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Napoleonic Wars 1 Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France. The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy that would lead to the two nations' consolidation later in the century. Meanwhile, the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, [1] thus beginning Pax Britannica. No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. An early candidate is 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France with the coup of 18 Brumaire. 18 May 1803 is probably the most commonly used date, as this was when a renewed declaration of war between Britain and France (resulting from the collapse of the Treaty of Amiens), ended the only period of general peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814. The latest proposed date is 2 December 1804, when Napoleon crowned himself Emperor. The Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and the Second Treaty of Paris. Background 17891802 The French Revolution of 1789 had a significant impact throughout Europe, which only increased with the arrest of King Louis XVI of France in 1792 and his execution in January 1793 for "crimes of tyranny" against the French people. The first attempt to crush the French Republic came in 1793 when Austria, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Naples, Prussia, Spain and the Kingdom of Great Britain formed the First Coalition. French measures, including general conscription (levée en masse), military reform, and total war, contributed to the defeat of the First Coalition, despite the civil war occurring in France. The war ended when General Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio. Only Great Britain remained diplomatically opposed to the French Republic. The Second Coalition was formed in 1798 by Austria, Great Britain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Ottoman Empire, Papal States, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and other states. During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and internal division under the Directory. France also lacked funds, and no longer had the services of Lazare Carnot, the war minister who had guided it to successive victories following extensive reforms during the early 1790s. Napoleon Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the First Coalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt. Missing two of its most important military figures from the previous conflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies whom British financial support brought back into the war. Bonaparte returned from Egypt to France on 23 August 1799, and seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 in the coup of 18 Brumaire, replacing the Directory with the Consulate. He reorganized the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support campaigns either on the Rhine or in Italy. On all fronts, French advances caught the Austrians off guard and knocked Russia out of the war. In Italy, Bonaparte won a notable victory against the Austrians at Marengo in 1800, but the decisive win came on the Rhine at Hohenlinden later that year. The defeated Austrians left the conflict after the Treaty of Lunéville (9 February 1801), forcing Britain to sign the "peace of Amiens" with France. Thus the Second Coalition ended in another French triumph.

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Transcript of Napoleonic Wars - resources.saylor.org · Napoleonic Wars 1 Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars...

Napoleonic Wars 1

Napoleonic WarsThe Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitionsthat ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, theyrevolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modernmass conscription. French power rose quickly as Napoleon's armies conquered much of Europe but collapsed rapidlyafter France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeatresulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France. The wars resulted in the dissolution of the HolyRoman Empire and sowed the seeds of nascent nationalism in Germany and Italy that would lead to the two nations'consolidation later in the century. Meanwhile, the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spainweakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. As adirect result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century,[1]

thus beginning Pax Britannica.No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. An earlycandidate is 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France with the coup of 18 Brumaire. 18 May 1803is probably the most commonly used date, as this was when a renewed declaration of war between Britain andFrance (resulting from the collapse of the Treaty of Amiens), ended the only period of general peace in Europebetween 1792 and 1814. The latest proposed date is 2 December 1804, when Napoleon crowned himself Emperor.The Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and the Second Treatyof Paris.

Background 17891802The French Revolution of 1789 had a significant impact throughout Europe, which only increased with the arrest ofKing Louis XVI of France in 1792 and his execution in January 1793 for "crimes of tyranny" against the Frenchpeople. The first attempt to crush the French Republic came in 1793 when Austria, the Kingdom of Sardinia, theKingdom of Naples, Prussia, Spain and the Kingdom of Great Britain formed the First Coalition. French measures,including general conscription (leve en masse), military reform, and total war, contributed to the defeat of the FirstCoalition, despite the civil war occurring in France. The war ended when General Bonaparte forced the Austrians toaccept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio. Only Great Britain remained diplomatically opposed to the FrenchRepublic.The Second Coalition was formed in 1798 by Austria, Great Britain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Ottoman Empire,Papal States, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and other states. During the War of the Second Coalition, the FrenchRepublic suffered from corruption and internal division under the Directory. France also lacked funds, and no longerhad the services of Lazare Carnot, the war minister who had guided it to successive victories following extensivereforms during the early 1790s. Napoleon Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the FirstCoalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt. Missing two of its most important military figures from the previousconflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies whom British financial support broughtback into the war.Bonaparte returned from Egypt to France on 23 August 1799, and seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 in the coup of 18 Brumaire, replacing the Directory with the Consulate. He reorganized the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support campaigns either on the Rhine or in Italy. On all fronts, French advances caught the Austrians off guard and knocked Russia out of the war. In Italy, Bonaparte won a notable victory against the Austrians at Marengo in 1800, but the decisive win came on the Rhine at Hohenlinden later that year. The defeated Austrians left the conflict after the Treaty of Lunville (9 February 1801), forcing Britain to sign the "peace of Amiens" with France. Thus the Second Coalition ended in another French triumph.

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Napoleonic Wars 2

However, the United Kingdom remained an important influence on the continental powers in encouraging theirresistance to France. London had brought the Second Coalition together through subsidies, and Bonaparte realizedthat without either defeating the British or signing a treaty with them he could not achieve complete peace.

Start date and nomenclatureNo consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. Possibledates include 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France;[2] 18 May 1803, when Britain and Franceended the only period of peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814, and 2 December 1804, when Bonaparte crownedhimself Emperor.Sources in the UK occasionally refer to the nearly continuous period of warfare from 1792 to 1815 as the GreatFrench War, or as the final phase of the Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War, spanning the period 1689 to1815.[3]

War between Britain and France, 18031814Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the period of the Napoleonic Wars. Protectedby naval supremacy (in the words of Admiral Jervis to the House of Lords "I do not say, my Lords, that the Frenchwill not come. I say only they will not come by sea"), the United Kingdom maintained low-intensity land warfare ona global scale for over a decade. Despite such assurance by Admiral Jervis, evidence can still be seen of the beaconwarning towers built in the event of such an invasion, for example, at Eston Nab, near Middlesbrough. The BritishArmy gave long-term support to the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War of 18081814. Protected bytopography, assisted by massive Spanish guerrilla activity, and sometimes falling back to massive earthworks (TheLines of Torres Vedras), Anglo-Portuguese forces succeeded in harassing French troops for several years. By 1815,the British Army would play the central role in the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo.The Treaty of Amiens (25 March 1802) resulted in peace between the UK and France, but satisfied neither side. Bothparties dishonored parts of it: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife (Stecklikrieg) and occupied severalcoastal cities in Italy, while the UK occupied Malta. Bonaparte tried to exploit the brief peace at sea to restore thecolonial rule in the rebellious Antilles. The expedition, though initially successful, would soon turn to a disaster, withthe French commander and Bonapartes brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, dying of yellow fever and almost his entireforce destroyed by the disease combined with the fierce attacks by the rebels.Hostilities between Britain and France renewed on 18 May 1803. The Coalition war-aims changed over the course ofthe conflict: a general desire to restore the French monarchy became closely linked to the struggle to stop Bonaparte.

