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The Nordic Association of Architectural Research NAF 2016 Booklet of Abstracts The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic Countries Eds, Charlie Gullström Hughes, Daniel Koch, Magnus Rönn, Anne Elisabeth Toft
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  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research

    NAF 2016 Booklet of Abstracts

    The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic Countries

    Eds, Charlie Gullstrm Hughes, Daniel Koch, Magnus Rnn, Anne Elisabeth Toft

  • Title: NAF 2016, Booklet of Abstracts

    Publisher: The Nordic Association of Architectural Research

    Year: 2016

    Author(s): Charlie Gullstrm Hughes, Daniel Koch, Magnus Rnn, Anne Elisabeth Toft


  • Content:






  • Foreword

    Nordisk Arkitekturforskning (NAF) is an independent association of architectural researchers from universities and schools of architecture in the Nordic countries. The association has existed since 1987. Its primary function is to facilitate the research collaborations of its mem-bers and their exchange and dissemination of research results. Through its research sympo-sia and its peer-reviewed scientific journal NJAR, NAF sets a standard for the scientific and artistic level of architectural research produced in the Nordic countries. NAF represents a pluralist approach to research in the area of architecture, urban planning and landscape ar-chitecture, supporting academic freedom and scientific independence. It welcomes re-searchers from PhD-level to senior researcher level, providing them with critical mass and an engaging and supportive research community. NAF symposia are held once a year. They are important platforms for critical reflection on architecture and architectural research in the Nordic countries. The fact that the symposia are conceptualized and organized in collaboration with various partners and each year host-ed by a different university or school of architecture ensures their dynamic and democratic format. Each year the symposium is focusing its discussions on a topic or theoretical frame-work representing the current research interests of NAF and its collaborating partner. The plug-in structure of NAF symposia allows for cross over collaborations between research institutions, and it stimulates individual researchers to explore new research contexts and cultures within the larger research community of NAF. The 2016 NAF symposium The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic Countries is a co-production between NAF and the PhD School at KTH Stock-holm. Due to their shared interest in mapping and critically discussing the latest research taking place in the Nordic countries, the symposium will focus on PhD projects which are currently being carried out in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. In a self-reflexive manner, NAF and the PhD School at KTH Stockholm will raise a number of epistemological questions regarding the notion of architecture and architectural research as it presents itself in various research contexts. The symposium has been generously supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council Formas and Sven Tyrns Stiftelse, for which KTH Stockholm and NAF are very grateful. Anne Elisabeth Toft President of Nordisk Arkitekturforskning (NAF)

  • Introduction What does a PhD in architecture lead to? What kind of PhD research is carried out in the Nordic countries, why, and how? What does performing research in architecture mean? What is the relevance and value of PhD research in architecture for the architectural educa-tion, the profession and society? What are the traditions and cultures of research at Nordic PhD schools, universities, institutes, art academies, architectural offices, municipalities and the industry? What is the significance of research settings in the Nordic countries for the emergence of research practices, formats, methods and discourses that determine the way we understand architecture as a field of research? Researcher training in and about architecture has gained visibility over the past 25 years. Since the 1990s institutional and individual based frameworks for PhD training have been developed at both schools of architecture and universities. This has not just created an extra level of qualification but has also contributed to a reflective interest in the architectural field in the broadest sense: interior design, architectural design, city and landscape planning, urban-ism, architectural history and architectural heritage, conservation and preservation - in short, all forms of spatial culture. For 25 years The Nordic Association of Architectural Research has been a unifying key play-er for architectural research in the Nordic countries, and thus also an important representa-tive for the different research cultures at PhD schools. With the symposium The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic Countries the association wants to shed light on and map architectural research by starting a critical discussion on PhD re-search. At the symposium this will be done by asking questions about the benefit, relevance, formats, explorations, and interfaces of research - and about its current state and the per-spectives for its future. The symposium seeks to connect subjective experience with the discipline-specific issues that researcher training programmes have made possible as PhD training has gained ground. Which notions on architecture have been promoted? What methodologies have been developed? In what way have the forms of presentation and dissemination changed since the 1990s? The mapping will take into consideration differences and similarities between the Nordic na-tions and between their different discursive traditions. Fundamentally, researcher training in and about architecture supports an institutionalised process of knowledge production that, among other things, includes grants, PhD positions, supervision, courses, project work, etc. From the perspective of The Nordic Association of Architectural Research it is also essential to make visible and discuss these elements in order to support trans-disciplinary and cross-institutional research development in the wide-ranging field of architecture. The symposium aims at illustrating the Nordic research community and its positioning in a self-reflexive manner by putting into perspective the above. It is primarily aimed at PhD stu-dents and PhD supervisors, but will be relevant to anyone who works with research and knowledge production within interior design, architectural design, urban design and devel-

  • opment, landscape architecture and physical planning, architectural history and theory or architectural heritage, conservation and preservation and who has an interest in the episte-mological questions raised by the way the concept of architecture and the concept of re-search are interpreted in various research-related contexts. The symposium aims at provid-ing a broad platform for researchers, educators and professionals to share views, results and experiences on the production of knowledge in architecture, and it welcomes representatives from both academia and practice. Nordic as well as International PhD-supervisors and senior researchers can attend the symposium.

    The symposium invites all PhD students in the Nordic countries who engage in architectural research. It gives participants an opportunity to present their dissertation projects and dis-cuss their experience from researcher training in a qualified context. The symposium have been aimed at PhD students who have dissertation projects in the following areas of re-search: Interior design Architectural design Urban design and development Landscape architecture and physical planning Architectural theory and history Architectural heritage, conservation and preservation The Call for Papers resulted in 43 abstracts. After a blind review process conducted by the scientific committee 31 abstracts by PhD students have been accepted for paper presenta-tion at the symposium. These abstracts are presented unedited in this booklet of abstracts, where they have been collected in an arbitrary order. The symposium will take place in Stockholm in 2016, 19-20 May. Charlie Gullstrm Hughes, Daniel Koch, Magnus Rnn, Anne Elisabeth Toft Organizing committee

  • Authors

    Anja Standal, PhD student The Norwegian University of Life Sciences

    Anna Katrine Hougaard, PhD stipendiat

    IThe Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design & Conservation

    Anne Corlin, PhD fellow Kolding Design School

    Anne Sigrid Nordby, PhD student, Asplan Viak Trondhem,

    Catarina Tormark, PhD student, Malm University, Sren Nielsen, PhD fellow, Vandkunsten

    Barbro Grude Eikseth, PhD student

    Oslo School of Architecture and Design

    Bente Melgaard, PhD student Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University

    Claudia Auer, PhD student

    Aalto University

    Collins Sasakah Makunda, PhD fellow Oslo School of Architecture and Design

    Elin Manker, PhD student

    Stockholm University

    Elin T. Srensen, PhD candidate Norwegian University of Life Sciences

    Elisabeth Sjdahl, PhD student

    Oslo School of Architecture and Design

    Espen Lunde Nielsen, PhD student Aarhus School of Architecture

    Fabio Hernandez-Palacio, PhDsStudent

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    Inger-Marie Hlmebakk, PhD student Oslo School of architecture and design

    Ira Verma, PhD student

    Aalto University

  • Iver Tangen Stensrud, PhD candidate Oslo School of architecture and design

    Kaisa Kilpelinen, PhD student

    Aalto University

    Katja Maununaho, PhD student TUT School of Architecture

    Kristine Sundahl, PhD student

    The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design & Conservation

    Anders Kruse Aagaard, PhD fellow Aarhus School of Architecture

    Mathilde Sprovin, PhD stipendiat

    Oslo School of architecture and design

    Morten Birk Jrgensen, PhD student, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design & Conservation

