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    1. MAP



    5. CLIMATE




    9. MASTER PLAN 2021


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    This is Certify that Shree SACHIN KUMAR

    GAUTAM of B.Tech Class Roll no. U08CE006 has

    satisfactorily Completed the Course in town

    planning During Year 2011-2012

    Date: Sign of Teacher:

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    New Delhi


    1,483 sq km

    Population(Census 2011)

    1.67 crore

    Principal Languages

    Hindi, English, Punjabi, Urdu

    Urbanisation Ratio(1991)


    Literacy Rate(2011)


    State domestic product

    Rs. 112010 mln. (1991-92)

    Major Industries

    Manufacture of razor blades, sports goods, radio and T.V. parts, plastic and PVC goods,

    textiles, chemicals, fertilizers, soft drinks, hand and machine tools.

    Major Crops

    Wheat, Maize, Bajra, Jowar, Vegetable and Fruit crops

    Major cities linked

    Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow,

    Channi, Portblair, Thiruvanathapuram, Vadodara, Pune

    Domestic airport

    Palam airport

    International airport

    Indira Gandhi International airport

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    History of Delhi and Old Delhi

    At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.

    Built in 1560, Humayun's Tomb is the first example ofMughal tomb complexes.

    Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the location from which the Prime Minister of

    India addresses the nation on Independence Day

    Human habitation was probably present in and around Delhi during the second millenniumBC and before, and continuous inhabitation has been evidenced since at least the 6th century

    BC. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, legendary capital of the Pandavas in

    the Indian epic Mahabharata. Settlements grew from the time of the Mauryan Empire (c. 300


    Remains of seven major cities have been discovered in Delhi. Anang Pal of the Tomara

    dynasty founded the city ofLal Kot in AD 736. The Chauhans conquered Lal Kot in 1180

    and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora. The Chauhan king Prithviraj III was defeated in 1192 by the

    invader Muhammad Ghori.

    In 1206, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the first ruler of the Slave Dynasty established the DelhiSultanate. Qutb-ud-din started the construction the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (might

    of Islam), the earliest extant mosque in India. After the fall of the Slave dynasty, a succession's_Tomb_Delhi_.jpg's_Tomb_Delhi_.jpg's_Tomb_Delhi_.jpg
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    of Turkic and Afghan dynasties, the Khilji dynasty, the Tughluq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty

    and the Lodhi dynasty held power in the late medieval period, and built a sequence of forts

    and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.

    In 1398, Timur Lenkinvaded India on the pretext that the Muslim sultans of Delhi were too

    lenient towards their Hindu subjects. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed,and left in ruins. Near Delhi, Timur massacred 100,000 captives. Delhi was a major centre of

    Sufism during the Sultanate period. In 1526, Zahiruddin Babur defeated the last Lodhi sultan

    in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi, Agra and


    The Mughal Empire ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus

    during the reign ofSher Shah Suri, from 1540 to 1556. During 15531556, the Hindu king,

    Hemu Vikramaditya acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor

    Akbar at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals reestablished their rule after Akbar's army

    defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of

    Delhi that bears his name (Shahjahanabad), and is more commonly known as the "Old City"or "Old Delhi". The old city served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638. After

    1680, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Marathas rose to


    A weakened Mughal Empire lost the Battle of Karnal, following which the victorious forces

    of Nader Shah invaded and looted Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the

    Peacock Throne. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne

    at Delhi. In 1761, after the Marathas lost the third battle of Panipat, Delhi was raided by

    Ahmed Shah Abdali. In 1803, the forces ofBritish East India Company overran the Maratha

    forces near Delhi and ended the Mughal rule over the city.

    After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi came under direct rule of the British crown and was

    made a district province of the Punjab. In 1911, the capital ofBritish India was transferred

    from Calcutta to Delhi, following which a team of British architects led by Edwin Lutyens

    designed a new political and administrative area, known as New Delhi, to house the

    government buildings. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi, was officially declared as

    the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.

    During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees from West Punjab and

    Sindh fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Starting

    on 31 October 1984, approximately three thousand Sikhs were killed during the four-day longanti-Sikh riots after the Sikh body guards of then-Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, assassinated

    her. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues, contributing more to the rise of

    Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.

