Neo classicism

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Transcript of Neo classicism

  • 1.John Nash (January1752 May1835)

2. INTRODUCTION Born in Lambeth, London, the son of a Welsh millwright, got trained by the architect Sir Robert Taylor. Initially he seems to have pursued a career as a surveyor, builder and carpenter. This gave him an income of around 300 a year.. He established his own architectural practice in 1777. John Nash helped define the style of an era. Through his friendship with the Prince Regent, his influence on Regency art and architecture cannot be overstated. John nashs contributions to the face of London is immense. Every part of the city was touched by the hand of Nashs neo-classical style so admired by the Prince Regent, later George IV. 3. HIS WORKS: He was a city planner best known for his development of Regents Park and Regent Street, a royal estate in northern London that he partly converted into a varied residential area, which still provides some of Londons most charming features. He remodeled the Royal Pavilion (18151822) 4. He also redesigned St. Jamess Park (182729), London, and began to reconstruct Buckingham House, London, as a royal palace (from 1821). 5. Buckingham Palace was a commission which he was still engaged upon when George IV died, and the work was taken off him and completed by Edward Blore. He also took away Nash's entrance to the palace forecourt, which survives as Marble Arch.The West Facade Of Buckingham Palace : 6. Outside London, Nash's best-known work is the rebuilding of Brighton Pavilion. He built himself a mansion, East Cowes Castle, where he died in 1835. 7. REGENTS PARK 'Regents Park or Mary Le Bone Park, is a spacious enclosure on the North side of the Metropolis. It is nearly of a circular form, and comprises about 450 acres, laid out in groundcovers , combined with various pieces of water and intersected by several roads. In the center are 8 villas, and around the park are noble ranges of buildings in various styles of architecture.The plan of the Park is formed upon such a scale of grandeur as to hide all other modern improvements. The objects proposed to be obtained are The beauty of that part of the Metropolis, by the formation of a spacious area for exercise. The erection of noble mansions for the residence of the higher classes. 8. To go in to the Park, we go around the projecting corner and garden of the earliest of the Nash Terraces (started 1820), which is Cornwall Terrace.The architect was actually Decimus Burton, though supervised by John Nash and worked to his overall design for the Park.Its characterized by its regularity and beautyThe ground story is rusticated, and the principal stories are of the Corinthian order, with fluted shafts, well proportioned capitals, and an entablature of equal merit.The other embellishments of Cornwall Terrace are in writer taste, and the whole presents a facade of great architectural beauty and elegance. 9. The next Nash terrace is the smaller, plainer Ulster Terrace, from 18241825. And beyond this are Park Square and Park Crescent. Park Crescent, with its perfect Ionic colonnade of doubled pillars all the way round, was originally conceived by Nash as the half of a complete circus, of extraordinary size, but in the event, the two facing terraces of Park Square complete the composition (1823-25). 10. In the park, The formal Avenue Gardens opposite Park Crescent and Square contains some ornamental features. To the corner of the Park, is Nash's rather short Cambridge Terrace (1825) Then we pass Chester Terrace, an incredibly long and grand facade in Corinthian, by Nash. Later we come across, Cumberland Terrace, with the central block bearing 10 huge Corinthian pillars, with a very long pediment on top. And the park includes other large and short terraces, gardens and structures like Gloucester Gate, with the accompanying Gloucester Lodge, modern London Central Mosque, St John's Lodge Gardens, Sussex Place, Clarence Terrace etc. 11. Carlton House: Carlton House was the town house of the Prince Regent for several decades from 1783 until it was demolished forty years later.It faced the south side of Pall Mall, and its gardens touched St. Jamess Park .In 1783 George III handed the house over, with 60,000 to renovate it, to George, Prince of Wales on his coming of age. During the following years the interiors were remodeled and refurnished on a splendid scale.Construction at Carlton House came to a halt because of the Prince of Wales mounting debts. Costs continued to soar and more money had to be found by the Prince. 12. Features:The spectacular oval staircase and a suite of rooms that led Horace Walpole to claim that when completed, Carlton House would be the most perfect in Europe. 