Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Napoleonic Era
Napoleonic EraChapter 21 Sections 4 & 5Rise of NapoleonMaking a name 1797 - 1815New tactics, swift movements to critical areasGreat motivatorDefeats Austria 4x 1797 gets all of Northern ItalyLied about his success in Egypt!!!
Come to powerPerfect StormFrance had its back against the wallSupporters saw Napoleon as the only answerMilitary forced most of the members to leave the legislatureStaged a coup detat!
The Consulate1st Five years of Napoleons RuleReorganized govt to give himself unlimited powerExecutive branch 3 Consuls (Napoleon is 1st)Commanded the Army/NavyCould appoint/dismiss most officialsPropose laws legislative bodies just approved/reject his decisionsPlebiscite ppl voted on the new constitution yes or no
Accomplishments in GovtNapoleonic Code French Civil CodeNo privileges based on birthFreedom of ReligionGovt jobs go to the most qualifiedEst Bank of FrancePublic education planned by National ConventionHigh Schools, Universities & tech schoolsElementary ed controlled by churches & local govsConcordat allowed religious freedomChurch gave up claims to property govt had seized and sold during RevNapoleon As Emperor1805 Continental SystemBlockade of British Isles Napoleon had control of most of EU
Reorganization of EuropeMembers of family became Monarchs of conquered countries
Peninsular WarWar on Iberian Peninsula 1808-1814 Spain, Portugal & GB1807 Portugal refuses the Continental System econ relies on trade w/GB 1813 Spanish w/GB help drive out Joseph BonaparteNew Constitution limited monarchy (French Rev Ideas)
Napoleons Big Mistake1812 Russia started trading with GB againNapoleon built the Grand Army (600k) marched on RussiaLured deep into the country Russians used scorched-earthRetreated after the fall of Moscow/series of critical errors2/3 of Army died by Prussia Russia & allies invaded France1814 End of Napoleonic EraNapoleon retired to Elba, ItalyLouis XVIII reinstated as monarch of France
The Hundred DaysNapoleon Comes out of RetirementFrench were unhappy with Louis XVIIINapoleon escaped Elba, returned to FranceMarch 20 Napoleon leads army to Paris Louis XVIII flees to exile Napoleon back in powerShowdown in WaterlooJune 18, 1815 Allies & France meet Napoleons final defeatMonarchy restored againNapoleon sent to St. Helena guarded for life died 1821
Congress of ViennaCongress of ViennaCongress of ambassadors from Europe decisions made mostly by GB, Austria, Prussia & RussiaPrinciples of the CongressCountries who lost the most to Napoleon had to be repaidBalance of Power needed to be restored in EuropeDecisions to follow rule of legitimacy, former ruling families should be restored to the throneCompensation leads to disarrayNetherlands Austrian Netherlands backAustria - +2 northern Italian statesSweden gets Norway (punishes Denmark for helping Napoleon)Prussia territory along the Rhine RiverGB Islands in the West Indies & MediterraneanFrance paid an indemnity ($$) to countries it caused dmg toBourbon Monarchy restored in France, Spain & Kingdom of 2 SiciliesReactionary AlliancesReactionaries those who oppose change, want life to return to previous standardNapoleon increased nationalism new groups wanted new govtQuadruple AllianceAustria, GB, Prussia & Russia continued previous alliance to prevent the end of Monarchy in Europe1818 France joins = Quintuple AllianceCzar Alexander urged leader to sign the Holy Alliance rule as ChristiansConcert of EuropeFormed from these alliances international governance by concert or agreementMaintain balance of power effective until 1848Age of MetternichPrince Metternich AustriaInfluenced EU politics for 30 yrs after Cong of ViennaReactionary believed in absolute monarchyFeared liberalism revolutionary thinking, individual rights, rule of lawFor suppression of free speech & pressSet up Austrian version of CIA to spy on revolutionariesSystem worked for a while but ended in 1829 with the Greek revolution