    The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi

    to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its own

    legislative assembly, though with limited powers. In December 2001, the Parliament of India

    building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants resulting in the death of six security

    personnel. India suspected the hand of Pakistan-based militant groups in the attacks resulting

    in a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries Delhi again witnessed terrorist attacks

    in October 2005 and September 2008 resulting in the deaths of 62 and 30civiliansrespectively.,_Pakistan,_Pakistan
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    Culture of Delhi

    Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat

    Rice and Kadai chicken from Delhi

    Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the

    capital of India. This is exemplified by the many monuments of significance found in the

    city; the Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1200 heritage buildings and 175

    monuments in Delhi as national heritage sites. The Old City is the site where the Mughalsand the Turkic rulers constructed several architectural marvels like the Jama Masjid (India's

    largest mosque) and Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sitesthe Red Fort, Qutab Minar and

    Humayun's Tombare located in Delhi. Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar

    Mantar (an 18th-century astronomical observatory) and the Purana Qila (a 16th century

    fortress). The Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham, the Bah' Lotus Temple and the

    ISKCON Temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials

    houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses

    several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of the British colonial

    architecture. Important structures include the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath,

    the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal

    gardens style. Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, hasamplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events like Republic Day,

    Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great

    enthusiasm in Delhi. On India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India

    addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites,

    which are considered a symbol of freedom. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and

    military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might. Over the centuries

    Delhi is known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolizes it truly is the Phool

    Walon Ki Sair, which takes place each year in September, and where flowers and fans

    embroidered with flowers, pankha are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint, Khwaja

    Bakhtiyar Kaki, along with the Yogmaya Temple also situated in Mehrauli.

    Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's

    Birthday, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chhath, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivaratri, Eid ul-Fitr,,_Delhi,_New_Delhi,_New_Delhi,_Delhi
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    Moharram and Buddha Jayanti. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which

    performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the

    Qutub Minar as the chosen backdrop of the event. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival,

    International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year

    in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show, is held in Delhi biennially. The World

    Book Fair, held biannually at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books inthe world with as many as 23 nations participating in the event. Delhi is often regarded as the

    "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.

    The Auto Expo is held annually at Pragati Maidan and showcases the technological prowess

    of the Indian automobile industry

    Punjabi and Mughlai delicacies like kababs and biryanis are popular in Delhi. The street food

    there is known to be delicious and includes chaat, golgappe and aloo tikki. Due to Delhi's

    large cosmopolitan and migrant population, cuisines from every part of India, including

    Gujarati Rajasthani, Maharashtrian, Bengali, Hyderabadi cuisines, and South Indian food

    items like idli, sambar and dosa are widely available. Local delicacies include Chaat,

    Golgappe, Aloo-Tikki and Dahi-Papri. There are several food outlets in Delhi serving

    international cuisine, including Italian, Japanese, Continental, Middle-Eastern, Thai and

    Chinese. Within the last decade western fast food has become more popular as well. Delhi is

    very much popular for its food and old traditional restaurants.The rich Punjabi food, with its

    high oil content and spices, is a specialty of Delhi. 'Chaat' is the spicy Indian snack and offers

    variety such as Papri, Bhalle-Papri, Aloo Tikiki, Gol Gappe, etc. These are the most preferred

    evening snack of the Indians, especially women. Global giants such as KFC, Mc Donalds,

    Nirulas and Wimpys lure children and youth with fast food and continental cuisines. The

    five-star hotels of Delhi also host some good restaurants that offer exotic Chinese,

    Continental, Thai, Mughlai and Indian cuisines.

    Historically, Delhi has always remained an important trading centre in northern India. OldDelhi still contains legacies of its rich Mughal past, which can be found among the old city's

    tangle of snaking lanes and teeming bazaars. The dingy markets of the Old City have an

    eclectic product range, from oil-swamped mango, lime and eggplant pickles, candy-colored

    herbal potions to silver jewelry, bridal attire, uncut material and linen, spices, sweets. Some

    of old regal havelis (palatial residences) are still there in the Old City. Chandni Chowk, a

    three-century-old shopping area, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for

    jewellery and Zari saris. Notable among Delhi's arts and crafts are the Zardozi (an

    embroidery done with gold thread) and Meenakari (the art of enameling). Dilli Haat, Hauz

    Khas, Pragati Maidan offer a variety of Indian handicrafts and handlooms. Over time Delhi

    has absorbed a multitude of humanity from across the country and has morphed into an

    amorphous pool of cultural styles.,_Delhi,_Delhi
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    Climate of Delhi

    Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Kppen Cwa). Summersare long and extremely hot, from early April to mid-October, with the monsoon season in

    between. Early March sees a reversal in the direction of wind, from the north-westerndirection, to the south-western. These bring the hot waves from Rajasthan, carrying sand and

    are a characteristic of the Delhi summer. These are called loo. The months of March to May

    see a time of hot prickling heat. Monsoon arrives at the end of June, bringing some respite

    from the heat, but increasing humidity at the same time. The brief, mild winter starts in late

    November and peaks in January and is notorious for its heavy fog.