Crowning of Napoleon, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David

Bonaparte declared France an Empire on 18 May 1804and crowned himself Emperor at Notre-Dame on 2December.

Having lost most of its colonial empire in the precedingdecades, French efforts were focused mainly in Europe.Haiti had won its independence, the Louisiana Territoryhad been sold to the United States of America, andBritish naval superiority threatened any potential forFrance to establish colonies outside Europe. Beyondminor naval actions against British imperial interests,the Napoleonic Wars were much less global in scopethan preceding conflicts such as Seven Years' Warwhich historians would term a "world war".

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Napoleonic Wars 3

In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System. This policyaimed to eliminate the threat from Britain by closing French-controlled territory to its trade. Britain maintained astanding army of just 220,000 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars, whereas France's strength peaked at over2,500,000, as well as several hundred thousand national guardsmen that Napoleon could draft into the military ifnecessary; however, British subsidies paid for a large proportion of the soldiers deployed by other coalition powers,peaking at about 450,000 in 1813.[4] The Royal Navy effectively disrupted France's extra-continental tradeboth byseizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessionsbut could do nothing aboutFrance's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. Also,France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of Britain. However, Britain had the greatestindustrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strengththrough trade. That sufficed to ensure that France could never consolidate its control over Europe in peace. However,many in the French government believed that cutting Britain off from the Continent would end its economicinfluence over Europe and isolate it.

War of the Third Coalition 1805

The British HMS Sandwich fires to the Frenchflagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) intobattle off Trafalgar. The Bucentaure also fightsHMS Victory (behind her) and HMS Temeraire(left side of the picture). In fact, HMS Sandwich

never fought at Trafalgar, it's a mistake fromAuguste Mayer, the painter.[5]

As Britain was gathering the Third Coalition against France, Napoleonplanned an invasion of Great Britain,[6] [7] [8] [9] and massed 180,000effectives at Boulogne. However, in order to mount his invasion, heneeded to achieve naval superiorityor at least to pull the British fleetaway from the English Channel. A complex plan to distract the Britishby threatening their possessions in the West Indies failed when aFranco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve turned back after anindecisive action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July 1805. The Royal Navyblockaded Villeneuve in Cdiz until he left for Naples on 19 October;the British squadron subsequently caught and defeated his fleet in theBattle of Trafalgar on 21 October (the British commander, LordNelson, died in the battle). Napoleon would never again have theopportunity to challenge the British at sea. By this time, however,Napoleon had already all but abandoned plans to invade England, andhad again turned his attention to enemies on the Continent. The French army left Boulogne and moved towardsAustria.

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Napoleonic Wars 4

European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition

In April 1805, the United Kingdom andRussia signed a treaty with the aim ofremoving the French from the BatavianRepublic (roughly present-day Netherlands)and the Swiss Confederation (Switzerland).Austria joined the alliance after theannexation of Genoa and the proclamationof Napoleon as King of Italy on 17 March1805. Sweden, who had already agreed tolease Swedish Pomerania as a military basefor British troops against France, formallyentered the coalition on 9 August.

The Austrians began the war by invadingBavaria with an army of about 70,000 underKarl Mack von Leiberich, and the Frencharmy marched out from Boulogne in late

July 1805 to confront them. At Ulm (25 September 20 October) Napoleon surrounded Mack's army, forcing itssurrender without significant losses. With the main Austrian army north of the Alps defeated (another army underArchduke Charles manoeuvred inconclusively against Andr Massna's French army in Italy), Napoleon occupiedVienna. Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov,with the Emperor Alexander I of Russia personally present. On 2 December, Napoleon crushed the jointAustro-Russian army in Moravia at Austerlitz (usually considered his greatest victory). He inflicted a total of 25,000casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force.

Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) and left the Coalition. The Treaty required the Austriansto give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy and the Tyrol to Bavaria.With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued. Napoleon's army had a record of continuousunbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.

War of the Fourth Coalition 18061807

Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier). After defeating Prussian forces atJena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806

Within months of the collapse of the Third Coalition,the Fourth Coalition (180607) against France wasformed by Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and theUnited Kingdom. In July 1806, Napoleon formed theConfederation of the Rhine out of the many tinyGerman states which constituted the Rhineland andmost other western parts of Germany. He amalgamatedmany of the smaller states into larger electorates,duchies and kingdoms to make the governance ofnon-Prussian Germany smoother. Napoleon elevatedthe rulers of the two largest Confederation states,Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings.

In August 1806, the Prussian king, Friedrich WilhelmIII decided to go to war independently of any other

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Napoleonic Wars 5

great power except the distant Russia. The Russian army, an ally of Prussia, was still far away when Prussia declaredwar. In September, Napoleon unleashed all the French forces east of the Rhine. Napoleon himself defeated aPrussian army at Jena (14 October 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstdt on the same day. Some 160,000French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) attacked Prussia, moving with such speed that theydestroyed as an effective military force the entire Prussian army of 250,000which sustained 25,000 casualties, losta further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin. At Jena,Napoleon fought only a detachment of the Prussian force. Auerstdt involved a single French corps defeating thebulk of the Prussian army. Napoleon entered Berlin on 27 October 1806. He visited the tomb of Frederick the Greatand instructed his marshals to remove their hats there, saying, "If he were alive we wouldn't be here today". In totalNapoleon had taken only 19 days from beginning his attack on Prussia until knocking it out of the war with thecapture of Berlin and the destruction of its principal armies at Jena and Auerstdt. By contrast, Prussia had fought forthree years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement.In the next stage of the war the French drove Russian forces out of Poland and instituted a new state, the Duchy ofWarsaw. Then Napoleon turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to try to capture thetemporary Prussian capital at Knigsberg. A tactical draw at Eylau (78 February 1807) forced the Russians towithdraw further north. Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland (14 June 1807). Following this defeat,Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit (7 July 1807). By September, Marshal Brune completed theoccupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army, however, to withdraw with all its munitions of war.During 1807, Britain attacked Denmark and captured its fleet. The large Danish fleet could have greatly aided theFrench by replacing many of the ships France had lost at Trafalgar in 1805. The British attack helped bring Denmarkinto the war on the side of France.At the Congress of Erfurt (SeptemberOctober 1808), Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should forceSweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 180809 and to the division of Sweden intotwo parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia. The eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland.