    Natalie Koerne, PhD candidate

    The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design & Conservation

    Nicholas Thomas Lee, PhD fellow The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design & Conservation

    Ola Svenle, PhD student

    KTH/School of Architecture

    Saija Hollmn, PhD student Aalto University

    Torben Thyregod, PhD Student

    The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design and Conservation

    Turid B. ien, PhD student Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Denmark

    Ute Groba, PhD fellow

    The Oslo School of Architecture and Design

    Yrsa Cronhjort, PhD student Aalto University

  • Abstracts

    Title: X


    This paper looks at the interface between public and private realms through microe morphological spatial investigation and the key role this plays within Compact City development, a preferred response in attaining sustainability in the Norwegian urban environment. The paper forms part of a PhD, which aims to develop better methods of practice for urban densification investigating and testing potential solutions for publice private interface and how this contributes quality to the urban realm. A vital aspect of the research is to understand the relationship between public and private space in the compact city, going a step further from policy and planning to investigate the spatial realm.

    A focus on the understanding of physical urban form in a compact city framework is approached through the field of Urban Morphology. This looks to assess how spatial connections, details and design on the microe morphological level can give knowledge and vital input to meso and macro level. It explores Urban Morphology as a method in architectural research together with the fundamental principles that comprise the theoretical basis of that field. A key focus in this will be a discussion of the content of the term microa morphology and what role it can play in urban architectural research.

    The hypothesis for this paper is that the spatial details and microe morphological urban design elements of the interface zone play a significant role in densification processes and compact city development. A photographic survey of publice private interfaces in a range of neighbourhoods within the compact city framework will be conducted and serve as an important empirical basis for the paper. In addition, a systematic literature survey of relevant books and contemporary articles will support the findings. This aims to gain an understanding of the interface zone in reale life and theory by describing, reducing, sorting and analyzing data, to find patterns and develop a typology.

    Keywords: compact city, urban densification, publica private interface, urban morphology, microa morphology

    Contact details:


  • Title: X



    Mit Ph.d. projekt, der er udf0rt p KADK i K0benhavn handler om den konventionelle arkitekturtegnings

    intenst diskuterede rolle i dens nuvcerende computeriserede kontekst, hvor nogle arkitekter og

    arkitekturteoretikere, f.eks. Mario Carpo,1 forudser at tegningen er et udd0ende fcenomen.2 Dette stemmer

    dog ikke overens med samtidens realitet, svel som at en 'enten tegning eller computer' distinktion virker

    alt for grov og temmelig u-nyttig.

    Ph.d.en foreslr, at den cendring der sker i samtidens arkitekturmedier snarere lader sig beskrive som en

    form for mutation,3 hvorfra meget forskelligartede blandingsformer mellem analoge og digitale

    mediepraksisser fremkommer. Af denne grund bliver en h0jnet mediebevidsthed meget vigtig for

    arkitekter. Desuden foreslr ph.d.en, at den konventionelle arkitekturtegning - scerligt med henblik p plan,

    snit, og opstalt - spiller en n0glerolle som en form for delt 'arvemasse' fra hvilken nye mediepraksisser

    bryder frem.

    Ph.d.en er udf0rt som 'artistic research' - kort sagt betyder dette for projektets metodologi og

    arbejdsmde, at mine egne tegninger finder en plads i den teoretiske del af ph.d.en, hvor tegning bruges til

    at tcenke over de samme temaer, som behandles i den teoretiske del af projektet.

    Det at tcenke-igennem-tegning-og-design-proces betones og underst0ttes ved at koble videnskabsteori

    omhandlende det at r

  • Title: X


    Superkilen is a public park, located at Ydre N0rrebro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It barders

    Mj0lnerparken1 one of the most deprived social housing areas in Den mark. It is a former working

    dass district that is now a multicultural area with mixed income groups. For many years it had a

    reputation for severe social problems. In 2005 the Copenhagen Municipality and the Real Dania fund

    initiated a renewal project for the city area. Superkilen was a part of this plan. The aim was to deal

    with the problems of migration in this neighbourhood.

    The research question for this study deals with the way Superkilen urban renewal has influenced the

    social life in Mj0lnerparken and Ydre N0rrebro.

    Data collection for this study was done by triangulating three methods: field observations, literature

    studies from books, articles and films about the project and qualitative interviews. The interviews

    are with 50 different informants consisting of residents living in Superkilen, inhabitants in

    Mj0lnerparken and key stakeholders in the neighbourhood, who have also being involved in the

    process of renewing of the park.

    The findings from the case study are elaborated and discussed in relation to the hierarchy and social

    parameters outlined in Eckhardt and Stauskis (2011). Through case studies in Vilnius and Weimar,

    Eckhardt and Stauskis discuss how urban spaces can support social life on different scales. Those are

    the neighbourhood, the local territorial community, the city and nation.

    The findings from Superkilen are also discussed in relation to theory about performative architecture

    and an increasing focus on architecture and design's narrative significance.

    This paper shows the way the different levels of organisation (neighbourhood, local territorial

    community, city and nation) affects the social interaction between people in the city.

    It also indicates that creating an urban park that is an urban art exhibition and which takes the

    multiculturality of the neighbourhood as a starting point, also has a beneficial effect on the social life

    in the area.

    Keywords Urban spaces, social sustainability, physica/ configuration. interaction, storyte/ling, performative design



  • NAF Symposium 2016


    Title: X


    Even though all Nordic countries show very high rates of reusing building waste, a vast amount of

    embodied energy from manufacturing and construction processes is lost in down-cycling processes.

    High-level reuse requires changes in the current construction practice. Future construction practice

    may be based upon strategies for preserving material resources - its embodied energy and its cultural

    value, including:

    1. Repurposing of building waste from demolishing and dismantling operations. Repurposing is defined

    as high-level reuse where components change function and position in the classification system.

    2. Reversible assembly methods preparing for future dismantling and repurposing. Reversible assembly

    method is defined as design for disassembly aiming for direct reuse in same function.

    In the publicly co-funded innovation-project Nordic Built Component Reuse a series of full-scale

    product prototypes were created in an explorative process in order to exemplify and demonstrate

    practical pursuing of such strategies. Processes were mapped and Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) were


    As the cases confront the regimes of current regulations and market conditions, numerous obstacles

    and dilemmas are revealed:

    A technological gap, where a mutual dependency exists between the critical demand for

    secondary products and the invention of more advanced demolition tools.

    An environmental challenge in documenting compliance with current critical limits for toxins

    in waste.

    A commonly found cultural resistance towards the aesthetics of weathering wear and tear.

    The above obstacles disregarded, a novel architectural potential results from the resource preserving

    strategies, including:

    lncreased uncertainties and larger construction tolerances found with repurposed

    components, which leads to novel assembly motifs.

    Visible connections enabling dismantling can articulate the identity of buildings by forming

    ornamental motifs.

    Architectural typologies emerged as a consequence of resource-preserving strategies.


