Nutrition Improvement Program Click to edit Master title style Vehicles for Fortification, Single...
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Nutrition Improvement Program
Click to edit Master title style
Vehicles for Fortification, Single vs. Multiple Fortification, Technology and Cost:
Fortification of Cereals, Rice, Oil and Sugar
New Delhi, 7 January 2011.
The Micronutrient Initiative, 2004.
*Derives mainly from Vitamin A**Derives mainly from iron nutrition***Derives mainly from iodine sufficiency
Preventing up to four out of ten childhood deaths*
Lowering maternal deaths by more than one third**
Increasing work capacity up to 20%**
Improving population IQ by 10-15 points***
Why staple food fortification
• no change of staple food in color or taste.
• no change in dietary habits
Fortification of Cereal Flours
Fortification of Sugar
Fortification of Sugar
Fortification of Fats and Oils
Shellac Coating Natural kernel Extruded
Rice fortification technologies
Fortification of Rice
Where is fortification implemented?
Food fortification through premixes
Homogeneous and stable system
Premix quality depends on homogeneity
Homogeneity depends on equipment
Design and construction that guarantees safety and efficiency
SOPs for operation and cleaning of each one
Preventive maintenance program
Optimal mixing time validation
Premix Quality depends on Plant Quality
Plant quality depends on setup quality
Premix quality also relies on plant hygiene
Avoid external contamination
Avoid cross contamination
Adequate humidity and temperature
Premix quality depends on ingredient quality
Physical Form Concentration Dispersibility Esterification Antioxidants Excipients
Oil 100.000 IU/g Non dispersible Acetate BHA/BHT Gelatins
Emulsion 250.000 IU/g Dispersible Palmitate Tocopherol Starches
Powder 325.000 IU/g Emulsion Others Gums
500.000 IU/g No antioxidants Others
Effectiveness will depend on adequate stable vitamin forms
Initial 3 weeks
DSM Nutritional Products: Internal trials, 2000-2001.
Stability will also depend on packaging
Protection material• Physical• Microbiological• Humidity• Oxygen
Labeling• Identification• Lot• Best use before date• Others
Premix quality is preserved through adequate storage
• Separate areas• Temperature and humidity
control• Inventory rotation• Cleaning and plague control• QA approved product entry
only• Correct labeling
Premix quality is guaranteed through Quality Assurance
Validations• Analytical methods• Mixing times• Homogeneity
Premix quality is proved through documentation
Internal• Manufacturing order• Weight control• RM addition sequence• Equipments used• Operations description• Annotations• Authorizations• Analytical controls
External• Specifications• Certificate of analysis• Others
Composition Sheets Manufacturing principlesSpecifications and TestsProduct Data SheetsStability data Safety Data SheetsResidual solvents GMO statementsBSE statements Order Manual Kosher/Halal certificates
Premix quality is certified through external referents
Other international directives
No compromise on quality
Low quality micronutrients are not only deceiving the customers.
They deceive the most vulnerable, the malnourished.
Avoid Tunnel Vision Nutrition
Chances for success are maximized depending on which MNs are used
Vitamin A fortification of sugar improves serum iron in preschool children (Guatemala)
Initial 2 Years
<50 µg/dl50-75 µg/dl>75 µg/dl
Mejía, LA, Arroyave, G, 1982.
How much do fortificants cost?
Nutrient Cost/RDAVit. A (250 CWS) 3000 IU 0.00079$ Vit. D (100 CWS) 200 IU 0.00011$ Vit. E (50% CWS) 22.35 IU 0.00250$ Thiamin 1.2 mg 0.00004$ Riboflavin 1.3 mg 0.00005$ Pyridoxine 1.3 mg 0.00005$ Niacin 16 mg 0.00026$ Folic Acid 400 µg 0.00008$ Vitamin B12 2.4 µg 0.00010$ Vitamin C 90 mg 0.00257$ Fe (FeSO4 x 1H2O) 8 mg 0.00008$ Total 0.00662$
Estimated Fortificant Costs to Reach Nutritional Goals Through Food Fortification
1: Includes processing and storage overages. Source: Modified from Omar Dary A2Z- 18 Sept. 2007
Women Nutritional CostEAR Goal per person1
(mg/day) (% EAR) (US$/year)
Calcium Solid-Food 833.333 60 0.584Iron-NaFeEDTA Flour 13.243 80 0.193
Vitamin E Dry Food 6.250 60 0.162Vit. C Beverage 34.615 40 0.142Vit. A Flour or sugar 0.357 80 0.087
Iron-electrolytic Flour 40.524 80 0.045Vit. A Oil 0.357 80 0.031
Vitamin D Dry Food 0.005 80 0.028Vit. B-3 (Niacin) Flour 10.769 40 0.021
Zinc Flour 8.167 80 0.020Vit. B-12 Flour 0.001 80 0.014
Vit. B-9 (Folate) Flour 0.188 80 0.015Vit. B-2 Flour 0.917 60 0.009Vit. B-6 Flour 1.083 40 0.008Vit. B-1 Flour 0.917 40 0.005Iodine Salt 0.107 100 0.002
Benefit: Or the costs of malnutrition
Estimated economic lossto VMD (US$ mio)
Fortification cost (US$mio)
Based on the UNICEF/MI publication: “Vitamin & Mineral Deficiencies: A global damage assessment report, 2004Fortification Cost: 100% coverage at 50% daily requirement of A, B1, B2, PP, B12,I + 100% of FA and Fe
Effective fortification is affordable,ineffective fortification is expensive.
Public Health Benefit as a Function of the Quality of the Program