War of the Fifth Coalition 1809

Surrender of Madrid (Gros), 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capitalduring the Peninsular War

The Fifth Coalition (1809) of the United Kingdom andAustria against France formed as the UK engaged inthe Peninsular War against France.

Again the UK stood alone, and the sea became themajor theatre of war against Napoleon's allies. Duringthe time of the Fifth Coalition, the Royal Navy won asuccession of victories in the French colonies.

On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensivemilitary endeavours. One, the Walcheren Expedition of1809, involved a dual effort by the British Army andthe Royal Navy to relieve Austrian forces under intenseFrench pressure. It ended in disaster after the ArmycommanderJohn Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chathamfailedto capture the objective, the naval base ofFrench-controlled Antwerp. For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations onlandapart from in the Iberian Peninsularemained restricted to hit-and-run operations executed by the RoyalNavy, which dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France and its

allies and blockading what remained of France's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports. These rapid-attack operations functioned rather like exo-territorial guerrilla strikes: they aimed mostly at destroying

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Napoleonic Wars 6

blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping, and disrupting French supplies, communications, and military unitsstationed near the coasts. Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of thesea, the Royal Navy would arrive and would land troops and supplies and aid the Coalition's land forces in aconcerted operation. Royal Navy ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayednear enough to the coastline. However, the ability and quality of the land forces governed these operations. Forexample, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy sometimes failed to achieveits objectives simply because of the lack of manpower that the Navy's guerrilla allies had promised to supply.

The European strategic situation in February 1809

Economic warfare also continuedtheFrench Continental System against theBritish naval blockade of French-controlledterritory. Due to military shortages and lackof organization in French territory, manybreaches of the Continental System occurredas French-dominated states engaged in illicit(though often tolerated) trade with Britishsmugglers. Both sides entered additionalconflicts in attempts to enforce theirblockade; the British fought the UnitedStates in the War of 1812 (181215), andthe French engaged in the Peninsular War(180814). The Iberian conflict began whenPortugal continued trade with the UKdespite French restrictions. When Spainfailed to maintain the continental system, the uneasy Spanish alliance with France ended in all but name. Frenchtroops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid, and installed a client monarchy. Thisprovoked an explosion of popular rebellions across Spain. Heavy British involvement soon followed.

Austria, previously an ally of France, took the opportunity to attempt to restore its imperial territories in Germany asheld prior to Austerlitz. Austria achieved a number of initial victories against the thinly spread army of MarshalBerthier. Napoleon had left Berthier with only 170,000 troops to defend France's entire eastern frontier (in the 1790s,800,000 troops had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front).Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing awithdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula (Battle of Corunna, 16 January1809). But when he left, the guerrilla war against his forces in the countryside continued to tie down great numbersof troops. Austria's attack prevented Napoleon from successfully wrapping up operations against British forces bynecessitating his departure for Austria, and he never returned to the Peninsula theatre. In his absence and that of hisbest marshals (Davout remained in the east throughout the war) the French situation in Spain deteriorated, and thenbecame dire when Sir Arthur Wellesley arrived to take charge of British-Portuguese forces.The Austrians drove into the Duchy of Warsaw, but suffered defeat at the Battle of Raszyn on 19 April 1809. ThePolish army captured West Galicia following its earlier success.

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Napoleonic Wars 7

The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent. Dark and light greenareas indicate the French Empire and its territories; blue, pink and yellow areas

indicate French client and satellite states

Napoleon assumed personal command in theeast and bolstered the army there for hiscounter-attack on Austria. After a few smallbattles, the well-run campaign forced theAustrians to withdraw from Bavaria, andNapoleon advanced into Austria. His hurriedattempt to cross the Danube resulted in themassive Battle of Aspern-Essling (22 May1809) Napoleon's first significant tacticaldefeat. But the Austrian commander,Archduke Karl, failed to follow up on hisindecisive victory, allowing Napoleon toprepare and seize Vienna in early July. Hedefeated the Austrians at Wagram, on 56July. (It was during the middle of that battlethat Marshal Bernadotte was stripped of hiscommand after retreating contrary toNapoleon's orders. Shortly thereafter,Bernadotte took up the offer from Swedento fill the vacant position of Crown Prince there. Later he would actively participate in wars against his formerEmperor.)

The War of the Fifth Coalition ended with the Treaty of Schnbrunn (14 October 1809). In the east, only theTyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated inNovember 1809, while in the west the Peninsular War continued.In 1810, the French Empire reached its greatest extent. On the continent, the British and Portuguese remainedrestricted to the area around Lisbon (behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras) and to besieged Cadiz.Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance withAustria and of providing the Emperor with an heir (something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do). As well asthe French Empire, Napoleon controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy ofWarsaw and the Kingdom of Italy. Territories allied with the French included: the Kingdom of Spain (under Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder brother) the Kingdom of Westphalia (Jrme Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother) the Kingdom of Naples (under Joachim Murat, husband of Napoleon's sister Caroline) the Principality of Lucca and Piombino (under Elisa Bonaparte (Napoleon's sister) and her husband Felice

Baciocchi);and Napoleon's former enemies, Prussia and Austria.

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Napoleonic Wars 8

The Invasion of Russia 1812

Battle of Borodino was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of theNapoleonic Wars (a painting by Louis Lejeune)

The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 resulted in theAnglo-Russian War (180712). EmperorAlexander I declared war on the UnitedKingdom after the British attack onDenmark in September 1807. Britishmen-of-war supported the Swedish fleetduring the Finnish War and had victoriesover the Russians in the Gulf of Finland inJuly 1808 and August 1809. However, thesuccess of the Russian army on the landforced Sweden to sign peace-treaties withRussia in 1809 and with France in 1810 andto join the Continental Blockade againstBritain. But Franco-Russian relationsbecame progressively worse after 1810, andthe Russian war with the UK effectivelyended. In April 1812, Britain, Russia andSweden signed secret agreements directedagainst Napoleon.

In 1812, at the height of his power, Napoleon invaded Russia with half a million strong, pan-European GrandeArme, consisting of 650,000 men (270,000 Frenchmen and many soldiers of allies or subject areas). He aimed tocompel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System and to remove the imminent threat of a Russianinvasion of Poland. The French forces crossed the Niemen River on 23 June 1812. Russia proclaimed a PatrioticWar, while Napoleon proclaimed a Second Polish war. The Poles supplied almost 100,000 troops for theinvasion-force, but against their expectations, Napoleon avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind furthernegotiations with Russia.