    Reversible construction, repurposing, structural hierarchy, life-cycle hierarchy, technology gap,

    cultural inertia, assembly details, tectonic language

  • The Non.lic Association of Architecturnl Research S) mposium 2016 in Stockholm: The

    Prod11ctio11 of Knn11'/edge in Archi1eC111re hy PhD Re\C:affh in the Nordic Co11111rie.,

    Title: X

    Stikkord: Ark itekturforkning. ark itektutdanning. ark itektprofesjonen. profesjonsforstaelsc.

    kunnskapsteori. profes_ionsk unnskap. 1, crrfaglige perspekti,er



    Arkitektprofesjon og arkitektutdanning er et lite utforsket felt, bde i nordisk og europeisk

    sammenheng. PhD-prosjektet Arkitekter i emning - profesjom:forstelser i norsk arkitektutdanning

    (under arbeid) bidrar dermed til utvikling av el viktig kunnskapsfelt med stort utviklingspotensial. I

    avhandlingen unders0ker jeg hvilke former for profesjonsforstelse man kan finne i dagens

    arkitektutdanning, og hvordan disse str i forhold til krav og forventninger i arkitektpraksis, med

    srerlig vekt p dialog og samhandling med brukere (og klienter). Avhandlingen er et kvalitativt

    forskningsarbeid, i hovedsak inspirert av samfunnsfaglige metoder og teknikker (intervjuer,

    observasjoner med mer).

    Hensikten med artikkelen er belyse det kunnskapsteoretiske grunnlaget i avhandlingen, med

    utgangspunkt i profesjonsteoretiske perspektiver p kunnskap. Det trekkes et grunnleggende skille

    mellom profesjonskunnskap og vitenskapelige disipliners kunnskapsbase (Grimen 2008). I motsetning

    til vitenskapelige disipliner som fysikk, lingvistikk, sosiologi eller 0konomi, har profesjonene sine

    forml utenfor seg selv; de har et praktisk sikteml. Praktisk kunnskap str er dermed sentralt i

    profesjonenes kunnskapsanvendelse (Aristoteles, Johannessen 1984, Polanyi 1967). Det er den enkelte,

    konkrete arbeidsoppgaven som bestemmer hvilke kunnskapselementer som er relevant, og hvordan de

    knyttes sammen. Profesjonsut0vere m i de fleste tilfeller anvende kunnskap fra.flere u/ike

    kunnskapsfelt i sitt arbeid, og har dermed en heterogen kunnskapsbase. Det er et av trekkene som

    skiller profesjoner fra disipliner, som har en homogen kunnskapsbase. Dette diskuteres i forhold til

    teorien om the making disciplines (Dunin-Woyseth 2002).

    Artikkelen viser at jeg, arkitekt og profesjonsut0ver, ogs somforsker bygger p en tverrfaglig og

    sammensatt kunnskapsbase. Det er avhandlingens problemstilling og forskningsmateriale som gir

    foringer for hvilke teorier og kunnskapselementer som er relevante. Kunnskapsbasen er utviklet i

    dialog med litteratur og fagpersoner innenfor de respektive fagomrdene, men er hele veien forankret

    i arkitektfaglige perspektiver og prosjektets problemstillinger. Artikkelen viser at avhandlingens ulike

    kunnskapselementer dermed m sees og vurderes som noe annet enn i en disiplinfaglig kontekst.

    Artikkelens underoverskrifter:

    1. lnnledning. Kort om eget PhD-prosjekt

    2. Profesjonsteoretiske perspektiver p kunnskap vs. teorien om the "Making


    3. Avhandlingens konkrete kunnskapsgrunnlag. Prosess og resultat.

    4. Konkluderende refleksjoner

    5. Referanser


  • Abstract to Nordic Association of Architectural Symposium 2016 in Stockholm


    Title: X

    This paper will outline the research methods, which are used to explore suburban life and suburban space. Through architectural analysis and urban life registrations a study of suburban physical frames are conducted to reflect upon how the space have im pact and shape the use of the suburban public spaces. There are relatively many people who pass the suburban spaces, hut fewer who actually make a stay - because the frames are not offering the possibilities. Therefore, to comprehend the people, their everyday life and the social connections of the suburb, anthropology methods are also tested in the project. Qualitative interviews, logbook and fieldwork have been used to see and engage with the lived everyday life, as it is taking place in a typical

    Danish suburb. As a result of this interest, my family and I have moved in to the case study area 'S0ndermarken' in Vejle for 9 months. From here the everyday life and the social connections and community was examined through daily registrations (pictures, notes and GPS-tracking) and broad participation in collective activities of the suburb.

    The objective is to see how the physical connections have impact on the social connections in the suburb and to find potentials in the everyday life to develop suitable suburban spaces.


    Suburbs, urban life, urban space, methods, architecture, anthropology, physical and social connections.

  • Title: X

    Finnish kindergarten architecture is created based on a state of need for space. Buildings are accurately designed to

    predefined program, standards and regulations within strictly limited schedule and budget. How and whether the

    objective ofarchitectural quality has been defined depends on the form ofthe acquisition. The clients and project

    partners will and skill to define architecture mostly forms the baseline for the project.


    The doctoral research examines Finnish school and kindergarten construction practice f om the perspective of

    architecture. How is architecture created?

    This study concentrates on the Suurpelto case. The Suurpelto Childrens House is built based on a competition

    winning entry for the City of Espoo. The project has been a case project for several research studies on sustainable

    building design. It was planned and built as pilot project for energy efficient building construction. The aim ofthis

    paper is to investigate the role of architecture in the kindergartens design practice in relation to knowledge

    creation. The author and architect hersel fis the research er.

    Hermeneutic narrative writing tries to capture the process of getting to know the known in profession. The paper

    introduces autoreflective writing as starting point in practice led architectural research. Knowledge produced in

    pragmatic architecture practice is knowledge by doing hut not knowing. Handling the mess in the professional

    practice is a process led by embodied tacit knowledge. The professional architect uses her knowledge as starting

    point for architectural quality. By addressing words as concreter of architectural knowledge in different contextual

    situations the idea of architecture is transformed into projective sense. Projective practice in architecture is

    transformed into an oscillative project in the practice of architectural research.

    The central point ofthe research is the research question 'what!*?architecture?+!!!#' Only by introducing a research

    question as leading line through the fictional autobiographic narrative the method ofreflecting on one owns practice

    can be addressed as research. Production of subjectivity is a significant factor for value production in architecture.

    Thus the recognition of subjective knowing in research is suggested to form an important method in architectural

    knowledge production.


    keywords: architecture, practice led research, project, knowledge production

  • Author: NN

    Title: X

    Key words: PhD research, East Africa, Urban Context, Methodology, AHO.


    Over the years a number of PhDs have successfully been completed at the Oslo School of Architecture

    and Design (AHO) with a focus on the urban context of East Africa. In the research undertaken in the

    PhDs, various divergent and interrelated facets of the urban context have been explored. This paper

    reviews the architectural and urbanism knowledge gained from the research that has been undertaken

    thus far and especially what has been achievable through the methodologies employed. The paper

    highlights some of the lessons learned and challenges encountered in the research as documented in

    these pioneering PhDs as well as research opportunities made possible by what has been accomplished

    so far. The author's own current PhD research is focused on the urban context of East Africa and

    especially one that is now rapidly transforming as typified by the specific case of Nairobi's residential

    habitats and seeks to build on prior related research on the region. Methodologically, the investigations

    for the paper are undertaken through a review of previous AHO PhDs that deal with any of a number of

    aspects of the built environment in the urban context of East Africa. The paper's findings are that:

    knowledge on the nature of urban informality in the East African context has been gained through the

    research undertaken for the PhDs although room still exists to further expand the knowledge of the built

    environment; valuable lessons have been learnt on how to undertake sim ilar research and these should

    inform further research; strategies have been developed by the researchers for overcoming some of the

    challenges encountered in the collection of empirical data but other challenges still remain; and

    opportunities exist for pushing the knowledge frontier much further especially in terms of how the

    empirical findings are discovered, documented and disseminated.

