Nutrition and Hydration guidelines for excellence in sports

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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance

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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance

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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance

    Nutrition and HydrationGuidelines for Excellence

    in Sports Performance


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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance


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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance



    Page No.

    Foreward 1

    Members of Working Group on Nutrition and 2Hydration Guidelines for Athletes

    I. Introduction 3

    II. General Nutritional Concepts 4-14

    III. Role of Nutrition in Sports Fitness and Performance 15-22

    IV. Body Composition 23-26

    V. Pre Event Meal 27

    VI. Fluid Balance for Optimum Sports Performance 28-31

    VII. Drugs In Sports 32-34

    VIII. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition for Athletes 35-36


    1. Calculation of RDA for Protein 7

    2. Fuel Use During Various Sports Activities 7

    3. Classification and Structure of Carbohydrates 8

    4. Classification of Sports and Games according to Energy Expenditure 17

    5. Average Body Weight and Energy Expenditure 17Levels Assumed and Allowances Suggested

    6. Training Intensity and Energy Expenditure 18

    7. Quantification of Training Intensity (N=12) 25

    8. Symptoms and Results of Dehydration 29

    9. Fluid Replacement Guidelines 30

    10. Side Effects of Drugs Used in Athletics 33

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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance



    1. Protein in Food Pyramid 6

    2. Carb Sources Pyramid 9

    3. Influence of Body Weight on Dual Exercise Testing 25

    4. Urine Color Chart 31

    5. Heat Balance During Exercise 33


    I. Food Containing Vitamins and Minerals 37

    II. Percent of People with Micronutrient Intake Less than 50 Per Cent of RDA 38

    III. Summary of the Studies Carried out at NIN 39

    IV. Energy Allowance Recommendations for Different Categories of Sports Events 40

    V. Energy Contribution from Various Food Stuffs in The Diets of Different Groups 41

    VI-A DIET-A: 7000 K.cals 42

    VI-B. DIET-B: 6000 K.cals 43

    VI-C. DIET-C: 5200 K.cals 44

    VI-D DIET-D: 4500 K.cals 45

    VI-E DIET-E: 3600 K.cals 46

    VI-F DIET-F: 3000 K.cals 47

    VII-A Pre Event Meals : 3-4 Hours Before Exercise 48

    VII-B Pre Event Meals : 1-2 Hours Before Exercise 48

    VII-C Pre Event Meals: Less than 1 Hour Before Exercise 48

    VIII Calorie Reckoner 49

    IX List of Abbreviations 50

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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance


    training to improve performance in sports. Whilethis is undoubtedly necessary, it is now increasinglyrealized that nutrition is also critically important.To bring out his message forcefully ILSI-India hadorganized a Conference on Nutrition and Hydrationfor Excellence in Sports Performance on 2ndDecember 2005 in Bangalore. One of therecommendations of the Conference was to set up aWorking Group to develop Guidelines on Nutritionand Hydration for Athletes.

    Accordingly, a Working Group was constituted withrepresentatives from ILSI-India and National Instituteof Nutrition (NIN). The Group visited NIS at Patialaand had extensive discussions with sports scientists,coaches and athletes and also reviewed theinstitutional arrangements. Discussions were heldin Delhi as well at the headquarters of SportsAuthority of India (SAI).

    Since 1983 NIN had been advising SAI on sportsnutrition and had recommended menus for differentsports categories. It is observed however that thediets actually consumed by the athletes at differentcentres did not conform to the nutritionalprescriptions.

    While the calorie requirements varied with the sportscategories it is now found that in the same categoryof sports energy expenditure at different stages oftraining varied a good deal. For instance, energyexpenditure is lower in transition phase than in pre-competition phase and lower in pre-competitionphase than in competition phase. These variationshave to be reflected in energy intake to preventundesired weight gain. Similarly, a uniform trainingschedule for athletes leads to variations in trainingload received by the athletes due to weightdifferences. Hence diets and training schedules haveto be designed separately for each athlete and theirrecords maintained for effective monitoring.

    Hydration is as critical as nutrition. Sports

    performance will be seriously affected if fluidbalance is disturbed. Research demonstrates thatexercise in hot adverse conditions can causedehydration in less than 15 minutes. Athletes shouldtherefore consume fluids adequately and in time tomaintain the fluid balance in the body.