The Grande Arme marched through Russia, winning a number of relatively minor engagements and a major Battleof Smolensk on August 1618. However, in the same days, a part of the French Army led by Marshal NicolasOudinot was stopped in the Battle of Polotsk by the right wing of the Russian Army, under command of GeneralPeter Wittgenstein. This prevented the French march on the Russian capital, Saint Petersburg; the fate of the war hadto be decided on Moscow direction, where Napoleon himself led his forces.

Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen.

Russians used scorched-earth tactics, and often raidedthe enemy with light Cossack cavalry. This required theGrande Arme to adjust its methods of operation, but itrefused to do so, constantly marching ahead andseeking the decisive battle.[10] This refusal led to mostof the losses of the main column of the Grande Arme,which in one case amounted to 95,000 troops in asingle week.[11]

At the same time, the main Russian army retreated foralmost three months. This constant retreat led to theunpopularity of Field Marshal Michael Andreas

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Napoleonic Wars 9

Barclay de Tolly and a veteran, Prince Mikhail Kutuzov, was made the new Commander-in-Chief by Tsar AlexanderI. Finally, the two armies engaged in the Battle of Borodino on September 7,[12] in the vicinity of Moscow. Thebattle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 troopsand resulting in at least 70,000 casualties. The French captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed todestroy the Russian army; due to lack of logistics, the French losses could not be replaced, unlike Russian ones.Napoleon entered Moscow on September 14, after the Russian Army retreated yet again.[13] But by then, theRussians had largely evacuated the city and even released criminals from the prisons to inconvenience the French;furthermore, the governor, Count Fyodor Rostopchin, ordered the city to be burnt.[14] Alexander I refused tocapitulate, and the peace talks, attempted by Napoleon, failed. In October, with no sign of clear victory in sight,Napoleon began the disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow.

Charles Joseph Minards famous graph of the decreasing size of the Grande Armerepresented by the width of the line as it marches to Moscow (tan) and back

(black).

At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets the Frenchtried to reach Kaluga, where they could findfood and forage supplies. But thereplenished Russian Army blocked the road,and Napoleon was forced to retreat the sameway he had come to Moscow, through theheavily ravaged areas along the Smolenskroad. In the following weeks, the GrandeArme was dealt a catastrophic blow by theonset of the Russian Winter, the lack ofsupplies and constant guerilla warfare byRussian peasants and irregular troops.

When the remnants of the Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River in November, only 27,000 fit soldiersremained, with some 380,000 men dead and 100,000 captured.[15] Napoleon then left his men and returned to Paristo prepare to defence against the advancing Russians, and the campaign effectively ended on 14 December 1812,when the last enemy troops left Russia. The Russians had lost around 210,000 men, but with their shorter supplylines, they soon replenished their armies.

War of the Sixth Coalition 18121814Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and a number of German statesre-entered the war. Napoleon vowed that he would create a new army as large as the one he had sent into Russia, andquickly built up his forces in the east from 30,000 to 130,000 and eventually to 400,000. Napoleon inflicted 40,000casualties on the Allies at Ltzen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (2021 May 1813). Both battles involved total forces ofover 250,000, making them some of the largest conflicts of the wars so far.Meanwhile, in the Peninsular War, Arthur Wellesley renewed the Anglo-Portuguese advance into Spain just afterNew Year in 1812, besieging and capturing the fortified towns of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, and in the Battle ofSalamanca (which was a damaging defeat to the French). As the French regrouped, the AngloPortuguese enteredMadrid and advanced towards Burgos, before retreating all the way to Portugal when renewed French concentrationsthreatened to trap them. As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to end their longsiege of Cadiz and to permanently evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias.In a strategic move, Wellesley planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. The AngloPortugueseforces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos. On 21 June, at Vitoria, the combined Anglo-Portuguese andSpanish armies won against Joseph Bonaparte, finally breaking the French power in Spain. The French had to retreatout of the Iberian peninsula, over the Pyrenees.

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Napoleonic Wars 10

The belligerents declared an armistice from 4 June 1813 (continuing until 13 August) during which time both sidesattempted to recover from the loss of approximately a quarter of a million total troops in the preceding two months.During this time Coalition negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France. Two principalAustrian armies took the field, adding an additional 300,000 troops to the Coalition armies in Germany. In total theAllies now had around 800,000 front-line troops in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of 350,000 formed tosupport the frontline operations.Napoleon succeeded in bringing the total imperial forces in the region to around 650,000although only 250,000came under his direct command, with another 120,000 under Nicolas Charles Oudinot and 30,000 under Davout. Theremainder of imperial forces came mostly from the Confederation of the Rhine, especially Saxony and Bavaria. Inaddition, to the south, Murat's Kingdom of Naples and Eugne de Beauharnais's Kingdom of Italy had a total of100,000 armed men. In Spain, another 150,000 to 200,000 French troops steadily retreated before AngloPortugueseforces numbering around 100,000. Thus in total, around 900,000 French troops in all theatres faced around1,800,000 Coalition troops (including the strategic reserve under formation in Germany). The gross figures maymislead slightly, as most of the German troops fighting on the side of the French fought at best unreliably and stoodon the verge of defecting to the Allies. One can reasonably say that Napoleon could count on no more than 450,000troops in Germanywhich left him outnumbered about four to one.Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden (August 1813),where he defeated a numerically superior Coalition army and inflicted enormous casualties, while the French armysustained relatively few. However, the failures of his marshals and a slow resumption of the offensive on his partcost him any advantage that this victory might have secured. At the Battle of Leipzig in Saxony (1619 October1813), also called the "Battle of the Nations", 191,000 French fought more than 300,000 Allies, and the defeatedFrench had to retreat into France. Napoleon then fought a series of battles, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, inFrance itself, but the overwhelming numbers of the Allies steadily forced him back. His remaining allyDenmark-Norway became isolated and fell to the coalition.

The Russian army enters Paris in 1814

The Allies entered Paris on 30 March 1814. During thistime Napoleon fought his Six Days Campaign, inwhich he won multiple battles against the enemy forcesadvancing towards Paris. However, during this entirecampaign he never managed to field more than 70,000troops against more than half a million Coalitiontroops. At the Treaty of Chaumont (9 March 1814), theAllies agreed to preserve the Coalition until Napoleon'stotal defeat.