  • Abstract for attending the Conference The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic Countries


    Title: X



    My on-going PhD-project (working title: Historicism as aesthetic strategy. Design criticism

    and practice in Sweden 1850-1890) concerns the aesthetic debate during 191h century

    regarding interior design, and more specifically the arguments that encapsulated historicism

    and eclecticism as an appropriate, or not appropriate, way of designing, as well as the pros

    and eons of industrial production processes at the time. The main source is periodicals that

    dealt with these issues. Being in the beginning of my investigation, I am looking for proper

    theoretical and methodological approaches to think about and treat this debate. In my

    paper I want to discuss and give examples of how to tackle this, a sharing of my

    work-in-progress that hopefully opens for discussions on theory, methods and experiences

    related to research that looks inta architecture and design as producers of knowledge.

    At core in my thesis is a communication process between editors of the journals and

    target groups, and between editors and a wider European movement, where the call is to

    enlighten the bourgeoisie and affect society. At stake are also the design objects themselves. I

    will therefore tum to Actor-Network Theory in the first place for handling this matter. ANT

    has been used in design research during the last decade, the approach is not new in that

    sense, but it has scarcely been used when it comes to 191h century issues. One can wonder: is this a fruitful approach or is ANT adapted more to contemporary practices? Moreover, I have

    noted that both Latour and Law lately have tum to the arts for new inspiration in research

    methods.' I therefore want to rise the question what it mean to

    art/architecture/design researchers when sociologists, which we have turned to for

    theoretical and methodological working tools, now tum to us for the same reasons.


    Interior design, industrial design, 191h century, Actor-Network Theory, aesthetic, criticism

    1 For example: Bruna Latour: "An attempt at a 'Composionist Manifesta"', New Literary History, 2010:4, 471-

    490 and John Law: Assembling the Baroque, CRESC Working Paper Series no.109, 2011

  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium:

    The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research

    in the Nordic Countries

    Title: X

    Author: NN

    Keywords: Ph.D.-research, Research by Design, reflecting on practice, 'reflection-action' relationship, concept fonnation, 'art-knowledge'

    Abstract (299 words)

    I am entering a Ph.D.-scholarship from visual art and urban design practice. The field of arts

    may be a place for !raders of imagination embedded in subjectivity. Do we encounter predominant

    assumptions on the validity of'art-knowledge'? Leading to questions on how to approach

    'scientific nonns and rules' from an art-practitioner perspective? It is intriguing to reflect on how to

    link the seemingly ungraspable to research methodology. Then which methods are useful? How can

    practice and reflection feed into each other here? I see concept fonnation and design-process

    (within architectural context) as a tool to inquire and solve problems. Research by Design as a

    framework comprising theories, methods and strategies - making design related knowledge-

    production explicit. To pin down particular artistic inquiry, the Ph.D.-initial-phase will reflect on

    practice by analysing and describing visual arts methods, their intluence on landscape design work

    and vice versa.For insights and support in this writing, I engage in a literature survey on John

    Dewey's Art as experience: A work on the phenomenology of aesthetic experience. His views has

    influenced 'relational aesthetics' and 'social interventions' - directions within the arts tangent to

    architectural thinking and action. The practice-reflection will focus on concept-formation, prior to

    drawing out design-plans:

    A phase where information is processed and digested towards practical, on site applicability. From a

    practitioner-perspective, cultivating understanding of i.e. specific site, material ity and contextual

    properties involve dimensions of sensory experience and emotional connectivity towards object(s)

    of study. A knowledge building essential to spatial planning and design. Philosopher Arne Ness

    discuss 'reason and feeling' describing a reflective processes relevant to i.e. aesthetic judgements.

    Nress clarify aspects through Spinoza's ratio - a concept unifying reason and feeling. Comparing

    ratio to an 'inner voice' much applied in making aesthetic choice. Such insights are helpful in

    articulating knowledge-production processed via art and design.



    Title: X

    The effects of climate change in Scandinavia, leads to more rain in short periods of time, giving

    water management a central role for future urban planning.

    This research interweaves theory with practice. The PhD training program has provided the

    tools to perform academic disciplinary research. The systematic literature review localizes the

    actual gaps of knowledge and help frame a relevant research question. Practice is addressed

    through specific design work and policy recommendations.

    The project asks how water management in peri-urban areas can handle flooding and also

    create additional values, such as energy, cultivation of food as well as recreational values for

    the inhabitants? Site specific design cases, investigates how to visualize and enhance water

    thinking in the planning process, and how to develop the productive ecosystem services in

    order to balance open space and urban pressure.

    The research includes mapping the regional hydraulic context. The projects seek through

    design cases to introduce a three-dimensional reading of the presences of water,

    corresponding to the hydraulic cycle, and its change over time. A case study is chosen, with a

    documented flood risk and urban pressure, Ellingsrudsen, between Oslo and the Gardemoen

    Airport. In this area of transformation, urban and rural activities co-exist, and different logics

    create conflicts between land-uses.

    The water does not respect planning boundaries, and new planning parameters are needed in

    order to take the water logics into account in planning. The design of future scenarios in the

    case studies, will therefore inform planning practice with necessary parameters that can help

    answer the future ecological challenges. In addition, the outcomes of the practical research, is

    brought back as theory to the discipline of landscape architecture and urbanism.

    Key words: Water management

    Climate change


    Case study

    Planning parameters


    Ecosystem services

    Research by design

    lhe Produdion of l

  • NN

    Title: X

    In my ongoing Ph.D. (20 I 3-20 I 6) I explorc rhe infra-ordinary (as coined by Georges Perec) as spaces for social inreracrion and encounrers. People coexisr and inreract rhrough these everyday and unregarded spaces in real-time and rhrough spariomarerial deposits over time, using rhe archirecrure as a medium.

    The research is facilirared rhrough a series of urban biopsies, where a range of spaces considered infraordinary are explored from wirhin - some emerging direcrly from my own subjective life-world. Here rhe specificiry of rhe given siruarion is embraced, rather rhar rrying ro creare an objective accounr and universal claims. Through using variousframeworks of perception, being artistic and crirical spatial pracrices, rhe intention is ro ger ar distance of rhe well-known and explore it rhrough an analyric appararus and rhus by-pass rhe usual hierarchies of perception ro gain new knowledge. Hence, rhere is a consranr inrerplay berween submersion and distance. Parallel ro rhe design-driven experiments, there is a constant dialecric berween practice and rheory, which serve as 'relays' ro move rhe overall understanding and projecr forward.

    Furrhermore, in rhis paper I wanr ro go rhough some of rhe urban biopsies rhar I did

  • Title: X


    The dissertation explores urban densification as a sustainability policy in Norway and the

    challenges of its implementation. The Norwegian context is characterized by a high-income

    population, located in a rather scattered built environment. Density in the Norwegian cities is

    among the Jowest in the European context and commuting is still dominated by car. This is

    probably a rather challenging environment for achieving denser cities leading to less car

    dependency. The dissertation is a collection of papers, each one dealing with different aspects

    of planning and implementing densification. The first paper 'Sustainability and Urban

    Quality' explores urban density and the associated qualities that have been highlighted as

    fundamental in the question of the 'good city' in the tradition of architecture and urban

    design. The second paper 'On the Feasibility and Effectiveness oj Urban Densification in

    Norway' offers an overview of densification in the four largest Norwegian cities. The paper

    deals with practicability issues around densification and the effect of densification on

    environmentally friendly transport. The third paper 'The value of urban density: A hedonic

    price mode! for Trondheim, Norway' explores the willingness of homebuyers to pay for urban

    characteristics attached to the sustainable city, such as density and proximity to urban services.