    Extreme temperatures range from 0.6 C (30.9 F) to 46.7 C (116.1 F). The annual mean

    temperature is 25 C (77 F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 C to 32 C (56 F

    to 90 F). The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 inches), most of which

    is during the monsoons in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds

    in Delhi is 29 June.

    Climate data for Delhi

    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year


    e high

    C (F)




































    e low

    C (F)






































    l mm













































    1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 3.6 10.0 11.3 5.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 39.1




    213.9 217.5 238.7 261.0 263.5 198.0 167.4 176.7 219.0 269.7 246.0 217.02,688


    Source no. 1: WMO

    Source no. 2: HKO (sun only, 19711990)

    Famous for its mixture of historic landmarks, monuments, temples and stylish Art Deco style

    buildings, the city of New Delhi is filled with interest. Amongst the most notable landmarks

    within New Delhi are the India Gate, the Lotus Temple (Bahai Temple) and also the

    President House (Rashtrapati Bhavan).

    No trip to New Delhi is complete without a photo or two of its famous Red Fort (Lal Qila),

    which features a stunning red facade and evening light shows. Just across from the Red Fortis the Raj Ghat, an official memorial to India's spiritual leader, Mahatma Gandhi. New

    Delhi's main monuments and landmarks are described below.
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    Civic administration

    As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils,

    59 census towns, 300 villages and three statutory townsthe Municipal Corporation of Delhi

    (MCD); the New Delhi Municipal Committee (NDMC); and the Delhi Cantonment Board(DCB).

    Map showing the nine districts of Delhi

    The Delhi metropolitan area lies within the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT). The

    NCT has three local municipal corporations: Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New

    Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board. MCD is one of the largest

    municipal corporations in the world providing civic amenities to an estimated 13.78 million

    people. The capital of India, New Delhi, falls under the administration of NDMC. Thechairperson of the NDMC is appointed by the Government of India in consultation with the

    Chief Minister of Delhi.[citation needed]

    Delhi has four major satellite cities, which lie outside the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

    These are Gurgaon and Faridabad (in Haryana), and New Okhla Industrial Development

    Authority (Noida) and Ghaziabad (in Uttar Pradesh). Delhi is divided into nine districts. Each

    district (division) is headed by a Deputy Commissioner and has three subdivisions. A

    Subdivision Magistrate heads each subdivision. All Deputy Commissioners report to the

    Divisional Commissioner. The District Administration of Delhi is the enforcing department

    for all kinds of State and Central Government policies and exercises supervisory powers over

    numerous other functionaries of the Government.[citation needed]

    The Delhi High Court has jurisdiction over Delhi. Delhi also has lower courts: the Small

    Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.

    The Delhi Police, headed by the Police Commissioner, is one of the largest metropolitan

    police forces in the world. Delhi is administratively divided into nine police-zones, which are

    further subdivided into 95 local police stations.

    Recently, there have been changes in the Police Districts, their jurisdiction etc., although the

    Administrative Districts of Delhi are nine only, it seems. For instance, an Outer Delhi Police

    District has been carved out in the Western part of Delhi.,_India,_India
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    Education in Delhi

    Education in Delhi is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. The city's

    public school system, the Delhi Directorate of Education, is one of the largest in Indian cities,

    and Delhi is home to some of the most important libraries, universities, and research centers

    in the South Asia. The NCT region is particularly known as a center for research in

    technology and the information technology in India. Education in Delhi has seen a

    tremendous growth over the last few years with new colleges and research institutes being

    established in Delhi. Delhi has always been the education hub of India with the track record

    of producing great talents. Delhi has universities, colleges, schools that compete with the top

    in the country. The quality education imparted among the youth has resulted in better andefficient work force with great minds working forth towards making a rising economy of

    Delhi. These educational institutes provide a building block for nation's development. Several

    educationalists have praised the quality of education in Delhi. Delhi offers good educational

    facilities for primary, secondary and higher education. Delhi is fast developing as a technical

    education hub of India which is quite vivid from the number of engineering and management

    institutes in Delhi that have emerged in the span of five years. University of Delhi and JNU

    have always attracted research scholars from all parts of the world. Delhi offers hostels and

    accommodation facilities to foreign students who come for research and other educational


    Education Department ofNCT Delhi Government is the governing body which looks into theeducational affairs in the city. There are some other private bodies that run educational

    institutes abiding by the norms and permission of the government. Arvinder Singh Lovely is

    the current minister of education of Delhi.

    Delhi has to its credit some of the premier institutions like the Indian Institute of Technology,

    All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the National Institute of Fashion Technology and the

    Indian Institute of Mass Communication.