Napoleon determined to fight on, even now, incapable of fathoming his massive fall from power. During thecampaign he had issued a decree for 900,000 fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these ever materialized, andNapoleon's increasingly unrealistic schemes for victory eventually gave way to the reality of the hopeless situation.Napoleon abdicated on 6 April. However, occasional military actions continued in Italy, Spain, and Hollandthroughout the spring of 1814.The victors exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, and restored the French Bourbon monarchy in the person of LouisXVIII. They signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau (11 April 1814) and initiated the Congress of Vienna to redraw themap of Europe.

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Napoleonic Wars 11

Gunboat War 18071814Initially, Denmark-Norway declared itself neutral in the Napoleonic Wars, established a navy, and traded with bothsides. But the British attacked and captured or destroyed large portions of the Dano-Norwegian fleet in the FirstBattle of Copenhagen (2 April 1801), and again in the Second Battle of Copenhagen (AugustSeptember 1807). Thisended the Dano-Norwegian neutrality, who engaged in a naval guerrilla war in which small gunboats would attacklarger British ships in Danish and Norwegian waters. The Gunboat War effectively ended with a British victory atthe Battle of Lyngr in 1812, involving the destruction of the last large Dano-Norwegian shipthe frigate Najaden.

War of 1812Coinciding with the War of the Sixth Coalition but not considered part of the Napoleonic Wars by most Americans,the otherwise neutral United States, owing to various transgressions (such as impressment), by the British RoyalNavy, declared war on the United Kingdom and attempted to invade Canada. The war ended in status quo antebellum under the Treaty of Ghent, signed on 24 December 1814, though sporadic fighting continued for severalmonths (most notably, the Battle of New Orleans). Apart from the seizing of then-Spanish Mobile by the UnitedStates, there was negligible involvement from other participants of the broader Napoleonic War. Notably, a series ofBritish raids, later called the Burning of Washington, would result in the burning of the White House, the Capitol,the Navy Yard, and other public buildings. The main effect of the War of 1812 on the wider Napoleonic Wars was toforce Britain to divert troops, supplies and funds to defending Canada. This inadvertently helped Napoleon in thatBritain could no longer use these troops, supplies and funds in the war against France.

War of the Seventh Coalition 1815See also Hundred Days and the Neapolitan War between the Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire.

Wellington at Waterloo by Robert AlexanderHillingford.

The Seventh Coalition (1815) pitted the United Kingdom, Russia,Prussia, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands and a number ofGerman states against France. The period known as the HundredDays began after Napoleon left Elba and landed at Cannes (1March 1815). Travelling to Paris, picking up support as he went,he eventually overthrew the restored Louis XVIII. The Alliesrapidly gathered their armies to meet him again. Napoleon raised280,000 men, whom he distributed among several armies. To addto the 90,000 troops in the standing army, he recalled well over aquarter of a million veterans from past campaigns and issued adecree for the eventual draft of around 2.5 million new men intothe French army. This faced an initial Coalition force of about 700,000although Coalition campaign-plansprovided for one million front-line troops, supported by around 200,000 garrison, logistics and other auxiliarypersonnel. The Coalition intended this force to have overwhelming numbers against the numerically inferior imperialFrench armywhich in fact never came close to reaching Napoleon's goal of more than 2.5 million under arms.

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Napoleonic Wars 12

The Prince's Flag, was used as a battle flagby the Dutch Forces during the Battle of

Waterloo.

Map of the Waterloo campaign

Napoleon took about 124,000 men of theArmy of the North on a pre-emptive strikeagainst the Allies in Belgium. He intendedto attack the Coalition armies before theycombined, in hope of driving the British intothe sea and the Prussians out of the war. Hismarch to the frontier achieved the surprisehe had planned, catching the Anglo-DutchArmy in a dispersed arrangement. ThePrussians had been more wary,concentrating 3/4 of their Army in andaround Ligny. The Prussians forced theArmee du Nord to fight all the day of the15th to reach Ligny in a delaying action bythe Prussian 1st Corps.[16] He forced Prussiato fight at Ligny on 16 June 1815, and thedefeated Prussians retreated in somedisorder.[17] On the same day, the left wingof the Army of the North, under thecommand of Marshal Michel Ney,succeeded in stopping any of Wellington'sforces going to aid Blcher's Prussians byfighting a blocking action at Quatre Bras.Ney failed to clear the cross-roads andWellington reinforced the position. But withthe Prussian retreat, Wellington too had toretreat. He fell back to a previouslyreconnoitred position on an escarpment atMont St Jean, a few miles south of thevillage of Waterloo.

Napoleon took the reserve of the Army ofthe North, and reunited his forces with thoseof Ney to pursue Wellington's army, after heordered Marshal Grouchy to take the rightwing of the Army of the North and stop the Prussians re-grouping. In the first of a series of miscalculations, bothGrouchy and Napoleon failed to realize that the Prussian forces were already reorganized and were assembling at thevillage of Wavre. In any event the French army did nothing to stop a rather leisurely retreat that took placethroughout the night and into the early morning by the Prussians.[18] As the 4th, 1st, and 2nd Prussian Corpsmarched through the town towards the Battlefield of Waterloo the 3rd Prussian Corp took up blocking positionsacross the river, and although Grouchy engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Genvon Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre (1819 June) it was 12 hours too late. In the end, 17,000 Prussians had kept33,000 badly needed French reinforcements off the field.

Napoleon delayed the start of fighting at the Battle of Waterloo on the morning of 18 June for several hours while he waited for the ground to dry after the previous night's rain. By late afternoon, the French army had not succeeded in driving Wellington's forces from the escarpment on which they stood. When the Prussians arrived and attacked the French right flank in ever-increasing numbers, Napoleon's strategy of keeping the Coalition armies divided had

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Napoleonic Wars 13

failed and a combined Coalition general advance drove his army from the field in confusion.Grouchy organized a successful and well-ordered retreat towards Paris, where Marshal Davout had 117,000 menready to turn back the 116,000 men of Blcher and Wellington. Militarily, it appeared quite possible that the Frenchcould defeat Wellington and Blcher, but politics proved the source of the Emperor's downfall. In any event Davoutwas defeated at Issy and negotiations for surrender had begun.On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo, Napoleon still clung to the hope of a concerted national resistance; butthe temper of the chambers, and of the public generally, did not favour his view. The politicians forced Napoleon toabdicate again on 22 June 1815. Despite the Emperors abdication, irregular warfare continued along the easternborders and on the outskirts of Paris until the signing of a cease-fire on 4 July. On 15 July, Napoleon surrenderedhimself to the British squadron at Rochefort. The Allies exiled him to the remote South Atlantic island of SaintHelena, where he died on 5 May 1821.Meanwhile in Italy, Joachim Murat, whom the Allies had allowed to remain King of Naples after Napoleon's initialdefeat, once again allied with his brother-in-law, triggering the Neapolitan War (March to May, 1815). Hoping tofind support among Italian nationalists fearing the increasing influence of the Habsburgs in Italy, Murat issued theRimini Proclamation inciting them to war. But the proclamation failed and the Austrians soon crushed Murat at theBattle of Tolentino (2 May to 3 May 1815), forcing him to flee. The Bourbons returned to the throne of Naples on 20May 1815. Murat tried to regain his throne, but after that failed, a firing squad executed him on 13 October 1815.