    The fourth paper 'The Transition towards a Denser and More Sustainable City: Factors and

    Actors in Trondheim, Norway' uses transition theory to analyse the obduracy of the local

    urban regimes and the urgency of developing new planning instruments to steer the transition

    toward denser and more sustainable cities in Norway.


    compact city, Norwegian cities, sustainable city, sustainable development, urban densification,

    sustainability transition

  • Abstract 15.desember 2015

    Title: X


    Det er behov for praksisncer arkitekturforskning (Schn; Cuff; Ryghaug; Moum). Med utgangspunkt i egen doktorgradsprosess (Fra uro til utvikling. Universell utforming som /inse for studie av implementering av nytt. Doktorgradsavhandling, AHO, in prep.), og med st0tte i arkitekt-og designfaglig forskning (Lawsen; Dobloug; Cuff) s ve! som sosiokulturell lceringsteori (Vygotsky; Lave og Wenger), skal behovet for bygge ut den praksisncere arkitekturforskningen belyses. Unders0kelsen bygger p to feltarbeid gjennomf0rt blant prosjekterende arkitekter under arbeid med kulturbygg. identifisere utfordringer i m0te med nytt i pgende arkitektpraksis kan vcere nyttig for arkitektprofesjonen.

    I tidlig fase av prosjekteringen hadde problemstillinger knyttet til nye krav om universell utforming (UU) vcert dr0ftet, og dette var i stor grad implementert i tegningsmaterialet. Likevel var det en viss uro for det nye begrepet (UU), eller myndighetenes strategi, blant arkitektene. Begrepsforvirring, ambivalens, unnvikelse og irritasjon s ut til ligge i det faktum at tematikken var noe man mtte forholde seg til, mer enn noe man ;:,nsket engasjere seg i. Forvirringen kan tolkes bde henge sammen med a) et sp0rsml om hvordan man n skulle gj0re ting annerledes, men kanskje like mye ogs b) hva man egentlig mente om det nye. I unders0kelsen fant jeg at motivasjon for endring l i 0nske om oppn best mulig arkitektonisk resultat, og at erfaringer, spesielt med "byggede feil", var langt mer effektivt for endring enn formell generell lovgivning gjennom forskriftskrav. Det er behov for forskning p praksis (Schn, Cuff, Ryghaug, Moum) som kan identifisere utfordringer i m0te med endringer som ber0rer arkitekters

  • Title: X


    Background The population is aging and especially the percentage of very old persons is increasing. The aim is to reduce institutional care and sheltered housing and assist elderly in their own homes. The challenge is to plan neighborhoods that support elderly in their daily lite.

    Theme lnclusion and participation are important factors for lite satisfaction. Planning of housing and neighborhoods can enhance social and functional capacities of persons who live in their own homes at very old age with physical or sensory impairment. Demographic development and demand for equal rights for persons with disabilities challenge urban planning in terms of accessibility of services.

    Aim The paper is based on research activities on several projects conducted in Sotera lnstitute, Aalto University. The aim is to assess daily living environment, housing and access to services from the viewpoint of elderly residents in urban environment. The research question is how planning of built environment promote independent living?

    Methods Housing and living environment as well as resident's experiences have been studied with qualitative user-oriented methods. Elderly residents living in their own homes or in sheltered housing have been involved through workshops and walking tours in the neighborhood. Knowledge about immediate surroundings, use of local services and public transport has been collected through questionnaires targeted to residents over 65 years.

    Findings Walkable neighborhood and public transportation support independence and use of local services daily. Health services and activities for elderly have to be easily accessible. Collaboration between public, private and third sector locally offers possibilities for multiuse of spaces for various resident groups. The importance of immediate surroundings increase at old age.

    Conclusion The elderly residents are active members in their neighborhood. Integral planning of housing, services and transportation enhance self-contained lite. Effective use of resources and spaces enhance multigenerational encounters and prevent age segregation.

    Keywords: elderly, neighborhood, accessibility, services



    The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016 in Stockholm


    Keywords: Urban history, Printing, Public sphere, Nineteenth century, Norway, Christiania


    Title: XFrom the early nineteenth century, a national public sphere was beginning to develop in

    Norway. One of the most important features in this development was the proliferation of

    printed books, newspapers and periodicals. From the l 830s, printers' shops, publishers,

    bookstores and libraries were increasingly becoming an important part of the political and

    cultural life the Norwegian capita! as well as becoming a prominent feature of the physical

    appearance of the city.

    I argue that considering the specific places where print was sold and produced and

    their place in the urban topography provides us with a tangible understanding of the

    development of the public sphere in the nineteenth century. The public sphere often thought

    of as an abstract entity that suddenly appears sometime in the late-eighteenth or early

    nineteenth century. My aim is to place this public sphere back into its specific urban

    contexts, by producing a topography of print for nineteenth-century Christiania. Where were

    printers, publishers and booksellers located in relation to political, cultural, and economic

    institutions? Which parts ofthe city produced what kinds of print? Can we find relations


    developments in the city and the location of printers, booksellers and publishers, and what did

    these places actually look like?

    Using tax reports and address books, I map printers and booksellers in the city from

    the 1830s to about 1870. To get a sense of the places were print was produced and sold, I use

    what is available. Scattered accounts and histories of printers and booksellers, in addition to

    diary accounts, letters and travelogues can provide us not only with a more tangible

    understanding of the development of an urban public sphere, but also new ways of seeing

    urban life in nineteenth-century Christiania.

  • Author: NN

    Title: X

    What kind of urban places are needed in ethnically segregated housing areas to strengthen immigrants'

    integration in a new society? How could immigrants' participation in city planning be increased in order to

    find this out? Immigrant women living in Suvela housing area show us the way in this feminist and

    ethnographic case study of participatory action research. The focus of the study is in two phenomena: the

    interactive relationship between immigrants and city planning and immigrants and the built environment.

    Perceptions, interpretations and activities in both of them are studied through different qualitative and/or

    participatory research methods. The research process is thus both a city planning process and a learning

    and integration processat the same time. The paper shows how multiculturalism in these housing areas

    should be seen as a strength instead of a weakness. This requires that city planners get on their feet and

    dive in the life spheres of the people they plan for and that the immigrants mobilize themselves so that

    their hidden knowledge gets heard in the democratic process of city planning. In this reciprocal

    communication process emphasis should be laid on different visualization techniques rather than verbal

    ones because of language barriers. Both immigrants' own culture and the phase of integration process they

    are in affects the way immigrants see their environment and comprehend their needs. Even though there

    isa vast heterogeneity among immigrant women, their ability to think empathically on behalf of other

    inhabitant groups seems to be the same across cultures as well as the necessity to boost their self-esteem

    through recognizing their abilities. It is what we have in common -shared wishes for e.g. active meeting

    places, easy and safe access to these and beautiful greenery, colorful buildings and general tidiness around

    us -that successful integration can be built on.

    Keywords: participatory action research, feminist city planning, multicultural housing areas, immigrant

    women, hidden knowledge, communication methods, empowerment, integration

    Sub title: X

    Immigrant Women as a Microscope

    In Search for Altering City Planning Practises

    From Unwanted Development to Political Agenda

    From the Office to the Field

    From Scattered Bystanders to Organized Actors

    Minimizing Verbal Communication

    The lmpact of Integration Process

    Thinking through the Needs of Others

    Building Common Ground

  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016


    Title: X

    This article discusses issues concerning researches role in an urban development case study. It is

    based on an ongoing PhD research project which investigates the questions ot urban housing

    design in multicultural neighbourhoods. The original aim was to investigate different spatial

    typologies from the perspectives ot cultural diversity and encounters in a suburban environment.

