar Images

Different photo, dramatically different lighting.

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Alternate Images

Partial Image vs. Full Image

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Alternate Images

Partial Image vs. Much Larger Image

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Alternate Images

Color vs. Black-and-White

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Conservation

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Conservation

Repairs and possibly removal of later additions.

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Conservation

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Conservation

Possibly just a drastic difference in lighting?

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Conservation

Analysis even spots dramatic conservation work.

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Copies

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Copies

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Copies

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Copies

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Copies

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Copies

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Digitization Errors

Arms with Folded Hands Castello sforzesco, Milan.

Female HeadGabinetto disegni e stampe

degli Uffizi, Florence.

Work doesn’t match description, wrong cataloging.

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Still Life with a Bottle, a Plate, a Mortar and Pestle...

Virgin Enthroned Nursing Christ, Between Two Saints

S. Biovenale, Orvieto.

Work doesn’t match description, wrong cataloging.

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2%4%4%

26%

31%

34%

Similar Image Wrong Image Alternate Image Ambiguous ImageDifferent Works Conservation

Types of New Matches Discovered

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Measuring Image Analysis Efficacy

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Artwork

Confirming a Known Match

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Artwork

Impossible to Confirm Match

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Artworks With Multiple Photos

47%

33%

20%

Failed Match Successful Match No Possible Matches

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# of Match Successes and Failures by Type

0

80

160

240

320

Same Similar Alternate Conservation 3D Negative

Success Failure

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Similar Images

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Similar Images

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Alternate Images

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Alternate Images

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Likelihood of a match by % of image overlap

0%

25%

50%

75%

100%

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Failed Alternate Matches Successful Alternate Matches Successful Other Matches

% of Image Overlapping

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Likelihood of an ‘Alternate Image’ match by % of image overlap

9%

91%

Failure Success

86%

14%

Failure Success

Under 30% Overlap Over 30% Overlap

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Conservation

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3D Works

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3D Works

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Negative Images

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Overall MatchEngine Quality

62%

38%

Failure Success

88%

12%

Failure Success

All Potential Matches No: Under 30% Overlap, 3D, or Negative

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Frederico Zeri Foundation

• University of Bologna

• 290,000 photos of artworks from national archives, private archives, museums, etc.

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Zeri 15thC Italian Art

• Digitized 15th century Italian art

• Persumably some overlap with the Frick’s Anonymous Italian Art archive

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Image-to-Artwork Ratio

0

10000

20000

30000

40000

Frick Zeri

17,929

14,284

38,511

18,548

Images Artworks

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3%

36%

61%

Artworks with no match Confirms a known match Matches a new work

Zeri Artworks That Have A Match

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Image Analysis Matches

0

5500

11000

16500

22000

Frick Zeri

738815

20,051

1,053

Same Artwork Different Artwork

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Image Detail

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Image Detail

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Same Piece, Similar Style

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Same Piece, Similar Style

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Similar/Copies

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What Happens When We Combine Archives?

• Discover new relationships with the other archive

• Discover new relationships inside our own archive

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Frick Photoarchive

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

Zeri Archive

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

ArtworkImage

Image

Image

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Frick-Zeri Image Matches

18,548 Images

38,511 Images

1,117 Images 1,442 Images

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Frick-Zeri Artwork Matches

14,284 Artworks 17,929 Artworks

855 Artworks (6%) 938 Artworks (5%)

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Merge Verification

• Previously, 77 artworks were manually matched by a researcher at the Zeri foundation

• Can use to verify the quality of the matches

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Merge Verification

16%

84%

Same Artwork Failed to Match

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Lighting Differences

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Tiny Details

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Merging Works!

• 84% success confirming known relationships (with a small sample)

• Only 6% of computer-discovered matches were also found by a human.

• (55 human matches vs. 938 computer matches)

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Graph Analysis

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Frick 420

420

Zeri 15836

42091

42090

Frick 417

417

42092

?

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Finding new Links

• Found 14 new Frick links via Zeri

• Found 236 new Zeri links via Frick

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Frick 347

347

Zeri 12227

33526 33527

Frick 348

348

33525 33528

?

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Frick 8131

Zeri 23402

57136

Frick 81328132a 8132

57129

57134

Zeri 23405

5713057137

57138

8131a 8131

?

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Conclusion

• It becomes possible to merge photo archives, even though they’re in different langauges.

• New relationships are discovered in the process.

• The synergy of combining multiple archives reveals even more information.

• All of this is completely automated!

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Contact

• John Resig

[email protected]

• http://ejohn.org/research/

• http://ukiyo-e.org/