Political effects

Napoleon as King of Italy (Appiani)

The Napoleonic Wars brought great changes both to Europe and theAmericas. Napoleon had succeeded in bringing most of WesternEurope under one rulea feat that had not been accomplished sincethe days of the Roman Empire (although Charlemagne had nearly doneso around 800 CE). However, France's constant warfare with thecombined forces of the other major powers of Europe for over twodecades finally took its toll. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars,France no longer held the role of the dominant power in Europe, as ithad since the times of Louis XIV. In its place, the United Kingdomemerged as by far the most powerful country in the world and theRoyal Navy gained unquestioned naval superiority across the globe.This, coupled with Britain's large and powerful industrial economy,made it perhaps the first truly global superpower and ushered in thePax Britannia that lasted for the next 100 years.

In most European countries, subjugation in the French Empire boughtwith it many products of the French Revolution including democracy,due process in courts, abolition of privileges, etc. The increasing

prosperity of the middle classes with rising commerce and industry meant that restored European monarchs found itdifficult to restore pre-revolutionary absolutism, and had to retain many of the reforms enacted during Napoleon'srule. Institutional legacies remain to this day in the form of civil-law legal systems, with clearly redacted codescompiling their basic lawsan enduring legacy of the Napoleonic Code.

During the wake of the Napoleonic period, nationalism, a relatively new movement, became increasingly significant. This would shape much of the course future European history. Its growth spelled the beginning of some states and the end of others, as the map of Europe changed dramatically in the hundred years following the Napoleonic Era. Rule by fiefdoms and aristocracy was widely replaced by national ideologies based on shared origins and culture . Importantly, Bonaparte's reign over Europe sowed the seeds for the founding of the nation-states of Germany and

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Napoleonic Wars 14

Italy by starting the process of consolidating city-states, kingdoms and principalities.The Napoleonic wars also played a key role in the independence of the American colonies from their Europeanmotherlands. The conflict significantly weakened the authority and military power of the Spanish Empire, especiallyafter the Battle of Trafalgar, which seriously hampered the contact of Spain with its American possessions. Evidenceof this are the many uprisings in Spanish America after the end of the war, which eventually led to the wars ofindependence. In Portuguese America, Brazil experienced greater autonomy as it now served as seat of thePortuguese Empire and ascended politically to the status of Kingdom. These events also contributed to thePortuguese Liberal Revolution in 1820 and the Independence of Brazil in 1822.After the war, in order to prevent another such war, Europe was divided into states according to the balance of powertheory. This meant that, in theory, no European state would become strong enough to dominate Europe in the future.Another concept emerged that of a unified Europe. After his defeat, Napoleon deplored the fact that his dream of afree and peaceful "European association" remained unaccomplished. Such a European association would share thesame principles of government, system of measurement, currency and Civil Code. Some one-and-a-half centurieslater, and after another major conflagration (the Second World War), several of these ideals re-emerged in the formof the European Union.

Military legacy

Napoleon Crossing the Alps (David). In 1800Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps,

eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo

The Napoleonic Wars also had a profound military impact. Until thetime of Napoleon, European states employed relatively small armies,made up of both national soldiers and mercenaries. However, militaryinnovators in the mid-18th century began to recognize the potential ofan entire nation at war: a "nation in arms".[19]

France, with one of the largest populations in Europe by the end of the18th century (27 million, as compared to the United Kingdom's 12million and Russia's 35 to 40 million), seemed well poised to takeadvantage of the leve en masse. Because the French Revolution andNapoleon's reign witnessed the first application of the lessons of the18th century's wars on trade and dynastic disputes, commentators oftenfalsely assume that such ideas arose from the revolution rather thanfound their implementation in it.

But not all the credit for the innovations of this period go to Napoleon.Lazare Carnot played a large part in the reorganization of the Frencharmy from 1793 to 1794a time which saw previous Frenchmisfortunes reversed, with Republican armies advancing on all fronts.

The sizes of the armies involved give an obvious indication of the changes in warfare. During Europe's majorpre-revolutionary war, the Seven Years' War of 17561763, few armies ever numbered more than 200,000. Bycontrast, the French army peaked in size in the 1790s with 1.5 million Frenchmen enlisted. In total, about 2.8 millionFrenchmen fought on land and about 150,000 at sea, bringing the total for France to almost 3 million combatants.

The UK had 747,670 men under arms between 1792 and 1815, and had about 250,000 personnel in the Royal Navy. In September 1812, Russia had about 904,000 enlisted men in its land forces, and between 1799 and 1815 a total of 2.1 million men served in the Russian army, with perhaps 400,000 serving from 1792 to 1799. A further 200,000 or so served in the Russian Navy from 1792 to 1815. There are no consistent statistics for other major combatants. Austria's forces peaked at about 576,000 and had little or no naval component. Apart from the UK, Austria proved the most persistent enemy of France, and one can reasonably assume that more than a million Austrians served in total. Prussia never had more than 320,000 men under arms at any time, only just ahead of the UK. Spain's armies

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Napoleonic Wars 15

also peaked at around 300,000 men, not including a considerable force of guerrillas. Otherwise only the UnitedStates (286,730 total combatants), the Maratha Confederation, the Ottoman Empire, Italy, Naples and the Duchy ofWarsaw ever had more than 100,000 men under arms. Even small nations now had armies rivalling the size of theGreat Powers' forces of past wars. However, one should bear in mind that the above numbers of soldiers come frommilitary records and in practice the actual numbers of fighting men would fall below this level due to desertion, fraudby officers claiming non-existent soldiers' pay, death and, in some countries, deliberate exaggeration to ensure thatforces met enlistment-targets. Despite this, the size of armed forces expanded at this time.