    Soon it turned out that the question ot which actually are the essential spatial questions for

    multicultural neighbourhoods required an hermeneutic approach aiming to form understanding ot

    the context. Observing an ongoing suburban development case gave an opportunity to gain an

    insight on the different planning and design potentials and restrictions on the area, and also on the

    spatial issues concerning the neighbourhoods social lite. Du ring the observation period the role ot

    an observer has however become challenged due to ethical reasons. Dealing with a

    neighbourhood that is struggling with a cycle ot social exclusion and physical decay in urban

    environment makes the insistence on an observer role problematic. An understanding ot the local

    situation places the researcher in a role ot an expert, whose opinions could have an influence on

    the case, and who is also presumed to act according to the expertise. On the other hand the

    situation with researchers shitting role from observer to acting party on the process challenges the

    objectivity ot the research. But since the original aim was to focus on future potentials rather than

    pointing out problems in current practices, the role sitt could appropriately facilitate an Research

    by-Design phase grounded on the knowledge acquired in previous phases.

    keywords: Research-by-Design; design ethnography; design activism; role ot the researcher

  • Title: X


    Keywords: timber construction, political ecology, tectonics, wood materials,

    metabolism, material practise, experiments, material turn

    The paper will be a part of an industrial PhD project, which started in August

    2015. The project can be divided into three intertwined legs: a theoretical

    academic study, an investigation of the industry and a physical model study. In

    the project I will conduct a series of experiments - a range of material

    practices. The chosen theory will critically address the concepts and

    understandings intrinsic to those practices.

    Wood has undergone a conceptual slide from being solely a raw (little

    processed) material into also being a designed building material including a

    range of materials from raw materials, to artificial produced composites, and

    timber constructions have gone from being only lightweight constructions in

    small building structures into also being solid constructions in large multi

    storey structures. In humanities they talk about a 'material turn'

    The paper will investigate material translations as a theoretical discourse and

    juxtapose different concepts e.g.: metabolism (Gottfried Semper), political

    ecology (Jane Bennett) and material turn (Bruno Latour).

    The aim is to consider recent developments in architecture from a historical


    A confrontation with Gottfried Semper metabolic theory provides the

    methodological tools with which the more recent theories can be studied. This

    will create a theoretical foundation for the research of materials.

    The theory of metabolism is concerned with the active role of materials.

    Jane Bennett writes about the vitality of matter and the lively powers of

    material formations. Her political project of is, to encourage more intelligent

    and sustainable engagements with vibrant matter and lively things. This

    describes what Bennett ca Ils a political ecology of things. (Bennett, 2010)

  • Abstract for The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium:

    The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by Ph.D. Research in the Nordic Countries

    Title: X

    Keywords: digital fabrication; materials; experiments; experience; virtual; actual; control; uncertainty; research

    by design,

    The Ph.D. project Bespoke Fragments seeks to explore and utilise the space emerging between the potentials of

    digital drawing and fabrication and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Within this span,

    the project is situated in a shuttling between the virtual and the actual, investigating levels of control and

    uncertainty originating from these.

    Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled

    fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this

    expansion as an opportun ity to connect the digital environment with the reality of materials - and use

    realisation and materialisation to generate architectural developments and findings through an iterative mode of

    thinking about the dialogue between drawing, materials and fabrication.

    The control offabrication tools through digital drawing opens up a new approach to materials in

    an architectural context. The knowledge and intention of the drawing become specialised through the

    understanding of the fabrication processes and their effect on materials. When drawing embeds not form, but

    capacity, into the material through fabrication, the emergence of virtual space is no longer limited to the

    computer's digital world, but extends into the materials' world. Creation and uncertainty are allowed as virtual

    parameters in both digital ity and reality. Based on this notion the project suggests utilising that exact potential

    to develop architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics.

    In this Ph.D. project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge

    production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However,

    these creations also become the driving forces to discuss, link and develop theoretical understanding around the

    project's intention and production. In the following paper, the intention is to discuss this experiment and

    experience-driven knowledge production from within the perspective ofthe Ph.D. project itself.


  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016, Stockholm

    - The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic Countries -

    (Research in Architectural theory and history)

    Title: X




    Polytekniske skoler

    Tegneskolen i Christiania (Oslo)

    Tegneskolen i Christiania (Oslo) ble opprettet 1818, og inngr i dag i [email protected]

    i Oslo (KHJO). Ved Tegneskolens grunnleggelse var det 0nske om at skolen skulle bli

    et norsk kunstakademi etter europeisk modell, en norsk skole for utdannelse av

    hndverkere, kunstnere og arkitekter. Skolen er regne som den forste arkitekturskole

    i Norge, og er ogs forl0peren til dagens Arkitektur- og designhoyskolen i Oslo.

    Tegneskolen ble aldri et fullverdig akademi, men var likevel det estetiske sentrum i

    Norge p 1800-tallet. Skolen var ogs eneste tilbud om arkitekturutdannelse i Norge,

    fram til Norges Tekniske Hogskole startet kurs for arkitekter i 1911. Nrer alle norske

    arkitekter utdannet p 1800-tallet var i perioder elever ved Tegneskolen i Christiania,

    enten som en fullverdig arkitekturutdannelse, eller som en frskole for elevene dro til

    de tyske polytekniske skoler eller til Kungliga tekniske Hgskolan i Stockholm for

    avsluttende studier.

    Norge hadde ftt selvstendighet fra Danmark med egen grunnlov i 1814. Christiania

    ble da valgt som landets hovedstad, og oppgavene for norske arkitekter 0kte

    betydelig. Etter ha ftt hovedstadstatus skulle offentlige bygninger, som Norges

    Bank, Universitet, Slottet og Stortinget oppfores. Byen stod ogs foran en formidabel

    vekst bde i innbyggertall og omfang, der industrialiseringen var en viktig

    premissleverand0r. Dette forte med seg et stort marked for leiegrdsbyggeri.

    Tradisjonelt var utdannelsen av arkitekter tillagt kunstakademiene. Fra slutten av

    1700- og ut p 1800-tallet ble de polytekniske skoter opprettet, med Frankrike og

    Tyskland i fringen, for utdanne ingeni0rer og arkitekter for det moderne samfunn.

    Det oppstod to former for utdannelse av arkitekter, der de polytekniske skoler skilte

    seg fra kunstakademiene med st0rre grad av opplrering i moderne teknologi.

    Bidraget s0ker presentere utviklingen av arkitekturutdannelsen i Europa p 1800-

    tallet. Den vit videre diskutere Tegneskolens arkitekturutdannelse i en europeisk

    konteksten med kunstakademiene og de polytekniske skoler som referanseramme.

    Avslutningsvis vil sentrale funn fra arbeidet presenteres. Dette vil vrere konsentrert

  • om forskningssp0rsml som: hvilke idealer ble hentet inn fra de europeiske

    utdannelsesinstitusjonene og benyttet i undervisningen ved Tegneskolen? Hvilken

    betydning fikk Tegneskolen for utviklingen av norsk arkitektur p 1800-tallet?


  • 1/ I

    Title: X


    Om: Essays, formater, publicering, metoder, landdistrikter, landsbyer og yderomrder.