13. Carlton House was approximately 202 long, and 130 deep when completed.Visitors entered the house through a hexa style portico of Corinthian columns that led to a foyer that was flanked on either side by anterooms.Carlton House was unusual in that the visitor entered the house on the main floor. (Most London mansions and palaces of the time followed the Palladian architectural concept of a low ground floor (or rustic) with the principal floor above.)From the foyer, the visitor entered the two storey top lit entrance hall that was decorated with Ionic columns of yellow marble . Beyond the hall was an octagonal room that was also top lit. 14. On becoming King George IV in 1820 the Prince Regent felt that his own residence; the official royal residence of St. Jamess Palace and his fathers Buckingham House were all inadequate for his needs. Some consideration was given to rebuilding Carlton House on a far larger scale, but in the end Buckingham House was rebuilt as Buckingham Palace instead. Carlton House was demolished in 1826-27 and replaced with two grand white terraces of houses known as Carlton House Terrace. 15. The interiors were sumptuous and splendid. The entrance hall gave no real hint of the magnificence to come 16. Some other works: London Regent's CanalHaymarket TheatreClarence HouseCumberland TerraceTrafalgar Square (first version)The Royal MewsEngland & Wales Cardigan GaolThe Brighton Royal PavilionLuscombe CastleSandridge ParkGuildhall, Newport, Isle of WightCastle HouseHereford GaolWhitson Court, near NewportSandridge ParkCaerhays Castle, CornwallRavensworth 17. SIR JOHN SOANE (1753-1837) 18. Early Life He was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. He was son of a bricklayer, rose to the top of his profession, becoming professor of architecture at the Royal Academy, an official architect to the Office of Works and received a knighthood in 1831. His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skillful use of light sources. It was not until the late 19th century that the influence of Sir John's architecture was widely felt. 19. Known works His best-known work was the Bank of England (his work there is largely destroyed), a building which had widespread effect on commercial architecture. He also design Dulwich Picture Gallery, with its top lit galleries it was a major influence on the planning of subsequent art galleries and museums. His major legacy is Sir John Soane's Museum, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, formed from his former home and office that he designed to display art works and architectural artifacts that he collected during his lifetime. 20. BANK OF ENGLAND 21. Dulwich picture gallery 22. Soane museum, London 23. SOANE MUSEUM, LONDON HISTORY Sir John Soane's Museum was formerly the home of the neo-classical architect Sir John Soane. It holds many drawings and models of his projects and the collections of paintings, drawings and antiquities that he assembled. The Museum is in the Holborn district of central London, England, on Lincoln's Inn Fields. It is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 24. The picture on left hand shows the facade of Sir John Soane's House (No. 12) around 1812, before it was purchased him. It is just a normal house with conventional plain brick in that period. And the picture on right hand shows the facade of it today. It is constructed in stone and brick, the stone having been subsequently painted for preservation.Before the rebuilding, the house had 4 floors (including the basement) but it is 5 floors nowadays. Those original balconies on ground floor, first floor and second floor were replaced by windows after the rebuilding. 25. How it came into existence? Soane demolished and rebuilt three houses in succession on the north side of Lincoln's Inn Fields. He began with No. 12 (between 1792 and 1794), externally a plain brick house. After becoming Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy in 1806, Soane purchased No. 13, the house next door, today the Museum, and rebuilt it in two phases in 1808-09 and 1812. 26. In 1808-09 he constructed his drawing office and "museum" on the site of the former stable block at the back, using primarily top lighting. In 1812 he rebuilt the front part of the site, adding a projecting Portland Stone facade to the basement, ground and first floor levels and the centre bay of the second floor. Originally this formed three open loggias, but Soane glazed the arches during his lifetime. In 1823, when he was over 70, he purchased a third house, No. 14, which he rebuilt in 1823-24. This project allowed him to construct a picture gallery, linked to No.13, on the former stable block of No. 14. 27. PLANGround floor plan for Sir John Soane's Museum. a.Entrance Hall b.Library c.Dining room d.Sepulchral chamber (in basement) e.Breakfast Parlour f.Anteroom g.New Court h.New picture room i .Central dome j.Colonnade k.Dressing room l .Small Study room m.Monk's parlour n .Recessed room 28. The most famous spaces in the house are those at the rear of the Museum - the Dome Area, Colonnade and Museum Corridor.View of picture room and Monks parlour (b