All the participants in the Napoleonic Wars. Blue: The Coalition and their colonies andallies. Green: The First French Empire, its protectorates and colonies.

The initial stages of the IndustrialRevolution had much to do with largermilitary forcesit became easy tomass-produce weapons and thus toequip significantly larger forces. TheUK served as the largest singlemanufacturer of armaments in thisperiod, supplying most of the weaponsused by the Coalition powersthroughout the conflicts (althoughusing relatively few itself). Franceproduced the second-largest total of

armaments, equipping its own huge forces as well as those of the Confederation of the Rhine and other allies.

Napoleon himself showed innovative tendencies in his use of mobility to offset numerical disadvantages, asbrilliantly demonstrated in the rout of the Austro-Russian forces in 1805 in the Battle of Austerlitz. The FrenchArmy reorganized the role of artillery, forming independent, mobile units, as opposed to the previous tradition ofattaching artillery pieces in support of troops. Napoleon standardized cannonball sizes to ensure easier resupply andcompatibility among his army's artillery pieces.

Another advance affected warfare: the semaphore system had allowed the French War-Minister, Carnot, tocommunicate with French forces on the frontiers throughout the 1790s. The French continued to use this systemthroughout the Napoleonic wars. Additionally, aerial surveillance came into use for the first time when the Frenchused a hot-air balloon to survey Coalition positions before the Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794. Advances inordnance and rocketry also occurred in the course of the conflict.

Last veterans Geert Adriaans Boomgaard (17881899) was the last surviving veteran. He fought for France in the 33me

Rgiment Lger [20]

Louis Victor Baillot (17931898) also from France, was the last Battle of Waterloo veteran. He also saw actionat the siege of Hamburg.(See an 1898 photograph [21])

Pedro Martinez (17891898) was the last Battle of Trafalgar veteran. He served in the Spanish navy on SanJuan Nepomuceno.[20]

Josephine Mazurkewicz (17841896) was the last female veteran. She was an assistant surgeon in Napoleon'sarmy and later participated in the Crimean War.

Pvt Morris Shea (17951892) of the 73rd Foot was the last British veteran.[22]

Sir Provo Wallis (17911892) was the last Royal Navy officer. He saw action on HMS Shannon during the Warof 1812.

Pictures of French veterans in uniform [23]

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In fiction Leo Tolstoy's epic novel, War and Peace recounts Napoleon's wars between 1805 and 1812 (especially the

disastrous 1812 invasion of Russia and subsequent retreat) from a Russian perspective. Stendhal's novel The Charterhouse of Parma opens with a ground-level recounting of the Battle of Waterloo and

the subsequent chaotic retreat of French forces. Les Misrables by Victor Hugo takes place against the backdrop of the Napoleonic War and subsequent decades,

and in its unabridged form contains an epic telling of the Battle of Waterloo. Adieu is a novella by Honor de Balzac in which can be found a short description of the French retreat from

Russia, particularly the battle of Berezina, where the fictional couple of the story are tragically separated. Yearslater after imprisonment, the husband returns to find his wife still in a state of utter shock and amnesia. He has thebattle and their separation reenacted, hoping the memory will heal her state.

William Makepeace Thackeray's novel Vanity Fair takes place during the Napoleonic Warsone of itsprotagonists dies at the Battle of Waterloo.

The Duel, a short story by Joseph Conrad, recounts the story based on true events of two French Hussar officerswho carry a long grudge and fight in duels each time they meet during the Napoleonic wars. The short story wasadapted by director Ridley Scott into the 1977 Cannes Film Festival's Best First Work award winning film TheDuellists.

Le Colonel Chabert by Honor de Balzac. After being severely wounded during the battle of Eylau (1807),Chabert, a famous colonel of the cuirassiers, was erroneously recorded as dead and buried unconscious withFrench casualties. After extricating himself from his own grave and is nursed back to health by local peasants, ittakes several years for him to recover. When he returns in the Paris of the Bourbon Restoration, he discovers thathis "widow", a former prostitute that Chabert made rich and honourable, has married the wealthy Count Ferraud.She has also liquidated all of Chabert's belongings and pretends to not recognize her first husband. Seeking toregain his name and monies that were wrongly given away as inheritance, he hires Derville, an attorney, to winback his money and his honor.

The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, pre starts during the tail-end of the Napoleonic Wars. Themain character, Edmond Dants, suffers imprisonment following false accusations of Bonapartist leanings.

The novelist Jane Austen lived much of her life during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and twoof her brothers served in the Royal Navy. Austen almost never refers to specific dates or historical events in hernovels, but wartime England forms part of the general backdrop to several of them: in Pride and Prejudice (1813,but possibly written during the 1790s), the local militia (civilian volunteers) has been called up for home defenceand its officers play an important role in the plot; in Mansfield Park (1814), Fanny Price's brother William is amidshipman (officer in training) in the Royal Navy; and in Persuasion (1818), Frederic Wentworth and severalother characters are naval officers recently returned from service.

Charlotte Bront's novel Shirley (1849), set during the Napoleonic Wars, explores some of the economic effectsof war on rural Yorkshire.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Brigadier Gerard serves as a French soldier during the Napoleonic Wars Fyodor Dostoevsky's book The Idiot had a character, General Ivolgin, who witnessed and recounted his

relationship with Napoleon during the Campaign of Russia. The Hornblower books by C.S. Forester follow the naval career of Horatio Hornblower during the Napoleonic

Wars. The AubreyMaturin series of novels is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick O'Brian portraying the rise

of Jack Aubrey from Lieutenant to Rear Admiral during the Napoleonic Wars. The film Master and Commander:The Far Side of the World starring Russell Crowe and directed by Peter Weir is based on this series of books.

The Sharpe series by Bernard Cornwell star the character Richard Sharpe, a soldier in the British Army, whofights throughout the Napoleonic Wars.