    Jeg fik noget af en forskra::kkelse, da jeg p mit frste videnskabsteoretiske

    ph.d.-kursus blev introduceret for videnskabelige metoder. Uddannet p

    KADK og indskrevet som ph.d.-studerende ved samme institution virkede

    kl0ften mellem de metodiske tilgange i uddannelsen og forskningsmilj0et

    uendeligt dyb. Frem for at lade intuitionen styre processen skulle den nu

    planla::gges og frem for at indskrive personlighed i produktet skulle

  • Title: X

    #memory #architecture as metaphor

    #knowledge production/representation #Giulio Camillo 's Memory Theatre



    Traditionally architecture is read as an expression of its times' cultural identity. Another type of reading understands buildings as an extension of the human body and analyses their phenomenological aspects. Comparatively little probing has been done however, into architecture and its conception as a manifestation of thought processes, linking the profession directly to knowledge production. In order to access the potential of studying architecture as a reflection of the human mental faculties, this paper analyses Giulio Camillo's Theatre of Memory (ca 1500-1544). This predominantly imagined, unbuilt structure is reminiscent ofthe Vitruvius' description of the Roman theatre: a semicircular structure framed by seven ranks. In Camillo's adaptation, each level features seven gates richly decorated with allusive imagery, based on a complex intellectual system that draws from mysticism, mythology and philosophy. From the stage, one is able to absorb all the world's knowledge, that is implied in the exhibited images and spatial hierarchy. The interaction with this structure allows the viewer, in Camillo's reasoning, a metaphorical, elevated view-point which, as in a forest or labyrinth, offers comprehension, clarity and liberation from the confusion experienced below. The paper draws parallels to the writings of Giordano Bruno and the contemporaneous reception of the Ars Memorativa, a practise dating back to ancient Greek rhetoric. Architectural mnemotechnics are said to have been invented by the Greek poet Simonides, who defined spatial and temporal sequence as the prerequisites for memory. Their interplay is manifest in Camillo's theatre, as it attempts to condense all knowledge accumulated in historical time in a minimized spatial array. The Teatro Olimpico (1580-1585) by Palladio and Scamozzi, is examined as a built structure that exemplifies some of the Memory Theatre's architectural qualities. The paper thus describes Camillo's Theatre as a three-dimensional visualisation of the mental faculty of memory, the description of which has evolved throughout history but has generally retained a spatial dimension.

  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016 Abstract


    Title: X

    Key words; Dwelling, lnterior Architecture, Interiority, Exteriority, Scandinavia.

    The aim of this paper is to undertake a critical analysis of the ideological separation between exteriority and interiority within the contemporary dwelling interior. The domestic interior has great significance given its universality and the intimate relationship that it has to its inhabitants. Despite the importance of this built environment, the discourse on interior architecture has largely been reduced to 'disposable furniture' and temporal interior surface decoration based upon changing fashions.

    There currently exists an ideologicat separation between exteriority and interiority within the respective disciplines of architecture and interior design. Architectural discussion has shifted focus to the exterior envetope of our dwellings often negtecting any criticat debate about the spatial qualities of the interior. The contemporary dwelling interior has largely been reduced toa sterile white box envelope that is then decorated with cosmetic surface treatments and consumer products. t posit the question as to how this ideological separation between interiority and exteriority emerged and what have been the consequences of this on the contemporary dwelling interior?

    The framework for this will be a historical analysis of the dwelling interior with a particular focus on the effect of functionalist modernism and the separation between the disciplines of architecture and interior design. I will undertake empirical research on the contemporary dwelling interior within Scandinavia and in particular the rote of the architect within this process. I will utitise a phenomenotogicat framework as a point of departure for the project.

    It is hoped that the resutt of this paper will be to starta criticat debate on the quality of our dwelling interiors from an architecturat perspective. t atso hope to achieve a greater understanding of the current retationship between the rote of the architect and the contemporary dwelling interior within a Scandinavian context.

  • Title: X

    Jag skriver utifrn mitt forskningsprojekt som placerar mig inom arkitekturhistoria. Det r ett mne som inte har ngon sjlvklar hemvist p arkitekturskolorna. Dess nrvaro har, alltsedan det skildes ut frn arkitekturmnet p KTH 1905, varit ifrgasatt frn och till. Min betraktelse ver arkitekturforskningens uppkomst r frgad av min studie av paradigmskiftet vid tiden kring den svenska arkitektutbildningens omstpning i och med grundandet av Tekniska hgskolan 1877. Arkitektprofessionen formerades i Sverige vid 1800-talets slut. Samhllet trdde in och krvde strre tekniska kunskaper av arkitekterna fr att kunna mta byggnadsutmaningarna som industrialiseringen medfrde. Professionaliseringen av byggnadsvsendet skedde samtidigt. Frn att i det agrara samhllet varit norm blev sjlvbyggandet undantag nr arbetsdelningen slog igenom. Formbildningen som i det traditionella samhllet varit okomplicerad blev i specialistsamhllet problematisk. Arkitektens tidiga roll som den upplyste aristokratiske bestllarens fretrdare gick inte att verstta till den moderna ekonomiska samhllsorganisationen. Den kapitalistiska ekonomins spekulationsbyggande medfrde ett vxande avstnd mellan arkitekt och brukare. Den demografiska utvecklingen gjorde att bostaden snart blev den helt dominerande byggnadsuppgiften fr arkitekterna. Konstnrliga frgor kring representativitet och uttryck av idemssiga innehll trngdes undan av funktionshnsyn som formgivningskriterium. Nya kunskaper mste produceras fr att lsa konfektions byggandet, stora problem mste nedbrytas i hanterbara delar. Kvantifieringen av sociala beteendemnster i form av boendeutredningar blev den frsta moderna arkitekturforskningen. Det kunde skyla ver frlusten av en professionell kunskapsbas hjlpligt tills bakslaget p 60-och 70-talen. Det stod klart att det som producerats var alltfr generella kunskaper. I arkitekturforskningen gjordes frsk att infra teorier och metoder frn sociologin, filosofin, psykologin, kulturgeografin, socialantropologin, semiotiken etc. fr att terupprtta ett yrkeskunnande eller i alla fall utveckla teorier kring samspelet mellan mnniskan och arkitekturen. En frstelse fr den meningsskapande arkitekturens och stadsbyggnadens villkor i sin speciella kontext. P stt och vis betecknar arkitekturforskningen en stndigt pgende kris fr arkitekturen alltsedan frra sekelskiftet.

    Nyckelord: arkitekturforskning, arkitekturhistoria, profession, kris


  • Title: X

    Author: NN


    The last few decades have shown a tendency in the profession of architecture to take a more responsible

    attitude towards the least privileged communities. A new search for ways of addressing the needs of

    underserved members of the society has arisen, while pre and post disaster action plans are being considered

    to greater extent. The tendency is reflected in university education: more programs are initiated, where

    students of architecture and related disciplines are being exposed to foreign cultures in the developing world.

    This paper discusses the pedagogic entities in humanitarian architecture education, which aim at enhancing

    the development of communities, and promoting understanding of cultural locality as the determining factor

    of architectural design. Taking students out of their own cultural context, to an environment where the

    technology and resource abundance no longer dictates, is an important experience. Not only is it a lesson in

    sustainable design and construction, but in humanity and cultural awareness.

    Cultural encounters are a vital and challenging part of university education, and require specific pedagogical

    approaches. Although adequate background information and orientation studies are required, these encounters

    are not learned in lecture halls, but through experience. They provide the students a possibility for developing

    their own qualities and attributes, to tolerate the uncertainty in the processes and the practices of their

    discipline when working in various cultural contexts.