    It is finally the athlete himself who has to regulatehis nutrition and hydration. Therefore educating theathlete is extremely important. Unfortunately, thereare many food fads among both the athletes and thecoaches. These need to be replaced by science basedconcepts about good nutrition and hydration.

    The Group has benefited immensely from theresearch work undertaken by Dr. Venkataramana atthe NIN. He prepared the first paper for discussionby the Group at the meetings in Patiala and Delhi.I would like to express my deep appreciation for hisvaluable contribution.

    I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. AnnGrandjean, Dr. Satynarayana for his pertinent andincisive inputs. Informally the Group receivedsuggestions from Dr. G. L. Khanna, Dr. RekhaSharma and Dr. Suzie Harris to whom I am greatlyindebted. Ms. Rekha Sinha did all the backgroundwork with utmost efficiency which was greatlycommended.

    I am grateful to Mr. R. P. Watal, Director General,SAI for the encouragement and support for theGroup. It is our sincere desire that the Report willreceive careful attention of SAI, the coaches andathletes participating in national and internationalevents and that the scientifically evolved nutritionand hydration norms will be implemented andfollowed to improve sports performance.

    D. H. Pai PanandikerChairman, ILSI-INDIADate: March 16, 2007


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    Guidelines for Excellence in Sports Performance

    Members of Working Group onNutrition and Hydration Guidelines for Athletes

    Mr. D. H. Pai Panandiker ChairmanChairmanInternational Life Sciences Institute - India (ILSI-India)

    Dr. K. Satyanarayana MemberCoordinator (Retd.)Department of Community MedicineDr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute ofMedical Sciences & Research Foundation

    Dr. Y. Venkata Ramana MemberSenior Research OfficerDepartment of PhysiologyNational Institute of Nutrition

    Representatives from Sports Authority of India Members

    Ms. Rekha Sinha ConvenorExecutive DirectorInternational Life Sciences Institute - India (ILSI-India)


    Dr. Ann C. GrandjeanExecutive DirectorThe Centre for Human Nutrition, Omaha, USA

    Dr. Suzanne HarrisExecutive DirectorILSI GC, Washington, DC, USA

    Prof. Rekha SharmaFormer Chief DieticianAll India Institute of Medical Sciences &Senior Vice President-TrainingVLCC Health Care Limited, New Delhi


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    1.1 Nutrition is the study of foods and nutrientsand their effect on health, growth, and developmentof the individual. Sports Nutrition applies nutritionprinciples to sport with the intent of maximizingperformance.

    1.2 Success in sports depends on three factors -genetic endowments, the state of training andnutrition. Genetic make-up cannot be changed.Specialized exercise training is the major means toimprove athletic performance and proper nutrition isan important component of the total training program.Athletes and Fitness Enthusiasts need the sameessential nutrients that non-active people need withvaried increases in their caloric needs as well assome increase in macro and micronutrients. Therefore,it is essential to explore and assess these increasednutritional needs of athletes before, during, and aftercompetition for achieving optimal sports performance.

    1.3 Health related fitness activities generallyinclude cardiovascular training (aerobic activities


    such as jogging, swimming, cycling, and hiking),flexibility (stretching), strength (heavy resistancetraining), muscular endurance (extended resistanceto a particular muscle), and appropriate bodycomposition (as opposed to a general scalemeasurement of total weight). For example, one mayset a goal to lose body fat (health-related fitness orevent specific goal) and to achieve that goal, he orshe would create a regular exercise program thatincludes all of the above components in addition tochoosing more nutrient dense foods in the diet thatwould support increased demand from activities.

    1.4 Sports-related fitness involves skills that arenecessary for sports performance. These skills aresport-specific neuromuscular motor skills such asagility, timing and accuracy, balance, speed, strength,power, and endurance. Specificity of traininginvolves training these components as well as thehealth components that will be directly needed forones sport.


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    2.1 Athletes nutritional status can be assessedby the ABCDE method that is generally being usedfor population studies. Anthropometrics includesmeasurements such as weight and height. Biochemicalanalysis include blood and urine tests. Clinicalassessment includes recognizing signs and symptomsof deficiencies or excesses. Diet history is a methodof assessment that looks at what a person has beeneating over a period of time. Economic status is anadditional factor that should also be taken intoconsid