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leo_Tolstoyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=War_and_Peacehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stendhalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Charterhouse_of_Parmahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Waterloohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Les_Mis%C3%A9rableshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Hugohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Waterloohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adieu_%28novella%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Novellahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Honor%C3%A9_de_Balzachttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Berezinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Makepeace_Thackerayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vanity_Fair_%28novel%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Conradhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hussarhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ridley_Scotthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1977_Cannes_Film_Festivalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Duellistshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Duellistshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Le_Colonel_Chabert_%28novel%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Honor%C3%A9_de_Balzachttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Eylauhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cuirassierhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parishttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bourbon_Restorationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Count_of_Monte_Cristohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexandre_Dumas%2C_p%C3%A8rehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edmond_Dant%C3%A8shttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jane_Austenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Royal_Navyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pride_and_Prejudicehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Militiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mansfield_Parkhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Midshipmanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Royal_Navyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Persuasionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charlotte_Bront%C3%ABhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shirley_%28novel%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sir_Arthur_Conan_Doylehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brigadier_Gerardhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fyodor_Dostoevskyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Idiot_%28novel%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Horatio_Hornblowerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=C.S._Foresterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aubrey%E2%80%93Maturin_serieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_novelshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Patrick_O%27Brianhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Master_and_Commander:_The_Far_Side_of_the_Worldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Master_and_Commander:_The_Far_Side_of_the_Worldhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Russell_Crowehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peter_Weirhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Sharpe_%28fictional_character%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bernard_Cornwell

Napoleonic Wars 17

The Bloody Jack book series by Louis A. Meyer is set during the Second Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars, andretells many famous battles of the age. The heroine, Jacky, soon meets none other than Bonaparte himself.

The Napoleonic Wars provide the backdrop for The Emperor, The Victory, The Regency and The Campaigners,Volumes 11, 12, 13 and 14 respectively of The Morland Dynasty, a series of historical novels by author CynthiaHarrod-Eagles.

The Richard Bolitho series by Alexander Kent novels portray this period of history from a naval perspective. Dinah Dean's series of historical novels are set against the background of the Napoleonic Wars and are told from

a Russian perspective - "The Road to Kaluga", "Flight From the Eagle", "The Eagle's Fate", "The Wheel ofFortune", "The Green Gallant" - follow a small group of soldiers (and their relatives) over months of campaigningfrom the fall of Moscow up to the liberation of Paris, the last 3 books - "The Ice King", "Tatya's Story", "TheRiver of Time" - fall some years later but have the same cast of characters.

Julian Stockwin's Thomas Kydd series portrays one man's journey from pressed man to Admiral in the time of theFrench and Napoleonic Wars

Simon Scarrow - Napoleonic series. Rise of Napoleon and Wellington from humble beginnings to history's mostremarkable and notable leaders. 4 books in the series.

The Lord Ramage series by Dudley Pope takes place during the Napoleonic Wars. Jeanette Winterson's 1987 novel The Passion (book)Science fiction and fantasy Bryan Talbot's graphic novel Grandville is set in an alternate history in which France won the Napoleonic War,

invaded Britain and guillotined the British Royal Family. The Temeraire series by Naomi Novik takes place in alternate-universe Napoleonic Wars where dragons exist and

serve in combat.

Notes[1] Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books.

ISBN0465023282.[2] McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2, 215.[3] Buffinton, Arthur H. The Second Hundred Years' War, 16891815. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1929. See also: Crouzet, Francois.

"The Second Hundred Years War: Some Reflections". French History 10 (1996), pp. 432450. and Scott, H. M. Review: "The Second'Hundred Years War' 16891815". The Historical Journal 35 (1992), pp. 443469.

[4] Kennedy, Paul, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers - economic change and military conflict from 1500 to 2000 (London 1989), pp. 128-9[5] Auguste Mayer's picture as described by the official website of the Muse national de la Marine (in French) (http:/ / www. musee-marine. fr/

cartel2. php?id=55)[6] "Napoleon I - MSN Encarta" (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ encyclopedia_761566988/ napoleon_i. html). Napoleon I - MSN Encarta.

Encarta.msn.com. . Retrieved 15 January 2009.[7] The Geopolitics of Anglo-Irish Relations in the Twentieth Century P103[8] National Maritime Museum (http:/ / www. nmm. ac. uk/ collections/ nelson/ viewCategory. cfm/ category/ 90346/ browseMode/ century)[9] Letter at the time (http:/ / www. napoleon. org/ en/ reading_room/ articles/ files/ omeara_napo_invasion. asp)[10] Riehn, Richard K. pp. 138140[11] Reihn, Richard K, p.185[12] Riehn, pp. 253254.[13] Riehn, pp. 253254.[14] With Napoleon in Russia, The Memoirs of General Coulaincourt, Chapter VI 'The Fire' pp. 109107 Pub. William Morrow and Co 1945[15] The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia, page 17, Hertfordshire 1993[16] Hofschroer, pp. 171-191[17] Hofschroer, pp. 255-257[18] Hofschroer, pp 325-330[19] "Napoleon's Total War" (http:/ / www. historynet. com/ wars_conflicts/ napoleonic_wars/ 6361907. html). HistoryNet.com. . Retrieved 18

November 2008.[20] "Derniers vtrans de l'Arme napolonienne, Premier Empire" (http:/ / derniersveterans. free. fr/ napoleon1. html). Derniersveterans.free.fr.

. Retrieved 15 January 2009.[21] http:/ / unitedcats. files. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 06/ louis-victor_baillot. gif

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bloody_Jack_%28novel%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_A._Meyerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Morland_Dynastyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cynthia_Harrod-Eagleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cynthia_Harrod-Eagleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Bolithohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Douglas_Reemanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dinah_Deanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Julian_Stockwinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Simon_Scarrowhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lord_Ramagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dudley_Popehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jeanette_Wintersonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Passion_%28book%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bryan_Talbothttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Graphic_novelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Grandville_%28comics%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alternate_historyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guillotinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=British_Royal_Familyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Temeraire_%28series%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Naomi_Novikhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parallel_universe_%28fiction%29http://www.musee-marine.fr/cartel2.php?id=55http://www.musee-marine.fr/cartel2.php?id=55http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566988/napoleon_i.htmlhttp://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/nelson/viewCategory.cfm/category/90346/browseMode/centuryhttp://www.napoleon.org/en/reading_room/articles/files/omeara_napo_invasion.asphttp://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/napoleonic_wars/6361907.htmlhttp://derniersveterans.free.fr/napoleon1.htmlhttp://unitedcats.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/louis-victor_baillot.gif

Napoleonic Wars 18

[22] "Photos of Napoleonic War Veterans in Wars in History Channel" (http:/ / boards. historychannel. com/ thread. jspa?threadID=520002112).Boards.historychannel.com. 31 May 2008. . Retrieved 15 January 2009.

[23] http:/ / www. armchairgeneral. com/ forums/ showthread. php?t=72496

References Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN0-465-04879-X. Blanning, T. C. W. (2002). The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

ISBN0198227450. Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. HarperCollins. ISBN0006375219. Pope, Stephen (199