    As per the 2011 census, Delhi has a literacy rate of :86.3% with 91.0% of males and 80.9% of

    females in Delhi being literate.
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    The Town Planning Review 4 (October 1913):185-187.

    The two new Commonwealth capitals--Canberra and New Delhi--naturally attracted the

    attention of British town planners. Town Planning Review editorials in 1911 and 1912 had

    criticized both the arrangements for the Canberra competition and the winning design by

    Walter Burley Griffin. In 1913 it was the Review's turn to look at the plan for the proposed

    new capital of India. Almost certainly the editorial comments about both plans came from the

    pen of Patrick Abercrombie, the journal's editor and a member of the faculty of Britain's first

    university program in town planning at the University of Liverpool.

    Within twelve months plans of two capital cities have come under our notice for review:

    Canberra and Delhi--what better reply to those who hold that there is no use for Town

    Planning, all our cities being built? Surely the practice of Town Planning is firmly establishedin this double event. But the cases are only slightly comparable: Canberra, the new capital of

    Australia, is an entirely new town, whilst the new capital city of Delhi is in reality merely an

    extension of an older city of the same name, designed to receive the offices and official

    residences of the Imperial Government of India.

    The third report of the Town Planning Committee, which includes the proposed plans of the

    layout, is now to hand and is interesting reading. It is particularly so to the architect,

    designed, as it is, to captivate the imagination of the Indian with the glories of architectural


    The Committee at the outset were faced with choosing one of two well-contested sites, and

    their action in insisting upon the adoption of the one which was perhaps the least popular,

    though undoubtedly the best, is to be commended. There was evidently considerable

    opposition to be met in relinquishing the site where the foundation stone was laid at the

    Durbar; hence almost the whole of the first two reports and a great portion of the third, is

    devoted to the question of site. So much of the third report as deals with the proposed new

    city, and its plan, amounts to a nomenclature of the principal buildings, avenues, and places, a

    description of the traffic arrangements, and a presentation of the engineering problems: water

    supply, draining, &c.

    Taken as a whole the scheme is boldly conceived, and the principal features are relatively inthe right place, but the enthusiasm of the authors for the attainment of fine architectural

    effects precluded them from giving much study to the problems of the individual and to the

    growth of the city as an organisation of social units.

    Town Planning as a study has recently made great strides in its recognition and analysis of

    the social structure from which the

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    city springs, and to those who have surveyed cities and analysed their organisation, noted the

    tendencies of their growth, and, like Pickwick, the first town planner of the modern school,

    studied their human nature, the report is disappointing.

    Apart from the elementary idea of placing the native clerks in one spot, Indian chiefs in

    another, and white people elsewhere; and calling the main street connecting the station withthe centres of the new and old town the principal business street, there is practically no

    attempt to anticipate its development and growth.

    Evidently the Committee have concentrated on architectural display and the importance of

    making the new capital and its government buildings an expression of the dignity of the

    Empire. They were certainly justified in so doing, but even here the result is not convincing,

    and the more closely the plan is studied the more obvious become its defects.

    How very unsatisfactory is the "Station Place"; a compromise between the dominance of a

    station building and the interest of a diagonal crossway; how badly this thoroughfare

    terminates on the Secretariat; and how reluctantly the two wings of these buildings separateto allow the Government House to be viewed from the Mall! How pitifully this building, half

    hidden by the knoll upon which rests the Secretariat, cries out to be acclaimed the climax of

    the Mall, and how cruelly the intellectual group of buildings, situated in the progress of the

    great approach, sever it in half!

    Still, with all these defects, the plan has some good points: the idea of radiating the secondary

    approaches to the Secretariat buildings in duplex systems on twin columns is extremely

    ingenious, and to project the grand axis on the river instead of on the old town is a natural and

    noble idea. Unfortunately the worst faults in the scheme are what we would call architectural

    ones, and we cannot help feeling that the plan has been hastily published, and that the

    Committee would have been wiser had they not published it in the diagrammatic stage, as we

    cannot believe that the defects mentioned will appear in its execution. Compared with the

    plan of the Government group of buildings at Washington, it is much more involved. The

    majestic dominance of that unrivalled climax, the Capitol Building, is entirely wanting. The

    climax of the city and the dominating feature at Delhi, instead of being designed as a single

    whole upon which the eye could rest with satisfaction, is severed into two halves.

    As an essay in architectural grouping it is not equal to several of the designs submitted in

    competition for Canberra, and although the Indian Government were no doubt to be

    congratulated in obtaining the advice of Mr. Lutyens and Mr. Brodie in their choice of the

    site and in the preparation of the plan, at the same time the result justifies us in suggestingthat after all perhaps the most satisfactory means of obtaining a good town plan is to have a

    careful report prepared, and inaugurate an open competition.

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