    The World in Transition courses at Aalto University as a reference point, this paper compares the teaching

    methods and approaches of other sim ilar educational entities in the academic world that aim at community

    development through participation and direct student engagement in different social and cultural contexts.

    Examp\es of the different approaches to humanitarian architecture education are discussed, to enlighten how

    the students are prepared to meet the challenges of a multicultural world.

    Keywords: humanitarian architecture, university pedagogy, architectural education, community engagement



    Title: X


    There is an urgent need fora more holistic and human oriented focus when renovating existing housing. A new focus towards a more genuine understanding of the importants of people's health and well-being, living indoor, inevitably goes through the design and processing of the building skin. How to guide daylight, quality-wise and quantitywise to the benefit of people isa central question. Evolutionary people belong to nature, attuned to the sun via the circadian rhythm, and we are meant to be exposed to daylight far more extensively than today. However, since we are living most of our time indoor, we need to find new ways to receive and harvest natural light. By combining empirical analysis of significant window and fa'1ade solutions in the history of European architecture and newest philosophical writings, the paper will look into various potentials, and try to define theses for future scenarios. Following questions are in focus: To what extend can a smarter use of glass create better living conditions in existing housing? What does transparency imply -simplicity or complexity? Are present references, practices and vocabulary incomplete? Can the fa'1ade be regarded as a double faced, multifaceted surface, with the capacity to receive from nature and give in return to inhabitants and to the city. Consequently, creating a new culture? Can glass become the most vital material in renovation of existing buildings, replacing traditional insulation materials? Can indoor and outdoor be inseparabla twins, aiming for the best liveability factors in both places?


    Awareness Daylight Transformation Building skin Potential Well-being

  • Title: X

    Author: NN

    Keywords: Indoor environment, design parameter, everyday practices, qualitative methods.

    Problems with damp and mold in our houses can be caused by constructional conditions ar the use of a

    building. It is often a combination af the two and it is essentially the interaction between the house and its

    users, that determines whether it is healthy or not. However, design parameters for indoor environment, in

    Danish mast often referred ta as indeklima-parameters, are mainly quantitative measures concerning the

    building performance and do not cover the behavioral issues very well. The project is generated on the

    background af observations of problems regarding damp and mold in Danish homes, and investigates the

    enactment af indoor environment by different actors. These phenomena are perceived and enacted in quite different ways by different actors, and can be seen as different objects ta the same body. This calls for a

    multiple approach to data, engaging with the participants in their everyday practices, but also being

    perceptive to the non-material, the artifacts and inscriptions that are af great significance to the everyday

    practices. Findings are primary based an a field study including interviews with residents, operating staff,

    and representatives from the housing departments af seven social housing apartments undergoing a

    refurbishment. Interviews are conducted in their homes and the conversation was revolving around the

    perception of indoor environment and the everyday practices related ta the issue.

    The paper explores the interaction af human and non-human actors in creating and maintaining a healthy

    home, but it also reflects upon the different methods applied to capture the practices and interaction. Some

    af the interviews included a walk through in the apartments where the occupant demonstrates his/her

    everyday practices, handling windows, ventilation systems, drying facilities and other appliances and

    technologies. The objective by contributing ta the understanding af the indoor environment enacted is ta

    inform and prepare future design.

  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016 in


    The Production of Knowledge in Architecture by PhD Research in the Nordic

    Countries (architectural design)



    Title: X


    In the context of increasing focus on buildings' environmental impact, this

    thesis seeks to formulate quality criteria as a tool for their design phase, with

    the aim to reintroduce low-rise high-density prefabricated timber architecture

    as a sustainable housing typology to Norwegian cities.

    Globally, the building sector uses 40% of all energy and stands for 30% of all

    climate gas emission. As operational energy efficiency of buildings improves,

    embodied energy gains more relevance. Replacing non-wood building materials

    with wooden products reduces green house gas emissions. Despite its timber

    construction history, Norway banned timber from its city centres as a reaction

    to severe fire incidents in the 1900s. With new production technologies and

    building laws, a revival of urban timber architecture is possible. Among

    Scandinavian cities expecting huge growth within the coming decades, Oslo's

    strategy to meet these challenges in a sustainable way is to densify within

    existing urban structures and along existing infrastructure. Low-rise high

    density residential buildings form a big percentage of potential new buildings,

    also in mid-size cities in Norway. Timber scores again with technical aspects,

    and prefabrication options increasing independency from weather conditions,

    predictability of costs, and quality assurance, in addition to enabling a more

    resilient conception of buildings.

    Involving "peer reviewed" design for a theoretical project under realistic

    conditions, practice relevant academic knowledge will be gained:

    A set of quality criteria resulting from the study of literature, built projects,

    competition briefs and entries, will be developed further into a competition

    brief, together with a real client (OBOS). This forms a starting point for students'

    projects during a master's course, and for own design as part of the thesis. The

    design work will be peer reviewed by both an expert jury and building

    authorities (forhndskonferanse). Criteria undergo analysis and iteration. Results serve as a feasibility study and exhibition material.


    Urban sustainability, timber architecture, low-rise high-density, quality criteria, design research, practice related research, research exhibition

  • The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Symposium 2016

    Stockholm, Sweden

    The Nordic Association of Architectural Research tillQ://arkitekturforskning. net/na The School of Architecture at KTH

    [email protected] rch. kth. se


    Title: X


    Architectural tradition offers methodologies to evaluate built structures based on characteristics like

    build quality, engineering performance, functionality, spatial design, and effects on the living

    environment. However, the complexity of building and regulatory requirements constantly

    increases. Concurrently, the construction industry is progressively moving from designing and

    building new to redesigning, upgrading and maintaining existing buildings.

    In addition to architectural quality building refurbishments target structural. energetic, economic,

    environmental and social improvements. A qualitative building assessment based on architecture

    alone does not provide a sufficient framework to reflect the aims of such processes, and a holistic

    means to analyze building refurbishment designs is lacking. This paper suggests a set of

    evaluation criteria for such interventions. The proposal is demonstrated by assessing and

    comparing realized building refurbishment projects including measures on the facade.

    The study is part of doctoral thesis work exploring the potential for building retrofits employing

    timber-based element systems, TES EnergyFacade, in Finland. Future development should

    include further cases and multi-disciplinary research.

    Keywords: Architectural assessment, build quality, building refurbishment, TES EnergyFacade

  • Reviewers The abstracts have been peer reviewed by the following senior researchers: Dr. Jonas E. Andersson, The Swedish Agency for Participation + The Nordic

    Association of Architectural Research Dr. Lars Brorson Fich, Department of Architecture and Media Technology; Aalborg

    University + The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Professor Elin Brrud, Norwegian University of Life Sciences + The Nordic

    Association of Architectural Research Dr. Lisbet Harboe, Institute of Urbanism and Landscape, AHO + The Nordic Association of

    Architectural Research Dr. Anders Larsson, SLU/ Dept of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management,

    Alnarp + The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Associate Professor Henrik Reeh, Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, Copenhagen

    University + The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Associate Professor Pirjo Sanaksenaho, School of Arts, Design and Architecture, Aalto

    University + The Nordic Association of Architectural Research Dr. Inger Lise Syversen, Chalmers-Architecture + The Nordic Association of Architectural

    Research Dr. Anni Vartola, Aalto University + The Nordic Association of Architectural Research

    Booklet of abstracts, NAF 2016 revInledningabstractBooklet of abstracts - no titleabstract utan titelAbstractAnja Standal, PhD student, NMBU